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See detailEvolution of the content of THC and other major cannabinoids in drug-type cannabis cuttings and seedlings during growth of plants
DE BACKER, Benjamin ULg; Maebe, Kevin; Verstraete, Alain G. et al

in Journal of Forensic Sciences (2012), 57(4), 918-922

In Europe, authorities frequently ask forensic laboratories to analyze seized cannabis plants to prove that cultivation was illegal (drug type and not fiber type). This is generally done with mature and ... [more ▼]

In Europe, authorities frequently ask forensic laboratories to analyze seized cannabis plants to prove that cultivation was illegal (drug type and not fiber type). This is generally done with mature and flowering plants. However, authorities are often confronted with very young specimens. The aim of our study was to evaluate when the chemotype of cannabis plantlets can be surely determined through analysis of eight major cannabinoids content during growth. Drug-type seedlings and cuttings were cultivated, sampled each week, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The chemotype of clones was recognizable at any developmental stage because of high total Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations even at the start of the cultivation. Conversely, right after germination seedlings contained a low total THC content, but it increased quickly with plant age up, allowing chemotype determination after 3 weeks. In conclusion, it is not necessary to wait for plants’ flowering to identify drug-type cannabis generally cultivated in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailConsommation de cannabis - Point de vue du monde médical
Charlier, Corinne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

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See detailPerturbateurs endocriniens à effet réprotoxique
Charlier, Corinne ULg

Scientific conference (2012, April 17)

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See detailApport des troponines T et I ultrasensibles dans le diabète
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; LAURENT, Terry ULg; GARWEG, Christophe ULg et al

in Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Spécialisée [=IBS] (2012, February), 27(1), 40

Introduction : Le diabète atteint environ 3% de la population française. Or, cette maladie expose à l'apparition précoce de complications cardiovasculaires. Les troponines de nouvelles générations ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le diabète atteint environ 3% de la population française. Or, cette maladie expose à l'apparition précoce de complications cardiovasculaires. Les troponines de nouvelles générations hautement sensibles pourraient être un bon outil diagnostic pour mettre en évidence des macroou micro-angiopathies non diagnostiquée chez ces patients. Le but de notre étude était de comparer la performance de la troponine T ultrasensible (hsTnT) (Roche Diagnostic) avec la troponine I ultrasensible (TnI II) (Abbott Diagnostic) chez le sujet diabétique. Matériel et méthodes : Vingt patients diabétiques (âge moyen : 52.6 ± 8.4 ans) ont été sélectionnés sur le critère d’un taux d’hémoglobine glyquée (HbA1c) élevé. Ces sujets ont été comparés à vingt sujets contrôles d’âge moyen : 60.05 ± 2.86 ans. Les patients atteints d’insuffisance rénale et d’affections cardiovasculaires ont été exclus. Les analyses ont été réalisées sur du plasma hépariné lithium. La hsTnT a été dosée par électrochemiluminescence sur le Modular E (Roche Diagnostic). Abbott utilise des microparticules chemiluminescentes pour le dosage de la TnI II sur l’ARCHITECT i. Résultats : Les sujets diabétiques ont un taux plasmatique de hsTnT représenté par les valeurs suivantes [médiane (1er quartile, 3ème quartile)] : 0,007 (0,03 ; 0,018) ng/mL ; alors que les sujets contrôles négatifs présentent les valeurs suivantes : 0,003 (0,003 ; 0,004) ng/mL. La différence de taux de hsTnT observée entre ces 2 populations est statistiquement significative (p = 0,000922). Pour la TnI II, on observe un taux plasmatique de: 0,004 (0,003 ; 0,075) ng/mL chez les sujets diabétiques et 0,002 (0,001 ; 0,005) ng/mL chez les sujets contrôles. La différence de taux de TnI II observée entre ces 2 populations n’est pas statistiquement significative (p > 0,005). Discussion-conclusion : Au décours d’un diabète, il apparait que les taux de hsTnT sont augmentés de façon significative par rapport au groupe des contrôles négatifs. Si les taux hsTnT augmentent chez le diabétique, il semblerait normal qu’il en soit de même pour la TnI II, vu que ces deux marqueurs sont intimement liés. Nous ne l’avons pas observé mais ceci peut être du à la plus faible performance analytique du dosage de la TnI II utilisé. Cette libération de hsTnT dans le sang peut être due aux micro- et macro-angiopathies au niveau des coronaires induites au cours d’un diabète. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'imprégnation d'une population générale belge en bisphénol A, triclosan et 4-nonylphénol
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; SAGOT, Clémence ULg; DEVILLE, Marine ULg et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2012), 24(4),

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See detailUrinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol in a general Belgian population
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; SAGOT, Clémence ULg; DEVILLE, Marine ULg et al

in Environment International (2012), 48

Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4 ... [more ▼]

Bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol are among the endocrine disruptors which are widely used in daily products. In this study, we reported total urinary levels of bisphenol A, triclosan and 4-nonylphenol, in order to evaluate the baseline contamination of a general population in Belgium. Bisphenol A and triclosan were detected in respectively 97.7% and 74.6% of the samples examined demonstrating that the general Belgian population is extensively exposed to both chemicals. On the other hand, 4-nonylphenol was not detected in any urine samples analyzed, suggesting either low exposure, inadequate biomarker, or that urine is an inappropriate biological matrix for assessing exposure to nonylphenol commercial mixtures. Geometric mean concentration was determined for bisphenol A at 2.55μg/l and for triclosan at 2.70μg/l. No significant difference was observed between levels and gender for both bisphenol A and triclosan. When classified by age, the 20-39year group showed the highest triclosan levels, while all age groups seemed to be similarly exposed to bisphenol A. Both bisphenol A and triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with creatinine excretion in our healthy population, questioning the relevance of the creatinine adjustment in reporting these chemical levels. Bisphenol A levels in urine of people living in the same home and collected on the same time were fairly correlated, confirming the assumption that dietary intake would be the primary route of exposure. Triclosan urinary levels were not correlated with bisphenol A levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fertilité masculine menacée par la présence de perturbateurs endocriniens dans l'environnement ?
Dewalque, Lucas ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2012), 67(5-6), 243-249

Les perturbateurs endocriniens sont des substances chimiques interférant avec le système hormonal. Ces polluants, présents dans l’environnement, peuvent entraîner l’apparition de maladies chez l’Homme ... [more ▼]

Les perturbateurs endocriniens sont des substances chimiques interférant avec le système hormonal. Ces polluants, présents dans l’environnement, peuvent entraîner l’apparition de maladies chez l’Homme. Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à ces produits chimiques à effets perturbateurs endocriniens susceptibles d’entraîner une diminution de la qualité du sperme et un syndrome de dysgénésie testiculaire, deux pathologies impliquées dans le déclin de la fertilité masculine. La question de l’influence environnementale sur cette pathologie complexe qu’est l’hypofertilité masculine prend ici tout son sens. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Effects of Cocaine on Dopamine Neuron Firing in Awake and Anesthetized Rats
Koulchitsky, Stanislav ULg; DE BACKER, Benjamin ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg et al

in Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (2012), 37

Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine), a natural alkaloid, is a powerful psychostimulant and a highly addictive drug. Unfortunately, the relationships between its behavioral and electrophysiological effects are ... [more ▼]

Cocaine (benzoylmethylecgonine), a natural alkaloid, is a powerful psychostimulant and a highly addictive drug. Unfortunately, the relationships between its behavioral and electrophysiological effects are not clear. We investigated the effects of cocaine on the firing of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, both in anesthetized and awake rats, using pre-implanted multielectrode arrays and a recently developed telemetric recording system. In anesthetized animals, cocaine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced a general decrease of the firing rate and bursting of DA neurons, sometimes preceded by a transient increase in both parameters, as previously reported by others. In awake rats, however, injection of cocaine led to a very different pattern of changes in firing. A decrease in firing rate and bursting was observed in only 14% of DA neurons. Most of the other DA neurons underwent increases in firing rate and bursting: these changes were correlated with locomotor activity in 52% of the neurons, but were uncorrelated in 29% of them. Drug concentration measurements indicated that the observed differences between the two conditions did not have a pharmacokinetic origin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cocaine injection differentially affects the electrical activity of DA neurons in awake and anesthetized states. The observed increases in neuronal activity may in part reflect the cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation found ex vivo in these neurons. Our observations also show that electrophysiological recordings in awake animals can uncover drug effects, which are masked by general anesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of the quantitative determination of tetrahydrocannabinol and its two major metabolites in plasma by UHPLC/MS-MS according to the total error approach
DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; Paccau, A.; DE BACKER, Benjamin ULg et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2012), 36(1), 25-29

In Belgium, driving under the influence (DUI) of cannabis is prohibited and has severe legal consequences for the driver if the blood plasma concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exceeds 1 µg/L ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, driving under the influence (DUI) of cannabis is prohibited and has severe legal consequences for the driver if the blood plasma concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exceeds 1 µg/L. A method to quantify low concentrations of THC and its hydroxylated (THC-OH) and carboxylated (THC-COOH) metabolites in plasma was developed for DUI but also for other applications. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry seems to be a very convenient method to combine fast chromatographic separation and good sensitivity. The method was validated according to total error approach. Chromatographic separation was achieved in a 3-min total run time. The limits of quantitation were lower or equal to 1 µg/L for all compounds. The linearity of the method was acceptable in the validated range of concentrations (from 0.5 to 50 µg/L for THC, from 0.9 to 50 µg/L for THC-OH and from 1.1 to 100 µg/L for THC-COOH). The biases were lower than 13%, and the relative standard deviations for repeatability and intermediate precision did not exceed 15%. Lower and upper β-expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of 20% for concentrations higher than 2 µg/L for THC and THC-OH and higher than 4 µg/L for THC-COOH. The acceptance limits were 30% for THC and THC-OH concentrations lower than 2 µg/L and for THC-COOH concentrations lower than 4 µg/L. [less ▲]

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See detailLifestyle Behaviours and Plasma Vitamin C and β-Carotene Levels from ELAN Population (Liège, Belgium)
PINCEMAIL, Joël ULg; Vanbelle, Sophie ULg; Degrune, Fabien et al

in Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism (2011), 2011

Several factors, including fruit and vegetables intakes, have been shown to significantly influence the plasma concentrations of the two antioxidants vitamin C and β-carotene. Deficiency levels of 6 mg/L ... [more ▼]

Several factors, including fruit and vegetables intakes, have been shown to significantly influence the plasma concentrations of the two antioxidants vitamin C and β-carotene. Deficiency levels of 6 mg/L (34.2 μM) for vitamin C and of 0.22 mg/L (0.4 μM) for β-carotene have been suggested below which cardiovascular risk might be increased. The present study performed on 897 presumably healthy subjects aged 40–60 years aimed to examine how modifiable lifestyle factors may be related to vitamin C and/or β-carotene deficiency. Gender, smoking, lack of regular physical activity and of daily fruit consumption (≥2/day), and social status (in particular, unemployment) were found to be significant risk factors for vitamin C deficiency. For β-carotene deficiency, the same factors were identified except social status; moreover, overweight and OC use in women were also found to have a deleterious effect. For non exposed subjects, the probability of developing vitamin C deficiency was 4% in men and 2.4% in women. This probability increased to 66.3% for men and to 44.3% for women (and even to 50.4% under OC use), when all risk factors were present. For β-carotene deficiency, the corresponding probabilities were equal to 29.7% in men and 13.7% in women (no risk factor present), and to 86.1% for men and 69.9% (91.6% for OC use) for women (all factors present), respectively [less ▲]

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See detailBlood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication
Ho, Thi Thanh Giang ULg; KEUTGENS, Aurore ULg; SCHOOFS, Roland et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2011), 35(1), 60-64

A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3 ... [more ▼]

A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of serum concentrations of 1,1 dichloro 2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls among French women in the CECILE study
Bachelet, D.; Truong, T.; Verner, M.-A. et al

in Environmental Research (2011), 111

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See detailToxicologie clinique et médico-légale
Renaux, André; Renaux - Muylkens, Isabelle; Charlier, Corinne ULg et al

in Beauthier, Jean-Pol (Ed.) Traité de Médecine légale (2011)

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See detailQuantification in postmortem blood and identification in urine of tramadol and its two main metabolites in two cases of lethal tramadol intoxication
De Backer, Benjamin ULg; Renardy, Françoise ULg; Denooz, Raphaël ULg et al

in Journal of Analytical Toxicology (2010), 34(9), 599-604

Tramadol has been extensively prescribed for two decades. It is an opioid analgesic considered to induce fewer side effects than other compounds of this class. However, serious complications may occur in ... [more ▼]

Tramadol has been extensively prescribed for two decades. It is an opioid analgesic considered to induce fewer side effects than other compounds of this class. However, serious complications may occur in case of intoxication. We report here two cases of fatal intoxication due to tramadol ingestion. Tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and N-desmethyltramadol (NDT) were quantitatively and qualitatively determined in postmortem blood and urine, respectively. An HPLC method coupled with fluorescence detection was validated using total error approach for the analysis of tramadol, ODT, and NDT in blood. In case1, concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites were 7.7 mg/L (tramadol), 1.33 mg/L (ODT), and 0.6mg/L (NDT). In case 2, concentrations found were 48.34 mg/L (tramadol), 2.43 mg/L (ODT), and 10.09 mg/L (NDT). Opposite ratios of ODT/NDT concentrations observed in different cases were suggested to be useful for the evaluation of the delay between ingestion and death. However, the changes in metabolites levels may also be explained by pharmacokinetic interactions and quantitative differences in the activity of the cytochrome-P450 2D6. Interestingly, norfluoxetine was detected in sub-therapeutic levels in case 2. Most of these aspects in tramadol-related fatalities are reviewed in this paper, and an overview of fatal intoxications due to tramadol is presented. [less ▲]

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