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See detailSilicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury
Namur, Olivier ULiege; Charlier, Bernard ULiege

in Nature Geoscience (2017)

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate ... [more ▼]

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury’s crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallization history of enriched shergottites from Fe and Mg isotope fractionation in olivine megacrysts
Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Namur, Olivier ULiege et al

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2017), 207

Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo ... [more ▼]

Martian meteorites are the only samples available from the surface of Mars. Among them, olivine-phyric shergottites are basalts containing large zoned olivine crystals with highly magnesian cores (Fo 70–85) and rims richer in Fe (Fo 45–60). The Northwest Africa 1068 meteorite is one of the most primitive “enriched” shergottites (high initial 87Sr/86Sr and low initial ε143Nd). It contains olivine crystals as magnesian as Fo 77 and is a major source of information to constrain the composition of the parental melt, the composition and depth of the mantle source, and the cooling and crystallization history of one of the younger magmatic events on Mars (∼180 Ma). In this study, Fe-Mg isotope profiles analyzed in situ by femtosecond-laser ablation MC-ICP-MS are combined with compositional profiles of major and trace elements in olivine megacrysts. The cores of olivine megacrysts are enriched in light Fe isotopes (δ56FeIRMM-14 = −0.6 to −0.9‰) and heavy Mg isotopes (δ26MgDSM-3 = 0–0.2‰) relative to megacryst rims and to the bulk martian isotopic composition (δ56Fe = 0 ± 0.05‰, δ26Mg = −0.27 ± 0.04‰). The flat forsterite profiles of megacryst cores associated with anti-correlated fractionation of Fe-Mg isotopes indicate that these elements have been rehomogenized by diffusion at high temperature. We present a 1-D model of simultaneous diffusion and crystal growth that reproduces the observed element and isotope profiles. The simulation results suggest that the cooling rate during megacryst core crystallization was slow (43 ± 21 °C/year), and consistent with pooling in a deep crustal magma chamber. The megacryst rims then crystallized 1–2 orders of magnitude faster during magma transport toward the shallower site of final emplacement. Megacryst cores had a forsterite content 3.2 ± 1.5 mol% higher than their current composition and some were in equilibrium with the whole-rock composition of NWA 1068 (Fo 80 ± 1.5). NWA 1068 composition is thus close to a primary melt (i.e. in equilibrium with the mantle) from which other enriched shergottites derived. [less ▲]

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See detailSulfur solubility in reduced mafic silicate melts: Implications for the speciation and distribution of sulfur on Mercury
Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Holtz, Francois et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 448

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See detailImmiscible iron- and silica-rich liquids in the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex
Fischer, Lennart A.; Wang, Meng; Charlier, Bernard ULiege et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 443

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See detailSources of dissolved silica to the fjords of northern Patagonia (44–48°S): the importance of volcanic ash soil distribution and weathering
Vandekerkhove, Elke; Bertrand, Sébastien; Reid, Brian et al

in Earth Surface Processes and Landforms (2016), 41(4), 499-512

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See detailMelting processes and mantle sources of lavas on Mercury
Namur, Olivier; Collinet, Max; Charlier, Bernard ULiege et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2016), 439

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See detailStable and metastable silicate liquid immiscibility in ferrobasalts
Charlier, Bernard ULiege

in American Mineralogist (2015), 100(11-12), 2367-2368

The onset of immiscibility in ferrobasaltic systems has been the subject of much research recently. The compositional space of the two-liquid field and the maximum temperature of the binodal surface have ... [more ▼]

The onset of immiscibility in ferrobasaltic systems has been the subject of much research recently. The compositional space of the two-liquid field and the maximum temperature of the binodal surface have been investigated experimentally, but results from static and centrifuge experiments are controversial. In the article by Hou and Veksler (2015, May–June issue) entitled “Experimental confirmation of high-temperature silicate liquid immiscibility in multicomponent ferrobasaltic systems,” the authors present experimental evidence for immiscibility between silica- and iron-rich melts at 1150–1200 °C, which are significantly higher to previous studies (ca. 1000–1025 °C). These results have important implications for potential large-scale differentiation of magmas by liquid unmixing and for the formation of both Fe-Ti-P-rich melts and rhyolites. [less ▲]

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See detailUncommon behavior of plagioclase and the ancient lunar crust
Nekvasil, Hanna; Lindsley, Donald H.; DiFrancesco, Nicholas et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015)

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See detailMelting of the primitive martian mantle at 0.5-2.2 GPa and the origin of basalts and alkaline rocks on Mars
Collinet, M.; Médard, E.; Charlier, Bernard ULiege et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2015), 427

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See detailSilicate liquid immiscibility in layered intrusions
Veksler, I.V.; Charlier, Bernard ULiege

in Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Latypov, Rais (Eds.) et al Layered Intrusions (2015)

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See detailIgneous layering in basaltic magma chambers
Namur, O.; Abily, B.; Boudreau, A. et al

in Charlier, Bernard; Namur, Olivier; Latypov, Rais (Eds.) et al Layered Intrusions (2015)

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See detailFe–Ti–V–P ore deposits associated with Proterozoic massif-type anorthosites and related rocks
Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Namur, Olivier; Bolle, Olivier ULiege et al

in Earth-Science Reviews (2015), 141(0), 56-81

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the ... [more ▼]

Magmatic rocks containing economic concentrations of iron, titanium, vanadium and phosphorous are commonly associated with massif-type anorthosites and related rocks. This rock association is part of the anorthosite–mangerite–charnockite–(rapakivi-)granite suites that are restricted to the Proterozoic. Understanding the geochemistry and emplacement mechanisms of ilmenite, magnetite and apatite ore deposits is crucial for exploration, efficient mining operations and ore processing. This review discusses the controlling factors on the grade of an ore, its mineralogy, and its major and trace element distribution. We present petrogenetic models of currently mined deposits (Lac Tio, Tellnes, Damiao) and discuss the characteristics of minor ore bodies from anorthosite provinces worldwide (Grenville, North China Craton, East European Craton, Rogaland, Laramie). Models of formation of anorthosite and related rocks are presented, as well as the nature of the possible parental magmas of the suite. A mineralogical classification of Fe–Ti ores is proposed: (1) Gabbro-noritic ilmenite ore ± apatite ± magnetite; (2) Ti-magnetite-dominated ore; (3) Nelsonite (Fe–Ti oxides + apatite); and (4) Rutile-ilmenite ore. The stability of ilmenite and magnetite is then critically reviewed and the influence of various factors, particularly oxygen fugacity and crystallization pressure, is examined. We discuss liquidus compositions of Fe–Ti oxides and the behavior of important trace elements such as Cr and V, both of which are sensitive to fO2 variations. Post-cumulus evolution of both oxides can occur due to re-equilibration with trapped liquid, re-equilibration with ferromagnesian silicates, exsolution, oxidation, reaction between ilmenite and magnetite, and metamorphic overprinting. These various processes are described and their effects on the oxide geochemistry are emphasized. Several potential ore-forming processes have been invoked and can explain the formation of huge concentration of ilmenite, ± magnetite, ± apatite. Fractional crystallization can be combined with crystal sorting and plagioclase buoyancy to produce relative enrichment of dense ore minerals. Silicate liquid immiscibility can segregate conjugate Si-rich and Fe-rich melts, the latter being enriched in Fe–Ti–P. Magma mixing can produce hybrid magmas located in a single-phase field of the phase diagram and precipitate a pure ilmenite cumulate. Alternative processes are also described, such as ejection of Fe–Ti-enriched residual melts by filter-pressing and compaction, solid-state remobilization of ilmenite in veins, and hydrothermal transport of Fe and Ti from the host anorthosite followed by concentration in veins and lenticular ore bodies. The magnetic properties of Fe–Ti ore deposits present contrasting signatures, depending on whether the natural remanent magnetization is dominated by hemo-ilmenite or multi-domain magnetite. Micro- and macro-scale deformation features of ore rocks are intimately correlated with magma emplacement, and with ballooning of the anorthosite diapir associated with gravitational sagging of dense ore bodies. Exploration perspectives show that oxide-apatite gabbronorites are interesting targets because ilmenite in these rocks is poorer in Cr and Mg, and because the Ti-resource may be combined with apatite and vanadiferous magnetite. [less ▲]

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See detailLayered Intrusions
Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Namur, Olivier; Latypov, Rais et al

Book published by Springer (2015)

This edited work contains the most recent advances related to the study of layered intrusions and cumulate rocks formation. The first part of this book presents reviews and new views of processes ... [more ▼]

This edited work contains the most recent advances related to the study of layered intrusions and cumulate rocks formation. The first part of this book presents reviews and new views of processes producing the textural, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of layered igneous rocks. The second part summarizes progress in the study of selected layered intrusions and their ore deposits from different parts of the world including Canada, Southwest China, Greenland and South Africa. Thirty experts have contributed to this update on recent research on Layered Intrusions. This highly informative book will provide insight for researchers with an interest in geology, igneous petrology, geochemistry and mineral resources. [less ▲]

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See detailMagma chamber-scale liquid immiscibility in the siberian traps represented by melt pools in native iron
Kamenetsky, V. S.; Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Zhitova, L. et al

in Geology (2013), 41(10), 1091-1094

Magma unmixing (i.e., separation of a homogeneous silicate melt into two or more liquids) is responsible for sudden changes in the evolution of common melts, element fractionation, and potential formation ... [more ▼]

Magma unmixing (i.e., separation of a homogeneous silicate melt into two or more liquids) is responsible for sudden changes in the evolution of common melts, element fractionation, and potential formation of orthomagmatic ore deposits. Although immiscible phases are a common phenomenon in the mesostasis of many tholeiitic basalts, evidence of unmixing in intrusive rocks is more difficult to record because of the transient nature of immiscibility during decompression, cooling, and crystallization. In this paper, we document a clear case of liquid immiscibility in an intrusive body of tholeiitic gabbro in the Siberian large igneous province, using textures and compositions of millimeter-sized silicate melt pools in native iron. The native iron crystallized from a metallic iron liquid, which originated as disseminated globules during reduction of the basaltic magma upon interaction with coal-bearing sedimentary rocks in the Siberian craton. The silicate melts entrapped and armored by the native iron are composed of two types of globules that represent the aluminosilicate (60-77 wt% SiO2) and silica-poor, Fe-Ti-Ca-P-rich (in wt%: SiO2, 15-46; FeO, 15-22; TiO2, 2-7; CaO, 11-27; P2O5, 5-30) conjugate liquids. Different proportions and the correlated compositions of these globules in individual melt pools suggest a continuously evolving environment of magmatic immiscibility during magma cooling. These natural immiscible melts correspond extremely well to the conjugate liquids experimentally produced in common basaltic compositions at <1025 °C. Our results show that immiscibility can occur at large scale in magma chambers and can be instrumental in generating felsic magmas and Fe-Ti-Ca-P-rich melts in the continental igneous provinces. © 2013 Geological Society of America. [less ▲]

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See detailCompositional and kinetic controls on liquid immiscibility in ferrobasalt-rhyolite volcanic and plutonic series
Charlier, Bernard ULiege; Namur, O.; Grove, T. L.

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (2013), 113

We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the ... [more ▼]

We present major element compositions of basalts and their differentiation products for some major tholeiitic series. The dry, low-pressure liquid lines of descent are shown to approach or intersect the experimentally-defined compositional space of silicate liquid immiscibility. Ferrobasalt-rhyolite unmixing along tholeiitic trends in both volcanic and plutonic environments is supported by worldwide occurrence of immiscible globules in the mesostasis of erupted basalts, unmixed melt inclusions in cumulus phases of major layered intrusions such as Skaergaard and Sept Iles, and oxide-rich ferrogabbros closely associated with plagiogranites in the lower oceanic crust. Liquid immiscibility is promoted by low-pressure, anhydrous fractional crystallization that drives the low Al2O3, high FeO liquids into the two-liquid field. Kinetic controls can be important in the development of two-liquid separation. The undercooling that occurs at the slow cooling rates of plutonic environments promotes early development of liquid immiscibility at higher temperature. In contrast rapid cooling in erupted lavas leads to large undercoolings and liquid immiscibility develops at significantly lower temperatures. Unmixing leads to the development of a compositional gap characterized by the absence of intermediate compositions, a feature of many tholeiitic provinces. The compositions of experimental unmixed silica-rich melts coincide with those of natural rhyolites and plagiogranites with high FeOtot and low Al2O3, suggesting the potential role of large-scale separation of immiscible Si-rich liquid in the petrogenesis of late-stage residual melts. No trace of the paired ferrobasaltic melt is found in volcanic environments because of its uneruptable characteristics. Instead, Fe-Ti±P-rich gabbros are the cumulate products of immiscible Fe-rich melts in plutonic settings. The immiscibility process may be difficult to identify because both melts crystallize the same phases with the same compositions. The two liquids might form incompletely segregated emulsions so that both liquids continue to exchange as they crystallize and remain in equilibrium. Even if segregated, both melts evolve on the binodal surface and exsolve continuously with decreasing temperature. The two liquids do not differentiate independently and keep crystallizing the same phases with differentiation. Further evolution by fractional crystallization potentially drives the bulk liquid out of the two-liquid field so that very late-stage liquids could evolve into the single melt phase stability field. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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