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See detailAge-Related Differences in Perceptuomotor Procedural Learning in Children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2013), 116

Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known ... [more ▼]

Procedural learning is generally considered to proceed in a series of phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role during the initial step. From a developmental perspective, little is known about the development of procedural learning or the role played by explicit cognitive processes during learning. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether procedural learning performance improves with age by comparing groups of 7-yearold children, 10-year-old children, and adults, and (2) to investigate the role played by executive functions during the acquisition in these three age groups. Seventy-six subjects were assessed on a computerized adaptation of the mirror tracing paradigm. Results revealed that the youngest children had more difficulty adapting to the task (they were slower and committed more errors at the beginning of the learning process) than 10-year-olds, but despite this age effect observed at the outset, all children improved performance across trials and transferred their skill to a different figure as well as adults. Correlational analyses showed that inhibition abilities play a key role in the performance of 10-year-olds and adults at the beginning of the learning, but not in 7-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the age-related differences observed in our procedural learning task are at least partly due to the differential involvement of inhibition abilities, which may facilitate (so long as they are sufficiently developed) learning in the initial steps of learning process; however, they would not be a necessary condition for skill learning to occur. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of a French Version of a New Anxiety Trait Scale for Children
Geurten, Marie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Fresson, Megan ULg et al

Poster (2013)

Anxiety diagnosis is relatively complex in children because intensity as well as symptoms of anxiety change during childhood (Bouden, Halayem, & Fakhfakh, 2002). The principal aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]

Anxiety diagnosis is relatively complex in children because intensity as well as symptoms of anxiety change during childhood (Bouden, Halayem, & Fakhfakh, 2002). The principal aim of this study was to validate through Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) the a priori three-factor structure of the French version of the anxiety trait scale for children which includes psychological (“tend to be worried about everything”), behavioral (“tend to be upset, nervous or grumbling”), and somatic symptoms (“headache complaints”) of anxiety. This scale was previously found to discriminate, with high sensitivity and specificity, children with anxiety from control group. A first CFA performed on 288 6-12 year-old children showed an acceptable fit (2/df =2.66; RMSEA=.07 and CFI=.94). A second three-factor model was constructed and showed a better fit with a new sample of 287 children (2/df =2.18; RMSEA=.06 and CFI=.96), with a lower ECVI value for the model 2. For this model, the Cronbach’s alpha for each of the subscales ranged from .71 to .86, which confirmed the good internal reliability of the scale. This study provides a new three-factor structure for this anxiety scale and proposes normative data for French-speaking children. [less ▲]

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See detailLa clinique psychologique et logopédique : une approche intégrée du patient
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

Le travail en équipe multidisciplinaire permet d’envisager l’évaluation et la prise en charge d’un patient de manière intégrée : illustration de la collaboration entre neuropsychologue et logopède dans le ... [more ▼]

Le travail en équipe multidisciplinaire permet d’envisager l’évaluation et la prise en charge d’un patient de manière intégrée : illustration de la collaboration entre neuropsychologue et logopède dans le cadre de suivis d’enfants et d’adolescents. [less ▲]

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See detailPerceptual andMotor Inhibition in ADHD:Evidence for a specific impairment?
Catale, Corinne ULg; Geurten, Marie ULg; Lejeune et al

in Abstracts book (2013)

Objective: Inhibition, one of the core executive processes in executive functioning (Miyake et al., 2000) is generally not considered as an unitary construct (see for example, Friedman & Miyake, 2004 ... [more ▼]

Objective: Inhibition, one of the core executive processes in executive functioning (Miyake et al., 2000) is generally not considered as an unitary construct (see for example, Friedman & Miyake, 2004; Nassauer & Halperin, 2003). Following the perceptual versus motor dissociation proposed by Nassauer and Halperin (2003), we studied perceptual and motor inhibition in children with AttentionDeficit andHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Participants and Methods: Sixteen 7-12 years old children with ADHD and 30 matched control children were administered a version of the Conflict Resolution task (Nassauer & Halperin, 2003) adapted for children. In this task, the perceptual inhibition task required the children to respond to the direction of a dog (running towards the left or the right) while ignoring its location (left or right) on a computer screen. In the motor inhibition task, the children had to press a key corresponding to the opposite direction of a centrally running dog. Results: Comparisons analyses of inhibition performances between ADHD children and matched controlled subjects showed that ADHD children performed significantly less accurately for stimulus-stimulus characteristic conflicts (i.e., perceptual inhibition) than for stimulus- response conflicts (i.e., motor inhibition), which suggests a specific impairment in perceptual inhibition in our group of ADHD children. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study supports the presence of two forms of inhibition which can be differentiated and specifically impaired in 7- to 12-year-old ADHD children. [less ▲]

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See detailInterference of a secondary task on procedural learning in children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Desmottes, Lise ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Belgian Brain Congress 2012: Abstract Book (2012, October 27)

Introduction Procedural learning is generally considered as involving different learning phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role only during the initial learning step. Through repeated ... [more ▼]

Introduction Procedural learning is generally considered as involving different learning phases, with cognitive resources playing an important role only during the initial learning step. Through repeated practice, the skill becomes progressively more automatic and the involvement of controlled cognitive functions is progressively reduced (Anderson, 2000;Doyon and Benali, 2005;Beaunieux et al., 2006). This view has been supported by studies in which the mirror-tracing paradigm was used to evaluate procedural learning, demonstrating the implication of the executive mechanisms in the first phase of perceptuomotor learning (Rouleau, 2002;Brosseau et al., 2007). However, from a developmental perspective, little is known about the progression of learning in procedural tasks, as well as about the role played by the explicit cognitive processes during learning in children. We recently showed that the cognitive mechanisms involved during the procedural task differed between age groups (Lejeune et al., in press). Indeed, we observed that 7-year-old children performed the procedural task in a less controlled fashion than 10-year-olds, who used a more conscious strategy, which permits them to reach better performance levels. The aim of the present study was to confirm the differential implication of explicit mechanisms in procedural learning in children by using a dual-task paradigm. Objective The present study used a dual-task paradigm in order to further investigate the role played by explicit mechanisms during the early and final stages of procedural learning in two ages-groups (7- and 10 year-olds). An auditory interference task was introduced at the beginning and at the end of the procedural learning phase. According to Sun, Merrill, and Peterson (2001), the introduction of an interference task should affect more the explicit processes than the implicit processes, the latter being more automatic. Thus, we predict that performance would be altered by in the dual-task condition only during the first phase of learning, and not during the automation phase. Furthermore, considering that the cognitive mechanisms underlying procedural learning would be different between 7- and 10-year-old children, we predicted that the impact of the dual-task would differ between the two aged-groups: the dual-task condition should affect performance in 10-year-old children but not in the 7-year-old group. Method Seventy-six children were presented with a Mirror Tracing task under single or dual-task conditions. For the Mirror Tracing task, we conformed to the procedure used in previous studies in children (Vicari et al., 2005;Prehn-Kristensen et al., 2009) and we opted for a 5 points star with the double outline of 1 cm. The instruction was to follow the contour of the figure in order to “catch” different picture without leaving the limits of the contour. There were two learning sessions; the task included 10 trials, with a short break (2 min) between trials, and a second 10 trial session was conducted after a one-week delay. In dual-task condition, participants had to perform the procedural learning task while performing at the same time the interference auditory task (which consisted to answer to questions presented continuously). Results Results showed that completion time and accuracy during the mirror tracing task improved with each successive trial in both groups: all children learned the procedural skill regardless of their age and the experimental condition. As predicted, results showed that the impact of the dual-task differed between aged-groups during the first learning phase. While 10-year-old children were significantly slower and less accurate in the dual-task condition than 10-year-old children in the single-task condition, no difference between learning conditions was revealed in the 7-year-old group. Interestingly, at the end of learning (trials 19 and 20), the interference effect had disappeared: there was no impact of the secondary task on procedural performance, whatever the age-group. Discussion In this study, we explored with a dual-task paradigm the role played by explicit mechanisms during the early and final stages of procedural learning in two age-groups (7- and 10 year-olds). During the first learning step, 10-year-old children in the single-task condition used a conscious strategy to perform the task, which permits them to reach better performance levels than 10-year-old children in the dual-task condition (which prevents them from using their controlled cognitive processes). On the contrary, no impact of the interference task was observed in 7-year-old children, who performed the mirror tracing task similarly in the single- and dual-task conditions. This result supports our hypothesis that, in the beginning of a perceptuo-motor learning task, youngest children perform the procedural task in a more implicit fashion comparatively to older children. Thus, while performance of 10-year-old children is congruent with a top-down conception of procedural learning (i.e., performance in the first learning stages would be sustained by high-level explicit mechanisms), this is not the case for youngest children whose explicit mechanisms are not yet mature. So, our results confirm that the involvement of explicit learning mechanisms is not a “necessary condition” for motor skill learning to occur, a point of view supported by the bottom-up skill learning approach which postulates that explicit declarative knowledge is not necessarily associated with procedural skill learning and that the knowledge acquired could be stored in an implicit mode from the beginning of learning (Karmiloff-Smith, 1992;Sun et al., 2001). [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning in Developmental Coordination Disorder
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: 1st Joint Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science & Sociedad Espanola de Psicologica Experimental (2012, May 11)

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic ... [more ▼]

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic performance, the mechanisms underlying DCD remain largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the hypothesis of a motor procedural learning impairment in DCD, which would explain difficulties in motor learning and automation of novel motor skills in these children. A total of 32 children (16 with DCD and 16 typically developing [TD] children) aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in this study. Children were administered a task adapted from the traditional shapes’ mirror-tracing task. Results showed that DCD children were able to learn the skill as fast as TD children; the learning pattern of DCD and TD children in motor procedural learning is similar. But is there any generalization of a new perceptual-motor skill in DCD children? Actually, DCD children were slower during the transfer task (triangle task) than TD children; the transfer task was more difficult for the DCD children than their peers. DCD children and TD children differ in their abilities to generalize the motor schema to a new task, more complex. These results confirm the hypothesis of a motor procedural learning impairment in DCD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Conners Parent Rating Scale: Confirmatory factorial analysis on preliminary data in a sample of 5-10 years old Belgian French Speaking Children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Book of Abstracts (2012)

Introduction The Conners Parent Rating Scale-48 items (CPRS) is one of the most used behavioral scales in clinical and research settings with children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, and ... [more ▼]

Introduction The Conners Parent Rating Scale-48 items (CPRS) is one of the most used behavioral scales in clinical and research settings with children suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders, and particularly with children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This scale provides an interesting qualitative and quantitative picture of the emotional and behavioural children’s attitude by including five subscales assessing conduct problem, learning problem, anxiety, impulsive/hyperactive behaviour and psychosomatic feelings (e.g., Goyette, Conners, & Ulrich, 1978). Previous versions of this scale were developed to contribute to the identification of hyperkinetic children and evaluate treatment efficiency. To our knowledge, no study has verified the factor structure of the French version of the CPRS. In this context, the principal aims of this study were to verify the five-factor structure of the French version of the CPRS and therefore to provide preliminary culturally adapted normative data for Belgian French-speaking children aged from 5 to 10 years old. Method The CPRS for parents was distributed in several schools in the region of Liège (Belgium). A total of 157 parents of normally developing 5-10 years old children participated in this study (Mean age: 7.94 years, SD: 2.01). Exclusion criteria for participation were a history of traumatic brain injury or neurological, developmental, learning, or psychiatric disorders. Results We carried out a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using LISREL 8.80 (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 2006) to examine the factor structure of the French version of the CPRS. We tested the five-factor structure found in Goyette, Conners, and Ulrich (1978) with the English version including the five following subscales: [i] Conduct problem, [ii] Learning problem, [iii] Psychosomatic, [iv] Impulsive-hyperactive, and [v] Anxiety. To evaluate the fit of this model, different goodness-of-fit indexes were employed: (1) the chi2 value, (2) the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA; Browne & Cudeck, 1989), and (3) the Comparative Fit Index (CFI; Bentler, 1990). Generally, the fitness index is calculated from the value of the chi-square divided by the degrees of freedom. A value of chi2/df of less than 2 is considered to be an indication of an adequate fit. The RMSEA indicates a ‘good’ approximation if it is less than .05. A RMSEA between .05 and .08 reflects a ‘reasonable’ approximation, and a RMSEA greater than .08 indicates poor approximation. In line with Goyette, Conners, and Ulrich (1978), a five-factor model was constructed in which the items of the CPRS were hypothesized to reflect these factors. The chi-square of the model was not significant, chi2 (199) = 230.626, p > .05. The chi2/df ratio is 1.15, which indicates an adequate fit. For the other fit indices, we obtained a RMSEA of .07. The combination of these indices indicated an acceptable fit for the model tested. The standard item alpha for the whole-scale was .82. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) for each of the subscales ranged from .63 to .80 (Mean: .72). The coefficients confirmed the good internal reliability of the inventory. Discussion The principal aim of this study was to validate the five-factor structure of the French adaptation of the CPRS in Belgian French-speaking children. Interestingly, the CFA showed that, like the original version, the French adaptation of the CPRS presents good psychometric characteristics. More interestingly, the CFA confirmed that the 48-item scale of the French version of the CPRS specifically assessed the five different children’s behaviours described above. Furthermore, this study provides cultural-adapted normative data for Belgian French-speaking children. Future research will be necessary to examine to what extent this questionnaire can discriminate between children with ADHD and normally developing children. [less ▲]

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See detailDistrait? Agité? Mon enfant présente-t-il un trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec/sans hyperactivité?
Catale, Corinne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2012)

La Clinique Psychologique et Logopédique Universitaire (CPLU) a le plaisir de vous inviter à sa prochaine conférence donnée par Corinne Catale (Docteur en Sciences Psychologiques) Le diagnostic du trouble ... [more ▼]

La Clinique Psychologique et Logopédique Universitaire (CPLU) a le plaisir de vous inviter à sa prochaine conférence donnée par Corinne Catale (Docteur en Sciences Psychologiques) Le diagnostic du trouble déficitaire de l'attention chez l'enfant reste encore très complexe. L'exposé aura comme premier objectif de décrire le fonctionnement cognitif des enfants atteints de ce trouble et ses conséquences sur la vie quotidienne. Ensuite, nous montrerons l'intérêt de la neuropsychologie dans son diagnostic, mais également dans sa prise en charge, avec la mise en place d'une remédiation cognitive personnalisée et focalisée sur les difficultés que l'enfant présente. [less ▲]

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See detailIs motor sequence learning impaired in Developmental Coordination Disorder?
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Schmitz, Xavier ULg et al

Poster (2012)

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic ... [more ▼]

Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by marked impairments in motor skills. Despite its negative impact on daily activities and on cognitive and academic performance, the mechanisms underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. One hypothesis that has been proposed is that the poor motor coordination abilities may be attributed to impairments in motor learning and, more specifically, in learning of the correct sequencing of movements (Gheysen et al., 2011). To date, only two studies have directly investigated sequence learning in DCD, but their results are contradictory. The aim of this study was to explore learning of motor sequence in DCD children by means of a modified version of the Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task where the standard keyboard was replaced by a touch screen in order to reduce the impact of the DCD group’s motor difficulties. A total of 34 children (17 with DCD and 17 typically developing (TD) children aged between 6 and 12 years old participated in this study. Results show that DCD children were able to learn the sequence as fast and as accurately as TD children. These findings, showing that children with DCD present the same degree of implicit learning as TD children, differ from those obtained by Gheysen et al. (2011) and so, challenge the motor sequence learning deficit hypothesis. We suggest that differences between studies are not related to an implicit sequence learning deficit per se in children with DCD, but rather to methodological aspects like the response mode used in the studies. [less ▲]

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See detailParental educational level influence on memory and executive performance in children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2012), 62

Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship ... [more ▼]

Introduction. – The influence of Parental Educational Status (PES) on cognitive performance has been confirmed in several studies. Objective. – The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PES and several domains of cognitive functioning and examine, through mediation analyses, the relationship between PES, language,and cognitive tasks. Method. – We first administered tasks measuring memory, executive and attentional abilities to 64 European native French speakers, divided into two groups of children according to parents’ educational status. Results. – The results suggest that, on most tasks, the effect of socio-educational status is mediated by language abilities. However, because the results were less clear for executive functions, we carried out a second experiment in which we administered more specific executive measures (i.e. inhibition, cognitive flexibility, updating and reasoning) to 80 children. Conclusion. – The results confirmed the influence of the parents’ educational status on the executive functioning and also that, contrary to other cognitive functions, this influence on executive tasks is not completely explained by language differences. [less ▲]

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See detailRééducation attentionnelle chez l’enfant avec Trouble Déficitaire de l’Attention (TDA) : Analyse de deux cas.
Turine, Hélène ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg

Poster (2012)

L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité d’une prise en charge cognitive basée sur des exercices spécifiques d’entraînement de l’attention (informatisés et papier-crayon) sur les performances ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer l’efficacité d’une prise en charge cognitive basée sur des exercices spécifiques d’entraînement de l’attention (informatisés et papier-crayon) sur les performances cognitives et le comportement de deux enfants TDA. L’impact d’une prise en charge attentionnelle chez des enfants avec TDA reste, à ce jour, mal connu même si quelques rares travaux suggèrent un bénéfice de ce type d’intervention sur des mesures attentionnelles et comportementales chez ces enfants (e.g., Noël et al., 2007). Deux enfants TDA avec troubles attentionnels objectivés par un examen neuropsychologique ont bénéficié de 40 séances de rééducation, lesquelles proposaient des exercices spécifiques aux difficultés de ces deux enfants (inhibition, attention soutenue et sélective et flexibilité). Chaque enfant était apparié à quatre enfants de contrôle. Les analyses de comparaison pré et post-rééducation montrent une amélioration des performances pour le cas 1 au niveau de différents composants attentionnels (inhibition, attention soutenue, attention sélective et flexibilité) ainsi qu’au niveau comportemental (p<.05) qui se maintient au-delà de 6 mois après la rééducation. En revanche, les analyses réalisées pour le cas 2 ne montrent aucune amélioration mais plaident en faveur d’un changement de stratégie cognitive (amélioration de la performance qualitative au détriment de la vitesse de réalisation). Cette étude confirme l’intérêt d’une prise en charge attentionnelle chez des enfants avec TDA et souligne l’importance de différents paramètres (variabilité interindividuelle, âge, motivation, profil attentionnel,…) dans le succès d’une telle rééducation. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between video game practice and attentional performance in children
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in 1st Joint Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science and Sociedad Espanola de Psicologia Experimental. Book of abstracts (2012)

Recent studies in adults have shown an advantage for video games players compared to non-video game players on several attentional tasks, and particularly those involving visual processing and spatial ... [more ▼]

Recent studies in adults have shown an advantage for video games players compared to non-video game players on several attentional tasks, and particularly those involving visual processing and spatial distribution of attention. However, little is known about the influence of video game practice on children’s attentional and executive abilities. In this study, eighty 8-10 years old children divided into three groups (non-video-game players [NVGP], moderate video game players [MVGP], and Intense video game player [IVGP]) were administered computerized attentional/executive tasks tapping vigilance, visual and auditory selective attention, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. Parents were also asked to complete behavioral scales. Results indicate limited effects of video game practice on attentional/executive tasks, with an advantage in reaction time only for vigilance and flexibility tasks. On the other hand, results on behavioral measures showed a positive relationship between the importance of video-game practice and hyperactive behaviors. In conclusion, these results support the idea that video game practice has a limited influence on attentional performance in children, while they might have an effect on the behavioral area. [less ▲]

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See detailAcquisition of a new motor skill in preschool- and school-aged children
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: ASecond Meeting of The Federation of European Societies of Neuropsychology (2011, September)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this study was to explore, with a perceptivo-motor learning task, whether procedural learning abilities are present to the same extent in 4-, 7-, and 10-year-old children. Forty-five children were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 12 trials during which each subject had to “catch”, as quickly as possible, several toys presented successively on the screen with a computerized inverted mouse. Retention tests, composed of 2 blocks of 12 trials, were administered 15 minutes and 1 week later. The analyses showed an important difference between groups in the first block. This difference could be related to the low ability of young children to handle the mouse and to their less developed executive functioning. On the other hand, results showed a similar learning rate between 5- and 7-year-old children, supporting the idea that procedural learning abilities are efficient early in development. However, we observed no procedural learning in10-year-old children; this unexpected result is probably due to the fact that this task was too easy for this age group, which is confirmed by the ceiling effect already observed during the first learning blocks. So, this study confirms the early efficiency of procedural abilities in childhood, but also highlights the difficulty to develop procedural learning tasks adapted to children from a large age range. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental differences in the procedural learning of a perceptual-motor skill
Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2011, May 27)

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the ... [more ▼]

It is generally admitted that procedural learning is efficient early in childhood. However, few studies have brought empirical data confirming this assumption, and many questions remain regarding the cognitive mechanisms that sustain procedural learning in children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether perceptual-motor procedural learning was present to the same extent in 7-, 10-year-old children and in adults. We also examined the role of executive functions, working memory, general intelligence, and motor ability during the learning process. A total of 76 subjects divided into 3 age-groups were tested. The task included 4 blocks of 3 trials during which each subject had to trace the contour of a triangle with an inverted computer mouse. Analyses show an important difference between groups in the initial phase of the learning process. They also reveal that executive functions intervene during the first learning phase, which might explain the observed age effect. In addition, results show significant but different learning effects for the procedural task: while the improvement was equivalent between 10-year-olds and adults, 7-year-old children showed a greater learning slope than the other groups; despite their slowness during the first blocks, younger children showed an equivalent performance at the end of the learning phase. These results suggest that, if executive processes are important during the first learning steps, they are not a “necessary condition” for motor skill learning to occur. The role of compensatory strategies sustaining learning in younger children is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec/sans hyperactivité: le point de vue cognitif et comportemental
Catale, Corinne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

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See detailDevelopment and organization of executive functions in 4-to 11 year-old children: A factor study.
Catale, Corinne ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg et al

in Books of Abstract: Annual Meeting of the Belgian Association for Psychological Science (2011)

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine ... [more ▼]

Executive functioning (EF) is an umbrella term used to refer to the higher-order cognitive processes whose principal function is to facilitate the adaptation of an individual to new and non-routine situations. In the present study, inhibition, mental flexibility, and working memory were assessed through 6 executive tasks administered to 329 children aged from 4 to 11 years, in order to examine the development and organization of executive functioning in both early and middle childhood. Results reveal specific developmental trends for each component, with a period of rapid general development during the preschool period. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the organization of EF in our sample. First, the poorness of fit of the unitary model was found for both groups, confirming the fractionated nature of EF in preschoolers as well as in older children. Second, the analyses confirmed the adequacy of the fit of the three-dimensional model (i.e., inhibition, flexibility, and working memory), while also indicating that other specific two-dimensional models gave reasonable fits to the data from both age groups. The factor structure obtained supports both the unitary and diversity nature of the executive organisation during early and middle childhood. Furthermore, our data suggest a progressive differentiation of executive processes (in particular flexibility and working memory) in the course of development. [less ▲]

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See detailSensibilité et spécificité du CHildhood EXecutive functioning Inventory (CHEXI) chez des enfants avec troubles attentionnels
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Merbah, Sarah ULg et al

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 115

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori ... [more ▼]

Thorell and Nyberg (2008) have recently developed the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI), a new rating inventory of executive functioning for children that can be divided into four a priori subscales: working memory, planning, inhibition, and regulation The major goals of our study is to present a French adaptation of this questionnaire and to discuss its clinical interests in terms of sensibility and specificity with children with attentional deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration of perceptual and motor inhibition in children with traumatic brain injury
Catale, Corinne ULg; Germain, Sophie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Perceptual & Motor Skills (2011), 113(3), 1-13

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the ... [more ▼]

Perceptual and motor inhibition were examined using conflict resolution tasks for 12 children with traumatic brain injury and 24 matched controls. Direct comparisons of inhibition performances between the two groups showed a specific and disproportionate impairment of motor inhibition (compared with perceptual inhibition) for the children with traumatic brain injury, which suggests that inhibition processes might be differentially impaired in children after traumatic brain injury. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation factorielle et évaluation des fonctions exécutives chez l’enfant en âge préscolaire et scolaire
Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (2011), 112-113

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to [1] review the main studies that have examined the factorial organization of executive functions, and particularly those relative to inhibition, flexibility, and working memory during early and middle childhood, and [2] present the executive tools that are mainly used in clinical settings with children. Most of the studies have shown evidence of a fractionation of executive functions in childhood. Moreover, some of these studies suggest a progressive and specific differentiation of these processes during development. Specific and adequate tools are therefore necessary to assess executive processes in clinical settings. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatisme crânien chez l'enfant: Quelles sont les conséquences sur les plans cognitif, comportemental et scolaire?
Catale, Corinne ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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