References of "Castronovo, Vincenzo"
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See detailInflammation as the key link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

Conference (2012, April 23)

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See detailDifferential proteomic analysis of a human breast tumor and its matched bone metastasis identifies cell membrane and extracellular proteins associated with bone metastasis
Dumont, Bruno ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Peulen, Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2012)

The classical fate of metastasizing breast cancer cells is to seed and form secondary colonies in bones. The molecules closely associated with these processes are predominantly present at the cell surface ... [more ▼]

The classical fate of metastasizing breast cancer cells is to seed and form secondary colonies in bones. The molecules closely associated with these processes are predominantly present at the cell surface and in the extracellular space, establishing the first contacts with the target tissue. In this study, we had the rare opportunity to analyze a bone metastatic lesion and its corresponding breast primary tumor obtained simultaneously from the same patient. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook a proteomic study on cell surface and extracellular protein-enriched material. We provide a repertoire of significantly modulated proteins, some with yet unknown roles in the bone metastatic process as well as proteins notably involved in cancer cell invasiveness and in bone metabolism. The comparison of these clinical data with those previously obtained using a human osteotropic breast cancer cell line highlighted an overlapping group of proteins. Certain differentially expressed proteins are validated in the present study using immunohistochemistry on a retrospective collection of breast tumors and matched bone metastases. Our exclusive set of selected proteins supports the set-up of further investigations on both clinical samples and experimental bone metastasis models that will help to reveal the finely coordinated expression of proteins that favor the development of metastases in the bone microenvironment. [less ▲]

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See detailOverexpression of CD9 in human breast cancer cells promotes the development of bone metastases.
Kischel, Philippe; Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Deux, Blandine et al

in Anticancer Research (2012), 32(12), 5211-20

BACKGROUND: Bone is a preferred target for circulating metastatic breast cancer cells. We found that the CD9 protein was up-regulated in the B02 osteotropic cell line, derived from the aggressive parental ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Bone is a preferred target for circulating metastatic breast cancer cells. We found that the CD9 protein was up-regulated in the B02 osteotropic cell line, derived from the aggressive parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Here, we investigated the putative relationship between CD9 expression and the osteotropic phenotype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overexpression of CD9 was analyzed by immunoblotting in different cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess CD9 expression in primary tumors and metastatic lesions. In vivo experiments were conducted in mice using a monoclonal antibody against CD9. RESULTS: CD9 overexpression was confirmed in osteotropic cells. CD9 was significantly overexpressed in bone metastases versus primary tumors and visceral metastatic lesions. Finally, in vivo experiments showed that an antibody against CD9 delays homing of B02 cells in bone marrow, slowing down bone destruction. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals a potential implication of CD9 in the formation of bony metastases from breast cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSparc-like protein 1 is a new marker of human glioma progression.
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Musmeci, Davide; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2012), 11(10), 5011-21

High-grade gliomas (glioblastomas) are the most common and deadly brain tumors in adults, currently with no satisfactory treatment available. Apart from de novo glioblastoma, it is currently accepted that ... [more ▼]

High-grade gliomas (glioblastomas) are the most common and deadly brain tumors in adults, currently with no satisfactory treatment available. Apart from de novo glioblastoma, it is currently accepted that these malignancies mainly progress from lower grade glial tumors. However, the molecular entities governing the progression of gliomas are poorly understood. Extracellular and membrane proteins are key biomolecules found at the cell-to-cell communication interface and hence are a promising proteome subpopulation that could help understand the development of glioma. Accordingly, the current study aims at identifying new protein markers of human glioma progression. For this purpose, we used glial tumors generated orthotopically with T98G and U373 human glioma cells in nude mice. This setup allowed also to discriminate the protein origin, namely, human (tumor) or mouse (host). Extracellular and membrane proteins were selectively purified using biotinylation followed by streptavidin affinity chromatography. Isolated proteins were digested and then identified and quantified employing 2D-nano-HPLC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 23 and 27 up-regulated extracellular and membrane proteins were identified in the T98G and U373 models, respectively. Approximately two-thirds of these were predominantly produced by the tumor, whereas the remaining proteins appeared to be mainly overexpressed by the host tissue. Following extensive validation, we have focused our attention on sparc-like protein 1. This protein was further investigated using immunohistochemistry in a large collection of human glioma samples of different grades. The results showed that sparc-like protein 1 expression correlates with glioma grade, suggesting the possible role for this protein in the progression of this malignancy. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopically labeled proteome as an internal standard for multiple reaction monitoring-based biomarker quantification.
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Expert Review of Proteomics (2012), 9(3), 245-8

Multiple reaction monitoring is a mass spectrometry technology used to selectively identify and quantify a known molecule in a complex mixture. The technology has gained favor in proteomic applications ... [more ▼]

Multiple reaction monitoring is a mass spectrometry technology used to selectively identify and quantify a known molecule in a complex mixture. The technology has gained favor in proteomic applications, especially for biomarker quantification in human samples. For this purpose, employment of internal standard consisting of isotopically (heavy) labeled proteins is currently considered the best way of normalizing sample preparation and correcting for different ionization efficiencies. However, synthesis of heavy-labeled proteins is considered laborious and expensive. The work outlined here presents an efficient strategy of utilizing isotope-labeled amino acids in cell culture to produce heavy-labeled proteins. These are then spiked into serum and serve as internal standards to relatively quantify a large number of target proteins. The method has been applied to quantify 72 proteins in the sera of pancreatic cancer patients with remarkable efficiency and accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe angiogenesis suppressor gene AKAP12 is under the epigenetic control of HDAC7 in endothelial cells.
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Mottet, Denis ULg; Matheus, Nicolas ULg et al

in Angiogenesis (2012)

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of 18 enzymes that deacetylate lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins and to a large extent govern the process of angiogenesis. Previous studies ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of 18 enzymes that deacetylate lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins and to a large extent govern the process of angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that specific inhibition of HDAC7 blocks angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood and hence preclude any meaningful development of suitable therapeutic modalities. The goal of the present study was to further the understanding of HDAC7 epigenetic control of angiogenesis in human endothelial cells using the proteomic approach. The underlying problem was approached through siRNA-mediated gene-expression silencing of HDAC7 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). To this end, HUVEC proteins were extracted and proteomically analyzed. The emphasis was placed on up-regulated proteins, as these may represent potential direct epigenetic targets of HDAC7. Among several proteins, A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) was the most reproducibly up-regulated protein following HDAC7 depletion. This overexpression of AKAP12 was responsible for the inhibition of migration and tube formation in HDAC7-depleted HUVEC. Mechanistically, H3 histones associated with AKAP12 promoter were acetylated following the removal of HDAC7, leading to an increase in its mRNA and protein levels. AKAP12 is responsible for protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phosphorylated STAT3 increasingly binds to the chromatin and AKAP12 promoter and is necessary for maintaining the elevated levels of AKAP12 following HDAC7 knockdown. We demonstrated for the first time that AKAP12 tumor/angiogenesis suppressor gene is an epigenetic target of HDAC7, whose elevated levels lead to a negative regulation of HUVEC migration and inhibit formation of tube-like structures. [less ▲]

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See detailBoth osteopontin-c and osteopontin-b splicing isoforms exert pro-tumorigenic roles in prostate cancer cells.
Tilli, T. M.; Mello, K. D.; Ferreira, L. B. et al

in Prostate (2012)

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of the osteopontin (opn, spp1) gene generates three protein splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), designated as OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, which have demonstrated specific roles in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of the osteopontin (opn, spp1) gene generates three protein splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), designated as OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, which have demonstrated specific roles in different tumor models. This work aims to investigate the roles of each OPN-SI in prostate cancer (PCa) progression by using in vivo and in vitro functional assays. METHODS: The expression levels of OPN-SI in prostate cell lines were analyzed by qRT-PCR. PC-3 was stably transfected with expression vectors containing OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, as well as empty vector controls. PC-3 cells overexpressing each construct were analyzed for in vivo tumor growth and in relation to different aspects mimicking tumor progression, such as cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and soft agar colony formation. RESULTS: OPN-SI are overexpressed in PCa as compared to non-tumoral prostate cell lines. OPNc and OPNb overexpressing cells significantly activated enhanced xenograft tumor growth and PC-3 proliferation, migration, invasion, and soft agar colony formation, as well as the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF. These isoforms also support sustained proliferative survival. We found that both OPNc and OPNb pro-tumorigenic roles are mainly mediated through PI3K signaling. Inhibition of this pathway by using LY294002 specifically inhibited tumor progression features evoked by OPNc and OPNb overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that both OPNc and OPNb splicing isoforms promote distinct aspects of PCa progression by inducing PI3K signaling. These data give support to strategies aiming to downregulate OPNc and OPNb expression as an approach to inhibit PCa progression. Prostate (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-1 in Melanoma Biology and Related Neo-Angiogenesis Processes.
Mathieu, V.; de Lassalle, Elisabeth Martin; Toelen, J. et al

in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2012)

Aggressiveness of advanced melanomas relates in part to their marked propensity to develop neoangiogenesis and metastases. Among its numerous pro-cancer roles, galectin (gal)-1 expressed and/or secreted ... [more ▼]

Aggressiveness of advanced melanomas relates in part to their marked propensity to develop neoangiogenesis and metastases. Among its numerous pro-cancer roles, galectin (gal)-1 expressed and/or secreted by both cancer and endothelial cells stimulates proliferation and angiogenesis. This study first shows that gal-1 is more highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels than its congeners in melanomas and particularly in advanced lesions. The roles of gal-1 were further investigated in vivo in the highly proliferating and vascularized pseudometastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma model using stable knockdown B16F10 cells and wild-type versus gal-1 knockout mice, and then in vitro in B16F10 tumoral and lung microvascular cells. Gal-1 depletion in the B16F10 tumor cells but not in the tumor-bearing mice significantly increased melanoma-bearing mice survival. Tumor-derived gal-1 thus seems to have more critical roles than the host-derived one. In fact, gal-1 displays distinct effects on the H-Ras-dependent p53/p21 pathways: in primary lung microvessel endothelial cells, gal-1 seems to be involved in the maintenance of senescent status through the induction of both p53 and p21 while it stimulates B16F10 cancer cell proliferation through a p53/p21 decrease. Altogether, these data point to gal-1 as a potential target to combat melanomas.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 24 May 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.142. [less ▲]

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See detailHDAC5 is required for maintenance of pericentric heterochromatin, and controls cell-cycle progression and survival of human cancer cells
Peixoto, Paul ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Matheus, Nicolas ULg et al

in Cell Death & Differentiation (2012)

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) form a family of enzymes, which have fundamental roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and contribute to the growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of cancer ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) form a family of enzymes, which have fundamental roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and contribute to the growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of cancer cells. In this study, we further investigated the biological function of HDAC5 in cancer cells. We found HDAC5 is associated with actively replicating pericentric heterochromatin during late S phase. We demonstrated that specific depletion of HDAC5 by RNA interference resulted in profound changes in the heterochromatin structure and slowed down ongoing replication forks. This defect in heterochromatin maintenance and assembly are sensed by DNA damage checkpoint pathways, which triggered cancer cells to autophagy and apoptosis, and arrested their growth both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we also demonstrated that HDAC5 depletion led to enhanced sensitivity of DNA to DNA-damaging agents, suggesting that heterochromatin de-condensation induced by histone HDAC5 silencing may enhance the efficacy of cytotoxic agents that act by targeting DNA in vitro. Together, these results highlighted for the first time an unrecognized link between HDAC5 and the maintenance/assembly of heterochromatin structure, and demonstrated that its specific inhibition might contribute to increase the efficacy of DNA alteration-based cancer therapies in clinic. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of novel accessible proteins bearing diagnostic and therapeutic potential in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Musmeci, Davide; Wang, Yinghong et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2011), 10(9), 4302-13

Pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly malignancy with poor early diagnostic and no effective therapy. Although several proteomic studies have performed comparative analysis between normal ... [more ▼]

Pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a deadly malignancy with poor early diagnostic and no effective therapy. Although several proteomic studies have performed comparative analysis between normal and malignant tissues, there is a lack of clear characterization of proteins that could be of clinical value. Systemically reachable ("potentially accessible") proteins, suitable for imaging technologies and targeted therapies represent a major group of interest. The current study explores potentially accessible proteins overexpressed in PDAC, employing innovative proteomics technologies. In the discovery phase, potentially accessible proteins from fresh human normal and PDAC tissues were ex vivo biotinylated, isolated and identified using 2D-nano-HPLC-MS/MS method. The analysis revealed 422 up-regulated proteins in the tumor, of which 83 (including protein isoforms) were evaluated as potentially accessible. Eleven selected candidates were further confirmed as up-regulated using Western blot and multiple reaction monitoring protein quantification. Of these, transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI), latent transforming growth factor beta binding 2 (LTBP2), and asporin (ASPN) were further investigated by employing large scale immunohistochemistry-based validations. They were found to be significantly expressed in a large group of clinical PDAC samples compared to corresponding normal and inflammatory tissues. In conclusion, TGFBI, LTBP2, and ASPN are novel, overexpressed, and potentially accessible proteins in human PDAC. They bear the potential to be of clinical value for diagnostic and therapeutic applications and merit further studies using in vivo models. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel comprehensive approach for accessible biomarker identification and absolute quantification from precious human tissues
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Dumont, Bruno ULg; Greffe, Yannick et al

in Journal of Proteome Research (2011), 10(7), 3160-82

The identification of specific biomarkers obtained directly from human pathological lesions remains a major challenge, because the amount of tissue available is often very limited. We have developed a ... [more ▼]

The identification of specific biomarkers obtained directly from human pathological lesions remains a major challenge, because the amount of tissue available is often very limited. We have developed a novel, comprehensive, and efficient method permitting the identification and absolute quantification of potentially accessible proteins in such precious samples. This protein subclass comprises cell membrane associated and extracellular proteins, which are reachable by systemically deliverable substances and hence especially suitable for diagnosis and targeted therapy applications. To isolate such proteins, we exploited the ability of chemically modified biotin to label ex vivo accessible proteins and the fact that most of these proteins are glycosylated. This approach consists of three successive steps involving first the linkage of potentially accessible proteins to biotin molecules followed by their purification. The remaining proteins are then subjected to glycopeptide isolation. Finally, the analysis of the nonglycosylated peptides and their involvement in an in silico method increased the confident identification of glycoproteins. The value of the technique was demonstrated on human breast cancer tissue samples originating from 5 individuals. Altogether, the method delivered quantitative data on more than 400 potentially accessible proteins (per sample and replicate). In comparison to biotinylation or glycoprotein analysis alone, the sequential method significantly increased the number (≥30% and ≥50% respectively) of potentially therapeutically and diagnostically valuable proteins. The sequential method led to the identification of 93 differentially modulated proteins, among which several were not reported to be associated with the breast cancer. One of these novel potential biomarkers was CD276, a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein. The immunohistochemistry analysis showed that CD276 is significantly differentially expressed in a series of breast cancer lesions. Due to the fact that our technology is applicable to any type of tissue biopsy, it bears the ability to accelerate the discovery of new relevant biomarkers in a broad spectrum of pathologies. [less ▲]

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See detailHistone deacetylase 5 is a regulator of S phase progression
Peixoto, Paul ULg; Pirotte, Sophie ULg; Matheus, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2011, February 05)

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See detailInnovative Proteomics for the Discovery of Systemically Accessible Cancer Biomarkers Suitable for Imaging and Targeted Therapies
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in American Journal of Pathology (2011), 178(1), 12-18

The discovery of biomarkers that are readily accessible through the circulating blood and are selectively overexpressed in pathological tissues has become a major research objective, particularly in the ... [more ▼]

The discovery of biomarkers that are readily accessible through the circulating blood and are selectively overexpressed in pathological tissues has become a major research objective, particularly in the field of oncology. Indisputably, this group of molecules has a high potential to serve as an innovative tool for effective imaging and targeted cancer therapy approaches. In this attractive therapeutic concept, specific cancer proteins are reached by intravenously administered ligands that are coupled to cytotoxic drugs. Such compounds are able to induce cancer destruction while sparing normal tissues. Owing to the performance of mass spectrometry technology, current high-throughput proteomic analysis allows for the identification of a high number of proteins that are differentially expressed in the cancerous tissues. However, such approaches provide no information regarding the effective accessibility of the biomarkers and, therefore, the possibility for these discovered proteins to be targeted. To bypass this major limitation, which clearly slows the discovery of such biomarkers, innovative methodological strategies have been developed to enrich the clinical specimens before the mass spectrometry analysis. The focus is laid on the group of proteins that are necessarily located either at the exterior face of the plasma membrane or in the extracellular matrix. The present review addresses the current technologies meant for the discovery and analysis of accessible antigens from clinically relevant samples. [less ▲]

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