References of "Carnol, Monique"
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See detail'Soil microbial diversity and forest ecosystem functioning
Carnol, Monique ULg

Conference (2004, April)

The term ‘biodiversity’ has been defined as ‘The variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations’, with the concept including several scales (ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic ... [more ▼]

The term ‘biodiversity’ has been defined as ‘The variety of life in all its forms, levels and combinations’, with the concept including several scales (ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic diversity) and processes related to ecosystem functioning (role in food webs, primary productivity, biogeochemical cycling). Ecosystem diversity comprises plant, animal and microbial diversity. Whereas much research focuses on plant and animal diversity, complexity of interactions and methodological difficulties have so far limited research on microbial diversity. However, within the soils of forest ecosystems, microorganisms are responsible for key functions such as organic matter decomposition and mineralisation, in particular within the C and N cycles. These processes are closely linked to nutrient availability and therefore play an important role in stand productivity, tree health and ecosystem functioning. Within the attempts to use soil microbial communities as indicators of soil health, microorganisms and their functions have been classified according to their sensitivity to perturbations. Processes of mineralization, linked to soil productivity, were ranked with the highest priority. Because of the small number of organisms involved and their key role in nutrient cycling, nitrifying bacteria and the nitrification process were identified as very sensitive to environmental perturbation. In this paper, I present an overview of ongoing studies investigating the link between the nitrification process and the diversity of ammonia-oxidisers, bacteria responsible for the first, rate-limiting step of the nitrification process. Ammonia-oxidiser community structure was investigated using a PCR-based approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene of beta-subgroup ammonia oxidisers, followed by DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and sequence analysis. The analysis of community structure was combined with more traditional measurements of nitrate production and soil characteristics. Investigations included several Belgian forest ecosystems and the effects of environmental factors, such as liming and the effects of a 4-year exposure to elevated CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of elevated CO2 on net nitrification and on the community structure of ammonia oxidising bacteria
Malchair, Sandrine ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Biodiversity: state, stakes and future; 7,8 & 9 April 2004, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Symposium, Programme, Abstracts, Participants (2004)

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See detailNutrient fluxes in three pure forest stands (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies) on acid soils in the Haute Ardenne
Degrave, Frédéric; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Biodiversity: state, stakes and future; 7,8 & 9 April 2004, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, Symposium, Programme, Abstracts, Participants (2004)

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See detailSoil microbial diversity and forest ecosystem functioning
Carnol, Monique ULg

in Biodiversity: state, stakes and future; 7,8 & 9 April 2004, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Symposium, Programme, Abstracts, Participants (2004)

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See detailEnvironmental, social and economic feasability of forest conversion. Scientific report, December 2004
Verheyen, Kris; Lust, Noel; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

Report (2004)

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See detailElevated atmospheric CO2 influences ammonia oxidiser community structure and net nitrification
Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg

Conference (2003, September)

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on ... [more ▼]

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on belowground processes have so far attracted limited research and they are assumed to be controlled by indirect effects through changes in plant physiology and chemistry. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 4-year exposure to elevated CO2 (ambient + 400 μmol mol-1) in open top chambers under Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on net nitrification and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria. Net nitrate production was significantly increased for soil from the elevated CO2 treatment in the field when incubated in the laboratory under elevated CO2, but there was no effect when incubated under ambient CO2. Net nitrate production of the soil originating from the ambient CO2 treatment in the field was not influenced by laboratory incubation conditions. These results indicate that a direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil microbial processes might take place. Molecular analysis of the ammonia-oxidising bacteria from the same soils before laboratory incubation was investigated using a PCR-based approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene of beta-subgroup ammonia oxidisers. After specific PCR, DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and sequence analysis were used to determine ammonia-oxidiser community structure. First results indicate the disappearance of Nitrosospira clusters I, II and III under elevated CO2 but also call for systematic analysis of replicates to take into account methodological and sample variability. [less ▲]

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See detailLa récolte des résidus de coupe face au développement durable de la forêt
Carnol, Monique ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2003)

Actuellement, la discussion sur les enjeux environnementaux de l’utilisation des ‘déchets’ ligneux pour la production d’énergie porte exclusivement sur la contribution de cette pratique dans les efforts ... [more ▼]

Actuellement, la discussion sur les enjeux environnementaux de l’utilisation des ‘déchets’ ligneux pour la production d’énergie porte exclusivement sur la contribution de cette pratique dans les efforts de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre et sur l’augmentation de la contribution des énergies renouvelables à la production totale d’énergie. Dans ces ‘déchets’ on trouve les sciures, les chutes de bois et d’autres résidus de l’industrie du bois, mais également les résidus d’exploitations forestières, généralement laissés sur site. Ces ‘déchets ligneux abandonnés en forêt’ jouent cependant un rôle important dans le recyclage des éléments nutritifs et donc dans la fertilité à long terme du site. Dans une approche budgétaire, quantifiant les entrées (pluies, pluviolessivats, altération des roches) et les sorties (lessivage, exploitation forestière) en nutriments de l’écosystème forêt, on peut estimer l’importance relative de l’exploitation forestière par rapport aux réserves nutritives du sol. Pour les sols pauvres de l’Ardenne, il apparaît que les éléments nutritifs des résidus de coupe peuvent jouer un rôle important dans le maintien du capital en nutriments du site. Dans le cadre des préoccupations du développement durable de la forêt, il apparaît donc indispensable de mener une réflexion globale sur l’utilisation bois-énergie et d’effectuer les récoltes des résidus sur des sites adéquats afin de ne pas aboutir aux excès de la surexploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated atmospheric CO2 influences ammonia oxidiser community structure and net nitrification
Carnol, Monique ULg; Malchair, Sandrine ULg

in International Symposium: Structure and Function of Soil Microbiota, Philipps-University Marburg, Germany, September 18-20, 2003 (2003)

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See detailImpacts of management strategies on nutrient fluxes in a temperate Picea abies (L. Karst) plantation
Carnol, Monique ULg

in Jansen, Jörg; Spiecker, Heinrich; von Teuffel, Konstantin (Eds.) Berichte Freiburger Forstliche Forschung, Heft 47, The question of conversion of coniferous forests, Abstracts, International Conference, 27 Septembre - 02 october, 2003, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany (2003)

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See detailNitrosomonas europaea-like bacteria detected as the dominant beta-subclass Proteobacteria ammonia oxidisers in reference and limed acid forest soils
Carnol, Monique ULg; Kowalchuk, G. A.; De Boer, W.

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2002), 34

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils ... [more ▼]

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils (Haute Ardenne, east Belgium) 18 months after treatment with 5 t ha(-1) dolomite lime. Liming caused a significant increase in nitrification in the upper soil layers (0.15 m) of both stands. DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiling after P-subclass ammonia oxidiser-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with hybridisation and sequencing of excised DGGE bands revealed a dominance of Nitrosomonas europaea-like sequences, independent of soil horizon, tree species and lime treatment. A minority Nitrosospira-like population was detected, which showed affinity to nitrosospiras previously detected in acid soil. These results contrast with several reports suggesting a dominance of Nitrosospira-like organisms among ammonia oxidiser communities in acid soils. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated atmospheric CO2 in open top chambers increases net nitrification and potential denitrification
Carnol, Monique ULg; Hogenboom, L.; Jach, M. E. et al

in Global Change Biology (2002), 8

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon (C) storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on ... [more ▼]

The control of soil nitrogen (N) availability under elevated atmospheric CO2 is central to predicting changes in ecosystem carbon (C) storage and primary productivity. The effects of elevated CO2 on belowground processes have so far attracted limited research and they are assumed to be controlled by indirect effects through changes in plant physiology and chemistry. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 4-year exposure to elevated CO2 (ambient + 400 mumol mol(-1) ) in open top chambers under Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) seedlings on soil microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. Potential denitrification (DP) and potential N-2 O emissions were significantly higher in soils from the elevated CO2 treatment, probably regulated indirectly by the changes in soil conditions (increased pH, C availability and NO3 (-) production). Net N mineralization was mainly accounted for by nitrate production. Nitrate production was significantly larger for soil from the elevated CO2 treatment in the field when incubated in the laboratory under elevated CO2 (increase of 100%), but there was no effect when incubated under ambient CO2 . Net nitrate production of the soil originating from the ambient CO2 treatment in the field was not influenced by laboratory incubation conditions. These results indicate that a direct effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil microbial processes might take place. We hypothesize that physiological adaptation or selection of nitrifiers could occur under elevated CO2 through higher soil CO2 concentrations. Alternatively, lower microbial NH4 assimilation under elevated CO2 might explain the higher net nitrification. We conclude that elevated atmospheric CO2 has a major direct effect on the soil microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification despite generally higher soil CO2 concentrations compared to atmospheric concentrations. [less ▲]

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