References of "Carnol, Monique"
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See detailDe percepties van bosgebruikers over de ecosysteemdiensten die gemengde bossen leveren
Carnol, Monique ULg; Verheyen, Kris

in BosRevue (2010), 32

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See detailAssessment of the effects of tree species diversity on forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (FORBIO) - Final Report
Verheyen, Kris; Carnol, Monique ULg; Branquart, Etienne et al

Report (2010)

Forests are biodiversity hotspots worldwide with 70% of terrestrial biodiversity being included in forested landscapes. However, deforestation, forest degradation and fragmentation lead to an increasing ... [more ▼]

Forests are biodiversity hotspots worldwide with 70% of terrestrial biodiversity being included in forested landscapes. However, deforestation, forest degradation and fragmentation lead to an increasing rate of species extinctions. Hence, predicting the consequences of changes in species numbers, in distribution patterns of taxa, and of shifts in dominance, has become a major challenge for community and ecosystem ecology. However, until now the relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in forests have been largely underexplored Therefore, the overall aims of the BELSPO cluster project FORBIO are: to review, synthesize and disseminate existing knowledge about the benefits and drawbacks of mixed stands vs monocultures (WP1); and to establish a highly innovative, large-scaled forest biodiversity experiment to evaluate the impact of increasing tree diversity on forest ecosystem functioning (WP2). To achieve the first objective, a so-called ‘white paper’ has been compiled by the FORBIO team members which has been published in Dutch as a special issue of the BosRevue and in French as a special issue of Forêt Wallone. Among stakeholders, many different opinions exist about the functioning of mixed forests and therefore the scientific evidence was confronted with stakeholder perceptions on ecosystem services in mixed forests compared to monocultures. The principal outcome was that stakeholders appear to have quite strong opinions on the functioning of mixed vs monoculture stands, whereas the review of the scientific literature highlighted the lack of specific information on forest ecosystem services in mixed forests compared to monocultures, in particular from studies where confounding factors can be eliminated or accounted for. The second objective was met by establishing two large-scaled tree diversity experiments in Zedelgem (Flanders) and Gedinne (Wallonia). Based on a state-of-the-art experimental design, 32 810 and 33 304 trees of five different species were planted in 42 and 44 experimental plots in Zedelgem and Gedinne, respectively. A third experiment with a similar design will be established in Hecthel-Eksel (Flanders) in 2011. FORBIO’s short-term contributions to sustainable development are mainly related to the fact that the project has introduced the state-of-the-art concepts and empirical support on the various relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to a large audience of forest owners, managers, users and scientists in Belgium. In the long-run, FORBIO will significantly contribute to a better understanding of the importance of tree species diversity for the functioning of forest ecosystems and the ecosystem services that they provide thanks to the establishment of the two (and soon three) large-scaled tree diversity experiments. Furthermore, the experiments, embedded in the worldwide TreeDivNetwork, will most likely continue to act as an attractor for researchers from Belgium and abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity-function relationship of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soils among functional groups of grassland species under climate warming
Malchair, Sandrine ULg; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemmens, CMHM et al

in Applied Soil Ecology (2010), 44

Although warming and plant diversity losses have important effects on aboveground ecosystem functioning, their belowground effects remain largely unknown. We studied the impact of a 3 °C warming and of ... [more ▼]

Although warming and plant diversity losses have important effects on aboveground ecosystem functioning, their belowground effects remain largely unknown. We studied the impact of a 3 °C warming and of three plant functional groups (forbs, grasses, legumes) on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) diversity (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, PCR-DGGE) and their function (potential nitrification) in artificial grasslands. Warming did not influence AOB diversity and function. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments retrieved from DGGE gel revealed that they were all related to Nitrosospira-like sequences. Clustering analysis of DGGE profiles resulted in two nodes, separating AOB community structure under legumes from all other samples. Decreased AOB richness (number of DGGE bands) and concurrent increased potential nitrification were also observed under legumes. We hypothesized that ammonium availability was the driving force regulating the link between aboveground and belowground communities, as well as the AOB diversity and function link. The results document that the physiology of AOB might be an important regulator of AOB community structure and function under plant functional groups. This study highlights the major role of the microbial community composition in soil process responses to changes in the functional composition of plant communities. [less ▲]

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See detailEcosystem services in mixed forests and monocultures: comparing stakeholders’ perceptions and scientific knowledge
Carnol, Monique ULg; Branquart, Etienne; Muys, Bart et al

in Book of Abstacts, IUFRO 7.01 Conference: Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change, Antalya 2010 (2010)

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See detailSensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to temperature: short-term impacts.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Goffin, Stéphanie ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

Poster (2009, September)

Soil respiration is mostly affected by temperature variations but there is still much debate regarding its temperature sensitivity. Especially the difference between short- and long-term responses driven ... [more ▼]

Soil respiration is mostly affected by temperature variations but there is still much debate regarding its temperature sensitivity. Especially the difference between short- and long-term responses driven by changes in microbial activity and population respectively is addressed here. To this end, an incubation experiment is set up with soil samples taken from the surface layer (0-25cm) of a bare area at the Carboeurope agricultural site of Lonzée in Belgium. After homogenization, they are placed into incubators at three different temperatures, namely 5, 15 and 25°C for 2 weeks. Temperature is regulated by Peltier systems that warm up or cool down a bath containing jars with soil samples. All jars are continuously aerated to prevent CO2 from accumulating inside. Moisture levels in the jars are regularly checked and adjusted to ensure that the soil moisture is optimal for soil respiration. Twice a week, short term temperature response is tested by changing incubation temperatures in the range 5 - 35°C. During these cycles, CO2 fluxes are measured at each temperature step with a closed dynamic chamber system. Microbial biomass and hot water-extractable carbon are determined two times during a temperature cycle, allowing a follow up of the evolution of these two variables through a cycle. A comparison between the respiration rates, microbial biomasses and extractable carbon will be presented and would allow a better understanding of the dynamics of the heterotrophic respiration response to temperature in agricultural soils. In the future, other experiments could be derived from this one to focus on substrate availability or soil moisture impacts on soil respiration. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term temperature impacts on soil respiration.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Goffin, Stéphanie ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

Poster (2009, June)

Despite considerable recent work on soil heterotrophic respiration, a mechanistic understanding of this process is still missing. Temperature is one of the most important driving factors. It can influence ... [more ▼]

Despite considerable recent work on soil heterotrophic respiration, a mechanistic understanding of this process is still missing. Temperature is one of the most important driving factors. It can influence the mechanism through multiple ways, whose importance may vary with time. An incubation experiment is set up to study short-term temperature influences on soil microbial respiration and its evolution through time. Soil samples are taken in spring from the surface layer (0-25cm) of a bare agricultural loamy soil situated in Lonzée in Belgium (Hesbaye region) and are homogenized before being placed into incubators at three different temperatures, namely 5, 15 and 25°C. Temperature is regulated by Peltier systems that warm up or cool down a sand bath containing jars with soil samples. Once a week, incubation temperatures are increased and decreased by 5°C-steps, starting from each incubator temperature, to achieve a one-day temperature cycle between 5 and 35°C. CO2 flux measurements are performed at each temperature step by a closed dynamic chamber system, after the temperature has stabilized in the samples. Microbial biomass (C and N) is determined four times during the temperature cycle by the fumigation-extraction technique and soil labile carbon is measured at the beginning of each cycle by the hot-water extraction method. Moisture levels in soil samples are regularly checked and adjusted to keep optimal soil moisture content. Between CO2 flux measurements, jars are left open to ensure that anaerobic conditions do not occur. Further investigations could include an assessment of the importance of substrate availability and depletion on microbial activity, and a model development related to the results provided by this experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe changement climatique et ses impacts sur les forêts wallonnes. Recommandations aux décideurs et aux propriétaires et gestionnaires
Laurent, Christian; Perrin, Dominique; Bemelmans, Daniel et al

Report (2009)

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See detailMicrobial biomass and C and N transformations in forest floors under European beech, sessile oak, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir at four temperate forest sites
Malchair, Sandrine ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2009), 41

The purpose of this research was to compare soil chemistry, microbially mediated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations and microbial biomass in forest floors under European beech (Fagus sylvatica L ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this research was to compare soil chemistry, microbially mediated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations and microbial biomass in forest floors under European beech (Fagus sylvatica L), sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four study sites. We measured soil chemical characteristics, net N mineralization, potential and relative nitrification, basal respiration, microbial and metabolic quotient and microbial biomass C and N under monoculture stands at all sites (one mixed stand). Tree species affected soil chemistry, microbial activities and biomass. but these effects 'varied between sites. Our results indicated that the effect of tree species on net N mineralization was likely to be mediated through their effect on soil microbial biomass, reflecting their influence on organic matter content and carbon availability. Differences in potential nitrification and relative nitrification might be related to the presence of ground vegetation through its influence on soil NH4 and labile C availability. Our findings highlight the need to study the effects of tree species on microbial activities at several sites to elucidate complex N cycle interactions between tree species, ground vegetation, soil characteristics and microbial processes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPortfolio professionnel: Concordance entre objectifs, méthodes actives et évaluation: impact sur les approches de l'apprentissage des étudiants
Carnol, Monique ULg

Master's dissertation (2008)

Projet: Enseigner pour faire apprendre: Triple concordance et méthodes actives dans un cours de microbiologie de l'environnement L'objectif de ce projet était d'augmenter l'efficacité de mon enseignement ... [more ▼]

Projet: Enseigner pour faire apprendre: Triple concordance et méthodes actives dans un cours de microbiologie de l'environnement L'objectif de ce projet était d'augmenter l'efficacité de mon enseignement dans un cours de 'Introduction à la microbiologie environnementale' en améliorant l'apprentissage des étudiants. Afin d'atteindre ce but, j'ai transformé un cours, basé uniquement sur des exposés ex-cathedra, en un cours plus centré sur l'activité des étudiants. La nouvelle version du cours comprend des situations d'enseignement variées: exposés dits 'actifs' et trois modules thématiques, chacun ancré par une étude de cas (travail individuel, en groupe et coopératif). Afin de respecter la triple concordance, l'évaluation a été adaptée. Un support informatique (plateforme WebCT) fournit l'opportunité de discussions, de consultation de documents et d'effectuer des tests d'autoévaluation. Recherche: Quel impact des méthodes actives et de la triple concordance sur les approches de l'apprentissage des étudiants? L'objectif de cette recherche est de mesurer l'impact de différentes situations d'apprentissage (exposés dits 'actifs' et 3 études de cas) d'un cours où objectifs, méthodes et évaluation sont concordants, sur la perception des étudiants de cet apprentissage actif, l'impact sur les approches de l'apprentissage et les relations entre ces indicateurs. Les résultats indiquent qu'un enseignement devrait comprendre des situations d'apprentissage variées, afin de répondre à la diversité des styles d'apprentissage des étudiants. Une prise en compte des différences individuelles entre les étudiants dans le cadre d'approches multivariées permettrait d'investiguer les relations entre les variables et de dégager des stratégies d'enseignement visant à favoriser l'approche en profondeur. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production in experimental grasslands of different species richness during three years of climate warming
De Boeck, H. J.; Lemmens, CMHM; Zavalloni, C. et al

in Biogeosciences (2008), 5

Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have ... [more ▼]

Here we report on the single and combined impacts of climate warming and species richness on the biomass production in experimental grassland communities. Projections of a future warmer climate have stimulated studies on the response of terrestrial ecosystems to this global change. Experiments have likewise addressed the importance of species numbers for ecosystem functioning. There is, however, little knowledge on the interplay between warming and species richness. During three years, we grew experimental plant communities containing one, three or nine grassland species in 12 sunlit, climate-controlled chambers in Wilrijk, Belgium. Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient air temperatures (unheated), while the other half were warmed by 3 degrees C (heated). Equal amounts of water were added to heated and unheated communities, so that warming would imply drier soils if evapotranspiration was higher. Biomass production was decreased due to warming, both aboveground (-29%) and belowground (-25%), as negative impacts of increased heat and drought stress in summer prevailed. Complementarity effects, likely mostly through both increased aboveground spatial complementarity and facilitative effects of legumes, led to higher shoot and root biomass in multi-species communities, regardless of the induced warming. Surprisingly, warming suppressed productivity the most in 9-species communities, which may be attributed to negative impacts of intense interspecific competition for resources under conditions of high abiotic stress. Our results suggest that warming and the associated soil drying could reduce primary production in many temperate grasslands, and that this will not necessarily be mitigated by efforts to maintain or increase species richness. [less ▲]

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