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See detailEvaluation de la Teneur Sanguine en Sélénium dans le Sang des Vaches en Wallonie (Belgique)
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in 20ième Rencontre Recherches Ruminants (2013, December 04)

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See detailProceedings of the 3rd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire (2013)

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See detailDevelopment of a simplified measuring procedure for ammonia emission from agricultural constructions
Vranken, Erik; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Berckmans, Daniel

in Berckmans, D.; Vandermeulen, J. (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘13 (2013)

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See detailInfluence of permanent use of feeding stalls as living area on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions for group-housed gestating sows kept on straw deep-litter
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Livestock Science (2013), 155

In pig production, the interest for litter systems in relation with animal welfare and the ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows could promote the group-housing of ... [more ▼]

In pig production, the interest for litter systems in relation with animal welfare and the ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows could promote the group-housing of gestating sows on deep-litter. However, compared to slatted-floor systems, few data are available on the gaseous emissions associated with the different modalities of rearing sows on deep-litter. In this study, two modalities were compared: group housing on a 3 m2/sow deep-litter or on a 1.8 m2/sow deep-litter plus 1.2 m2/sow concrete floor. In both cases, sows were fed in individual feeding stalls (1.2 m2/stall) but the access was limited at feeding time in the first case and permanent in the second one. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were used. Each batch was divided into 2 homogeneous groups randomly allocated to one of two treatments: fully (3 m2/sow) or partly (1.8 m2/sow) straw-based deep-bedded floor. The groups were kept separately in two identical rooms with same volume and same surface, equipped with five individual feeding stalls in contact with a pen of either 9 or 15 m2 deep-litter. The feeding stalls were equipped with front feeding troughs and rear gates allowing or not permanent access to the stalls outside of feeding times. Between each batch, the pens were cleaned. In both rooms, ventilation was automatically adapted to maintain a constant ambient temperature. The gas emissions (nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapour) were measured 3 times (weeks 2, 5 and 8 of stay) during 6 consecutive days by infrared photoacoustic detection. Sow performance was not significantly affected by floor type. With sows kept on partly bedded floor, gaseous emissions were significantly greater for methane (12.76 vs. 9.90 g/d.sow; P<0.001), carbon dioxide (3.12 vs. 2.90 kg/d.sow; P<0.01) and water vapour (4.70 vs. 4.03 kg/d.sow; P<0.001), and significantly lower for nitrous oxide (3.14 vs. 6.12 g/d.sow; P<0.001) and CO2 equivalents (1.24 vs. 2.10 kg/d.sow; P<0.001) compared to sows housed on fully bedded floor. There was no significant difference for ammonia emissions (8.36 vs. 7.45 g/d.sow; P>0.05). From the present trial in experimental rooms, it can be concluded that keeping group-housed gestating sows on partly straw bedded floor with permanent access to the concrete feeding stalls compared to fully straw bedded floor did not significantly influence animal performance and NH3-emissions, and decreased CO2eq-emissions (-40%). This decrease was observed owing to an important decrease of N2O-emissions (-49%). [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Liège – Belgium)
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2012)

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See detailInfluence of dietary selenium enrichment on performance and chemical composition of meat in Belgian Blue Bulls
Mehdi, Youcef ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2012)

Selenium (Se) is a major structural component of various selenoproteins which contain a selenocysteine and a Se atom in their active site (except selenoprotein-P). They play an important role in many ... [more ▼]

Selenium (Se) is a major structural component of various selenoproteins which contain a selenocysteine and a Se atom in their active site (except selenoprotein-P). They play an important role in many functions, such as antioxidant defense and the formation of thyroid hormones. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions from fattening pigs offered an ad libitum high-fibre diet and kept on fully slatted floor: preliminary results
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; wavreille, José et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2012)

According to the literature, the diet composition of livestock can influence polluting gas emissions from agriculture. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure gaseous emissions from fattening ... [more ▼]

According to the literature, the diet composition of livestock can influence polluting gas emissions from agriculture. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure gaseous emissions from fattening pigs offered an ad libitum high-fibre diet (HFD) and kept on fully slatted floor. A batch of 24 fattening pigs was divided into two homogeneous groups randomly allocated to a treatment: conventional cereals-based diet or sugar beet pulpbased diet (HFD). With HFD, a significant decrease of animal performance was observed (837 vs. 962 g for the average daily gain). With pigs offered HFD, gaseous emissions per pig were significantly lower for NH3 (-30%, 6.64 vs. 9.47 g/d; P<0.05) and significantly greater for CH4 (+40%, 6.46 vs. 4.60 g/d; P<0.05). The emissions of N2O (0.34 g/d), CO2equivalent (0.27 kg/d), CO2 (1.68 kg/d) were not significantly influenced by the diet. Due to a more important microbial activity with HFD, the lower NH3-emissions could be attributed to the shift of a part of excreted nitrogen from urine (as urea) to faeces (as protein form), and to a lower slurry pH explained by the increase of volatile fatty acid content. The higher CH4-emissions could be explained by a greater production in the digestive tract and in the slurry due to fibre fermentations. In conclusion, HFD allowed decreasing NH3- and increasing CH4-emissions. However, in terms of climate change, this increase was offset by the decrease of indirect N2O-emissions due to NH3-emission decrease, as indicated by the similar CO2equivalent-emissions in the two groups. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions from fattening pigs offered an ad libitum high-fibre diet and kept on fully slatted floor: preliminary results
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Emissions of Gas and Dust from Livestock (2012)

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See detailAmmonia emissions associated to slatted floor and bedded floor systems for fattening pigs and gestating sows
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Emissions of Gas and Dust from Livestock (2012)

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See detailImpact of the floor type on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases from pig houses.
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2012)

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See detailEffets des fibres et du type de sol sur les émissions de gaz à effet de serre et d'ammoniac associées à l’élevage de truies
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in 44èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2012)

A study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary fibre content (23% of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) with a standard diet based on cereals vs. 44% of NSP with a fibrous diet based on sugar ... [more ▼]

A study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary fibre content (23% of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) with a standard diet based on cereals vs. 44% of NSP with a fibrous diet based on sugar beet pulp) and the floor type (slatted floor vs. straw-based deep litter) on emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and CO2-equivalents (Eq-CO2). Six successive batches of 10 gestating sows were divided into 2 groups kept in 2 experimental rooms differing by the floor type. The standard diet was administered to the sows of the first 3 batches, the fibrous diet to the sows of the next 3 batches. Emissions were measured by infra-red photoacoustic detection. With the slatted floor, the fibrous diet decreased NH3 emission (12.0 vs. 15.5 g sow-1.d-1) but increased the Eq-CO2 emissions (0.69 vs. 0.57 kg sow-1.d-1) in relation to an increase of CH4 emissions (18.4 vs. 12.8 g sow-1.d-1), the N2O emissions not being impacted by the diet, with value around 0.62 g sow-1.d-1. With the straw-bedded floor, the fibrous diet increased the emissions of NH3 (12.3 vs. 9.2 g sow-1.d-1) and CH4 (14.6 vs. 9.6 g sow-1.d-1) but decreased N2O emissions (0.99 vs. 1.64 g/ sow-1.d-1) with the consequence that Eq-CO2 emissions were similar for the two diets, around 0.74 kg sow-1.d-1. [less ▲]

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See detailAmmonia and greenhouse gas emissions during the fattening of pigs kept on two types of straw floor
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2012), 150

Pig production is an important contributor to polluting gases emissions like ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG). Apart from environmental aspects, animal welfare is also an issue of growing ... [more ▼]

Pig production is an important contributor to polluting gases emissions like ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG). Apart from environmental aspects, animal welfare is also an issue of growing importance. The fattening of pigs on deep litter bedded system is consider as more animal friendly than the fattening on slatted floor, but it is also more expensive and requests more labour. The use of straw flow rather than straw deep litter could be a good compromise because of a reduced need for surface area, straw, labour and manure storage, combined with satisfying animal welfare. In order to evaluate the environmental impact of this rearing technique, a study was designed to quantify pollutant gas emissions of this system compared to the deep litter system for fattening pigs. Three successive batches of 32 Landrace fattening pigs were used. They were divided into 2 homogeneous groups of 16 animals randomly allocated to two treatments: straw deep litter or straw flow. The groups were kept simultaneously for a period of 4 months and separately in two identical rooms in volume (103 m3) and surface (30.2 m2) and fitted either with a deep litter pen (1.2 m2/pig) or with a straw flow system (0.75 m2/pig). Throughout the fattening period, 46.9 and 34.4 kg straw were used respectively per pig. In deep litter pen, the litter was removed after each batch. In the straw flow pen, the straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. In both rooms, ventilation was automatically adapted to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapour (H2O) were measured continuously for 6 consecutive days by infra-red photoacoustic detection. Animal performance (final body weight, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio), some carcass quality parameters and manure characteristics were not significantly affected by floor type. With fattening pigs kept in a straw flow pen, gaseous emissions were significantly greater (P < 0.05) for NH3 (+10%) and significantly lower (P < 0.001) for N2O (−55%), CH4 (−46%), CO2 equivalents (−47%), CO2 (−10%) and H2O (−23%) compared to pigs housed on straw-based deep litter. Thus, the use of straw flow system for pig fattening allows reducing the GHG emissions but presents the disadvantage of increasing the NH3 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation morphométrique de chevaux de race barbe et dérivés en Algérie
Guedaoura, Sonya; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Moumene, A. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2011), 155

Le cheval barbe occupe une place de choix dans l’histoire, la culture et les traditions algériennes ; il est à la base des principales races équines maghrébines. Dix-neuf mensurations ont été réalisées ... [more ▼]

Le cheval barbe occupe une place de choix dans l’histoire, la culture et les traditions algériennes ; il est à la base des principales races équines maghrébines. Dix-neuf mensurations ont été réalisées sur 151 chevaux barbes et arabe-barbes, purs et présumés (origines incertaines), tous âgés de trois ans et plus. À partir de celles-ci, six indices corporels ont été calculés et le poids vif estimé. Les relevés de la robe et du profil céphalique ont également été effectués. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of dietary fibres on greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions associated to gestating sows
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Cabaraux, Jean-François; Delguste, Catherine; Frippiat, thibault (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium) (2011)

Usually, gestating sows are restrictedly-fed to prevent excessive body weight gain and fat deposition. However, feed restriction causes sustained feeding motivation resulting in stereotypic behaviour and ... [more ▼]

Usually, gestating sows are restrictedly-fed to prevent excessive body weight gain and fat deposition. However, feed restriction causes sustained feeding motivation resulting in stereotypic behaviour and impairment of animal welfare. High fibre diets (HFD) are known to reduce feeding motivation without impairments of performance but the effects of HFD on emissions of pollutant gases are very few studied. Thus, a study was carried out to compare the effect of two fibre contents (standard diet (STD) with 22% of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) vs. HFD with 44% of NSP) on emissions of ammonia (E-NH3), nitrous oxide (E-N2O), methane (E-CH4) and CO2-equivalents (E-EqCO2) associated to gestating sows. Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were divided into 2 homogeneous groups and randomly allocated to one of two treatments: STD vs. HFD. The groups were kept separately in two identical rooms equipped with a pen divided into a lying area with slatted floor and five individual feeding stalls with permanent access. Emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection. The HFD significantly decreased ENH3 (12.1 vs. 15.9 g/sow.day) but increased E-EqCO2 (0.68 vs. 0.47 kg/sow.day) in relation with an increase of E-CH4 (18.4 vs. 9.1 g/sow.day), E-N2O being not impacted by the diet, with value around 0.60 g/sow.day. So, the effects of HFD offered to gestating sows on slatted floor on environment seem conflicting with a decrease of NH3 emissions which mainly contribute to acidification of soils and waters and eutrophication, but an increase of CO2-quivalents emissions which contribute to greenhouse effect and climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailProceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Liège – Belgium)
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Frippiat, Thibault ULg et al

Book published by Presses de la Faculté de Médecine vétérinaire de l’Université de Liège (2011)

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See detailAmmonia emissions from pig houses: Influencing factors and mitigation techniques
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2011), 141(3-4), 245-260

Pig houses are important sources of ammonia (NH3) emissions. For decades, investigations were carried out in determine the influencing factors and to point out opportunities of mitigation. In Europe ... [more ▼]

Pig houses are important sources of ammonia (NH3) emissions. For decades, investigations were carried out in determine the influencing factors and to point out opportunities of mitigation. In Europe, current NH3 emissions associated to pig production are about 24% lower than in 1990. However, further reduction seems necessary to avoid noxious effects on ecosystems. The main factors influencing NH3 production are the floor type, the manure removal system, the climatic conditions inside the building, the diet composition and the feed efficiency of animals. In pig production, the main floor types are the slatted floor and the bedded floor systems. In both systems, numerous variants and adaptations can be found with consequently a range of emission levels for each housing condition. Therefore, decision in favour of a floor type as regards NH3 emissions is difficult, especially as effective reducing strategies are available for both systems. For litter-based systems, the nature and the amount of substrate greatly influence the NH3 production with usually lower emission in case of generous bedding. For slatted floor systems, most of the studies resulted in lower emissions with partly slatted floor on condition that the solid part of the floor remains clean. Indeed, hot conditions, high animal density or inadequate pen design can increase the soiling of the solid floor and lead to increased NH3 emissions. In any case, emissions are lower if concrete slats are replaced by smooth materials like iron cast, metal or plastic slats. Several slurry pit designs and manure removal strategies were developed to mitigate emissions. The reduction of the slurry pit surface thanks to sloped pit walls are related to proportional reductions of NH3 emissions. Frequent manure removal, flushing and separating urine from faeces by V-shaped scraper or conveyor belts reduce the NH3 releases from the buildings by about 50%. However, the emissions during the storage period outside the building have to be taken into account for a whole assessment of the technique. Climate conditions inside the building also influence the emissions which are positively correlated with ambient temperature and ventilation rate. Consequently, ammonia emissions present seasonal and nychtemeral patterns. But, reducing the NH3 production by modulation of the climate conditions is rather unpractical because the ambient parameters must primarily respect the bioclimatic requirements for animal comfort. A closer match between dietary intakes and requirement of the pigs according to the physiological and growth stage results in lower NH3 emissions. In this way, diets with reduced crude protein content are highly effective in reducing the emissions with almost a 10% reduction for every 10 g kg−1 reduction in dietary crude protein. Other dietary strategies are also effective in lowering emissions. Dietary fibre inclusion reduces NH3 emissions by about 40% by shifting the nitrogen from urine to faeces due to promotion of bacterial growth in the large intestine. Lowering the dietary electrolyte balance or supplementation with acidifying salts like benzoic acid or CaSO4 are related to significant reductions. Other feed additives like Yucca extract, zeolites, probiotics, humic substance or lactose were also validated by several experiments. Moreover, better feed efficiency obtained by genetic selection or modification of the hormonal status of the pigs is also related to reduced emissions. In conclusion, effective reduction of ammonia emissions from pig buildings can be reached operating both on housing conditions and feeding strategies. The former are very efficient but the assessment has to include the specificity of each system and involve the complete process. In some cases, investment and cost operating can hamper their development. Feeding strategies offer the advantage of being easy to implement and rapid to adapt function of particular circumstances. [less ▲]

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See detailAmmonia and greenhouse gas emission from group-housed gestating sows depends on floor type
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Wavreille, José et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2011), 140

The ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows and the renewed interest for litter systems could promote in the future the group-housing of gestating sows on litter. But what ... [more ▼]

The ban by 2013 in the EU of individual accommodations for gestating sows and the renewed interest for litter systems could promote in the future the group-housing of gestating sows on litter. But what are the environmental impacts of this rearing technique? To answer this question, a study was scheduled to quantify pollutant gas emissions (nitrous oxide -N2O-, methane -CH4-, carbon dioxide -CO2- and ammonia -NH3-) according to floor type in the raising of group-housed gestating sows. The trial was carried out in experimental rooms located at Liège University (Belgium). Three successive batches of 10 gestating sows were used for this trial. Each batch was divided into 2 homogeneous groups randomly allocated to one of two treatments: concrete slatted floor or straw-based deep litter. The groups were kept separately in two identical rooms equipped with a pen divided into a lying area (slatted floor or deep litter) and five individual feeding stalls. The feeding stalls were equipped with front feeding troughs and rear gates preventing access to the stalls outside of the feeding time. Between each batch of sows, the pens were cleaned. In both rooms, ventilation was automatically adapted to maintain a constant ambient temperature. The gas emissions were measured 3 times (weeks 2, 5 and 8 of stay) during 6 consecutive days by infra red photoacoustic detection. Sow performance (body weight gain, backfat thickness, number and weight of piglets) was not significantly affected by floor type. With sows kept on slatted floor, gaseous emissions were significantly greater for NH3 (12.77 vs. 9.05 g d-1 sow-1; P<0.001) and CH4 (10.12 vs. 9.20 g d-1 sow-1; P<0.01), and significantly lower for N2O (0.47 vs. 2.27 g d-1 sow-1; P<0.001), CO2 equivalents (0.44 vs. 0.94 kg d-1 sow-1; P<0.001) and CO2 (2.41 vs. 2.83 kg d-1 sow-1; P<0.001) compared to sows housed on straw-based deep litter. There was no significant difference for water vapour emissions (3.25 vs. 3.21 kg d-1 sow-1; P>0.05). In conclusion, the main environmental disadvantage of the deep litter system pointed to in this study was the greater N2O-emissions and thus greater CO2eq-emissions compared to slatted floor. However, the use of deep litter was related to reduced NH3- and CH4-emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la surface disponible et du type de sol sur les émissions gazeuses lors de l’élevage de truies gestantes
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Canart, Bernard et al

in 42èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2010)

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See detailEffects of available surface on gaseous emissions from group-housed gestating sows kept on deep litter
Philippe, François-Xavier ULg; Canart, Bernard; Laitat, Martine ULg et al

in Animal (2010), 4(10), 1716-1724

In the European Union, the group-housed pregnant sows have to have a minimal legal available area of 2.25m²/sow. However, it has been observed that an increased space allowance reduces agonistic behaviour ... [more ▼]

In the European Union, the group-housed pregnant sows have to have a minimal legal available area of 2.25m²/sow. However, it has been observed that an increased space allowance reduces agonistic behaviour and consecutive wounds and thus induces better welfare conditions. But, what about the environmental impacts of this greater available area? Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify pollutant gases emissions (nitrous oxide, N2O, methane, CH4, carbon dioxide, CO2 and ammonia, NH3), according to the space allowance in the raising of gestating sows group-housed on a straw-based deep litter. Four successive batches of 10 gestating sows were each divided into two homogeneous groups and randomly allocated to a treatment: 2.5 v. 3.0m²/sow. The groups were separately kept in two identical rooms. A restricted conventional cereals based diet was provided once a day in individual feeding stalls available only during the feeding time. Rooms were automatically ventilated. The gas emissions were measured by infra red photoacoustic detection during six consecutive days at the 6th, 9th and 12th weeks of gestation. Sows performance (body weight gain, backfat thickness, number and weight of piglets) was not significantly different according to the space allowance. In the room with 3.0m²/sow and compared with the room with 2.5m²/sow, gaseous emissions were significantly greater for NH3 (6.29 v. 5.37 g NH3-N/day per sow; P<0.01) and significantly lower for N2O (1.78 v. 2.48 g N2O-N/day per sow; P<0.01), CH4 (10.15 v. 15.21 g/day per sow; P<0.001), CO2 equivalents (1.11 v. 1.55 kg/day per sow; P<0.001), CO2 (2.12 v. 2.41 kg/day per sow; P,0<001) and H2O (3.10 v. 3.68 kg/day per sow; P<0.001). In conclusion, an increase of the available area for group-housed gestating sow kept on straw-based deep litter seems to be ambiguous on an environmental impacts point of view. Compared with a conventional and legal available area, it favoured NH3 emissions, probably due to an increased emitting surface. However, about greenhouse gases, it decreased N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions, probably due to reduced anaerobic conditions required for their synthesis, and led to a reduction of CO2 equivalents emissions. [less ▲]

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