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See detailOpportunities and challenges for the fresh straw mushroom value chain development in Vietnam
HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege; Helder, Jan et al

in VIII International Agriculture Symposium "AGROSYM 2017": book of abstracts (2017)

Straw mushroom sector has been strongly growing in Vietnam since last decade with more th an 64,500 tons/year of production. The development of the sector helps improving both farm household's income and ... [more ▼]

Straw mushroom sector has been strongly growing in Vietnam since last decade with more th an 64,500 tons/year of production. The development of the sector helps improving both farm household's income and the environment by reducing pollution from rice straw buming at the end of the rice cuItivation season. Basing on the potential of the sector, Vietnamese govemment issued an agricultural development programme in 2010 in which mushrooms will be the focus to develop as one of five national strategie commodities. ln order to help the sector reaching this goal and growing more sustainably, the study was carried out in 2014 and 2016 to identify its opportunities and challenges by analysing stakeholders in the fresh straw mushroom value chain. The study was carried out through different meetings among the main actors of the straw mushroom value chain in August 2014 in Can Tho and in 2016 in Dong Nai province, Vietnam, to get opinions of target groups, key persons, as weil as information conceming the aims of the study. An analysis of the main stakeholders was conducted to identify opportunities and challenges for the sector to grow more sustainably. Low investment costs, depending on production scale, quickly received income circle, low land and labour effort use are the main opportunities for farmers while limited use of improved productionlprocessing technologies, limited production due to the seasonal character and c1imatic conditions are the main challenges for the other stakeholders of straw mushroom value chain. To enhance the use of hi-technology in production, preservation and processing and to build a brand for the Vietnamese straw mushroom are proposed to improve the current issues of the sector. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent evolution of the consumption of organic food products in Belgium
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in VIII International Agriculture Symposium "AGROSYM 2017" : book of abstracts (2017)

The consumption of organic food products in Belgium increased significantly and continuously between 2008 and 2016, growing from 1.5 % to 3.2% of the total consumers' expenses for fresh food products ... [more ▼]

The consumption of organic food products in Belgium increased significantly and continuously between 2008 and 2016, growing from 1.5 % to 3.2% of the total consumers' expenses for fresh food products. Nine percent of Belgian families buy organic food products at least once per week and represent 60% of the total expenses. The total expenses per capita reached nearly 33€ in 2015. The main expenses concerned dairy products (6.72 €/capita), vegetables (5.57) and fruits (4.40). These expenses have been globally increasing. The market share of organic products considerably varies from one type of food products to another: it is the highest for meat substitutes (24.6% in 2016) and eggs (14.0%), while it reaches 3.0% for dairy products, 6.6% for vegetables and 4.3% for fruits. These percentages have been globally increasing during the last years. Vegetable products have been proportionally more sold th an animal products compared to the situation in the conventional market. Supermarkets and specialized shops are the most common distribution channels, direct sales on farms and open markets remaining marginal. Families with high income and children and retired people with high income are those who spend the most on organic food products. This evolution is supported by the Walloon government through the organic farming development plan. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable Development Implementation In Poland And In Other Member States Of The European Union
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Gaziński, Benon; Nieżurawski, Lech et al

in Torun Business Review (2017), 16(2), 5-17

In this paper, with the use of selected headline indicators, an attempt was made to analyse the performance of sustainable development in Poland and in other EU Member States. An analysis and assessment ... [more ▼]

In this paper, with the use of selected headline indicators, an attempt was made to analyse the performance of sustainable development in Poland and in other EU Member States. An analysis and assessment of headline sustainable development indicators for EU-28 in the years 2004-2015 was made and Eurostat served as a source of required data. During this period, Poland has been obliged to meet a number of the Union criteria and received financial support from the EU budget. A ranking of countries has been proposed, reflecting their progress in the implementation of sustainable development, depicting the place occupied by Poland. [less ▲]

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See detailZnaczenie informacji w ocenie poziomu wdrazania koncepcji zrównowazonego rozwoju w krajach Unii Europejskie (na podstawie wybranych wskaznikow
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Gazinsky, Benon

in INFO 2017 XI Konferencja z cyklu : informacja w spoleczenstwie XXI Wieku, Olsztyn, 21-22 czerwca 2017 r. (2017)

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See detailContract farming application in the Vietnamese shrimp value chain
Thi Minh Ho, Hop; Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) Conference proceedings of 2nd International Conference of Development & Economy (ICODECON) (2017)

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. The stay in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and low ... [more ▼]

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. The stay in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and low skills (Ho, 2012). As a leader and holding the strongest power in the shrimp value chain, the processors determine shrimp prices and set up requirements of shrimp quality and size in the market though quality control has not been completely implemented due to the limitations of financial capital, knowledge, awareness, as well as the quality of raw material supplied by collectors and farmers. In order to help the shrimp sector to work more efficiently, the Vietnamese government brought together shrimp farmers and plant processors through a farming contract. Two years after this application, the contract farming model failed due to the floor price mechanism, risk sharing, small scale of the model while there are excess suppliers in the market, administrative misconception and inefficient public management. As a result, farmers still stay at the weakest position and the shrimp sector could not improve its product safety to adapt to the requirement of import markets. The study results recommend necessarily a planning and projection of shrimp production zones, re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups or coopératives to increase the size of the existing shrimp cultivation units in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to environmental pressure: the role of agriculture in Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Ozunu, Alexandru; Nistor, Ioan Alin; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina (Eds.) et al Resilient society: multidisciplinary contributions from economic, law, policy, engineering, agriculture and life science fields (2017)

Agriculture is under environmental pressure since its modernization, mainly after the Second World War, which generated the use of large quantities of chemical products as pesticides and fertilizers ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is under environmental pressure since its modernization, mainly after the Second World War, which generated the use of large quantities of chemical products as pesticides and fertilizers. However, during the three last décades, the preservation of the quality of the environment progressively became a priority of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and different measures were successively implemented, some of them being compulsory and other ones not, or not yet. This paper focuses on the implementation of agricultural Policy measures at the regional level of Wallonia, the Southern part of Belgium, a founder state of the European Union. Three aspects are presented and analyzed: (1) the greening of the CAP, through the so-called "green payment" and its conséquences (permanent pasture maintenance, crop diversification, and the establishment of ecological focus areas); (2) the development of organic farming; and (3) the increasing number of specific quality labels. The paper argues that, supported by the CAP and the Walloon regional government through financial, research, education, extension, and advertising measures, the Walloon agriculture is farmed on the direction toward a more sustainable model, a more resilient onte to environnemental pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailResilient society: multidisciplinary contributions from economic, law, policy, engineering, agriculture and life sciences fields
Ozunu, Alexandru; Nistor, Ioan Alin; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina et al

Book published by Les Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux ; Bioflux (2017)

The human imprint on the environment is clearly visible under globalization, whatever is about resources extraction, goods production, or consumption. All these deeply impact on every environmental ... [more ▼]

The human imprint on the environment is clearly visible under globalization, whatever is about resources extraction, goods production, or consumption. All these deeply impact on every environmental component, such as forests, agricultural land resources, freshwater, and air quality, because of the need to provide shelter, food, water, or energy to a population of more than seven billion people. How to manage the trade-offs between immediate human needs and to maintain the environment capacity to provide goods and services in the long term seems to be the Earth’s epic “neverending story”. Therefore, the book “Resilient Society” is intended as an attempt to find several answers to the quest of how to become more resilient to environmental, social, or economic pressure. In this context, resilience is understood as the ability to adapt to or tolerate disturbance without collapsing into a qualitatively different state. The volume articulates within a multidisciplinary approach the study of resilience and vulnerability of socio-ecological systems in an effort to disclose the conditions that lead to changes in environmental and resource regimes. This first volume entitled “Resilent Society” of the series “Environment and Human Action” gathers contributions presented at the “International Conference Environmental Legislation, Safety Engineering and Disaster Management” (ELSEDIMA), held on May 26-28, 2016, in Cluj-Napoca (Romania), as well as other papers. This editorial activity aims at contributing to the enlargement of multidisciplinary knowledge and collaborations among researchers working in different fields that can contribute to increasing resilience of socio-ecological systems. The book covers diverse but partially overlapping research areas across natural sciences, social sciences, and engineering, thus capturing insights from economic, law, policy, engineering, agricultural, and life sciences areas. Such knowledge enables to gain a holistic view on the environmental and social challenges that shall constitute a common ground for stakeholders and policy-makers. The editors have confidence that this volume dedicated to resilience will serve as a roadmap for future research and as a catalyst for dialog within scientific community about how to address the environmental interrogations where human actions play a crucial role in shaping the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailPortrait et durabilité de différentes voies de valorisations des ressources céréalières wallonnes. Résultats extraits du projet ALT-4-CER
Van Stappen, Florence; Delcour, Alice ULiege; Decruyenaere, Virginie et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Watillon, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales : 1967-2017 : 50 ans de partenariat entre agriculteurs et chercheurs. Edition février 2017 (2017)

Cet article a pour but de communiquer de manière succincte les résultats du projet ALT-4-CER, financé par le Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (CRA-W) sur base des fonds de la loi de ... [more ▼]

Cet article a pour but de communiquer de manière succincte les résultats du projet ALT-4-CER, financé par le Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques (CRA-W) sur base des fonds de la loi de défiscalisation des institutions de recherches Moerman. Ce projet s'est déroulé de mars 2011 à juillet 2015. Le projet comportait les objectifs suivants : (1) dresser un portrait des utilisations actuelles des céréales wallonnes ; (2) élaborer des scénarios originaux d'évaluations possibles de l'utilisation des céréales wallonnes en concertation avec le secteur wallon ; (3) évaluer, sur base d'analyses du cycle de vie (ACV), les impacts environnementaux (et socio-économiques, disponibles mais non repris dans cet article) de la production et la transformation des céréales wallonnes selon des exemples de filières de valorisation. L'article présente des informations, extraites des résultats du projet, sur le portrait en 2010 de la valorisation des céréales wallonnes et sur l'estimation de l'impact environnemental de la production de céréales en Wallonie. Il se limite à donner les conclusions et messages-clés de l'étude sur la construction de scénarios possibles d'évolution de l'utilisation des céréales wallonnes d'une part et, d'autre part, sur l'utilisation des céréales pour la production d'énergie. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic farming and the greening of the Common Agricultural Policy made Walloon agriculture become more environment friendly in 2015
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Mălina

in Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai Ambientum (2016), LXI(December 1-2), 15-24

In Wallonia, organic farming continues to increase its share of agricultural activities, the number of organic farmers exceeding for the first time 10% of the total number of farmers in 2014, with 8.6% of ... [more ▼]

In Wallonia, organic farming continues to increase its share of agricultural activities, the number of organic farmers exceeding for the first time 10% of the total number of farmers in 2014, with 8.6% of the total agricultural area. Meadows represent 83% of the organic areas, general crops 15% and vegetables 1%. The number of cattle heads is still increasing, while poultry and laying hen recorded a significant progress during the last years. Organic products consumption is also increasing and the market share of organic products in food products reached 2.3% in 2014. On the other hand, the implementation of the new Common Agricultural Policy, and particularly its green payment, obliges 50% of Walloon farmers to practice crop diversification and 46% to have at least 5% of ecological focus area within their arable land in 2015, which represents more than 24,000 ha. So, organic farming and ecological focus areas do have today a significant share of the Walloon agricultural area, leading to a more sustainable agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailAgriculture towards a more sustainable development: the case of Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Svatos, Miroslav et al. (Ed.) International Scientific Conference Agrarian Perspectives XXV "Global and European Challenges for Production, Agribusiness and the Rural Economy", Prague, Czech Republic, September 14-16, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

The new Common Agricultural Policy defined in 2013 and implemented since 2015 created the so-called "green payment" and also supports organic farming and origin-labelled products in order to produce more ... [more ▼]

The new Common Agricultural Policy defined in 2013 and implemented since 2015 created the so-called "green payment" and also supports organic farming and origin-labelled products in order to produce more sustainable agricultural activities. This paper analyses the impact of the green payment on Walloon agriculture in 2015 and the evolution of organic farming and origin-labelled products in the South of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Wave in Romania: Organic Food. Consumers’ Motivations, Perceptions and Habits
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Burny, Philippe ULiege et al

in Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems (2016)

The study draws the profile of Romanian consumers of organic food, based on a probabilistic survey and adopting an original approach—a dual focus on certified and uncertified organic products. Uncertified ... [more ▼]

The study draws the profile of Romanian consumers of organic food, based on a probabilistic survey and adopting an original approach—a dual focus on certified and uncertified organic products. Uncertified organic food (from farmers’ market or self-production) is considered to be more “organic” than certified organic food. While consumers are strongly oriented towards organic food (certified or uncertified) and driven by health concerns and taste, they are primarily deterred by price and lack of availability. Results advocate that consumers’ extended and positive evaluations of uncertified organics represent the link that could initiate the behavioral transition from conventional to certified organic food, being the premise for the development of a sustainable market. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam
Ho Thi Minh, Hop; Burny, Philippe ULiege

in International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (2016), 9(2), 93-98

Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the ... [more ▼]

Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004) showed the different levels of coordination of farmers with collectors, among collectors, and collectors with processing plants. In this type of governance, trust and linkages are inextricably linked. However, they are not strong. The processing plants determine shrimp prices and quality requirement in the market while many collectors do not seem to be highly responsible for the quality of their products. To avoid this limitation, with the governmental support policy to improve farmers’ income, the processing plants set up a direct buying from farmers under contracts. These contracts led to a new governance type with an expectation of improving farmers’ position. However, this model was broken due to several reasons including un-controlled shrimp raw material from small scale and individual farmers. Consequently, processors now tend to establish their own raw material zone to comply shrimp quality assurance, and eject the existence of farmers. This will lead small scale farmers to very difficult problems in finding the market. Poverty and social problems of small scale farmers might appear. The result recommends a greater strengthening and tightening of the value chain. Re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups that help farmers to re-participate in the game with others actor in the chain is crucial. Research limitations/implications - The research mainly follows inductive approach in which qualitative methods are dominant due to the difficulties of data collection for the quantitative analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailContract farming application in the Vietnamese shrimp value chain
Ho, T. M. H.; Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 2nd International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 9-12 June 2016 : book of abstracts (2016)

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. They stayed in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and ... [more ▼]

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. They stayed in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and low skills [1]. As a leader and holding the strongest power in the shrimp value chain, the processors determine shrimp prices and set up requirements of shrimp quality and size in the market though quality control has not been completely implemented due to the limitations of financial capital, knowledge, awareness, as well as the quality of raw material supplied by collectors and farmers. In order to help the shrimp sector working more efficiently, the Vietnamese government brought together shrimp farmers and plant processors through a farming contract. Two years after this application, the contract farming model failed due to the floor price mechanism, risk sharing, small scale of the model while there are excess suppliers in the market, administrative misconception and inefficient public management. As a result, farmers still stay at the weakest position and the shrimp sector could not improve its product safety to adapt the requirement of import markets. The study results recommend necessarily a planning and projection of shrimp production zones, re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups or cooperatives to increase the size of the existing shrimp cultivation units in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a more sustainable development model in Belgium: the role of organic farming
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 2nd International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 9-12 June 2016 : book of abstracts (2016)

During the last years, organic farming considerably developed in Belgium. In 2014, it represented 5% of the total agricultural area and 4.5% of the number of farms [1]. Organic farming is mainly developed ... [more ▼]

During the last years, organic farming considerably developed in Belgium. In 2014, it represented 5% of the total agricultural area and 4.5% of the number of farms [1]. Organic farming is mainly developed in Wallonia where its share of the agricultural area exceeded 10% in 2014. Pastures for bovine production (meat and milk) and general crops (mainly cereals) are the most common cultivated areas. Poultry, eggs and vegetables recorded the highest increases. This success is partly the result of a strategic plan for the development of organic farming in Wallonia towards 2020 [2] and of remarkable financial support for the farmers [3]. More than 8,400 food and non-food organic products are available for the consumers. The number of prepared and processed food products is increasing. The market share of food organic products is still low, but continuously increasing: 1.3% in 2008, 2.3% in 2014. Remarkably, the expenses for organic food products still increased by 50% in 2014, while the total expenses for common food products declined for the first time since many years. The most important expenses per capita concern dairy products (5.40€), vegetables (4.74€), fruits (3.71€) and bovine and pork meat (2.84€). The main locations where food organic products are bought are supermarkets (45%) and specialized shops (31%). Families with children and high income and retired people with high income count for more than 5% of the expenses for organic food, while single persons aged over 40 are the category which spend the highest share of its income (4.1%) for organic food. In such conditions, organic farming is an important topic of the strategic plan for sustainable development presently proposed for discussion to the Walloon citizens. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to environmental pressure through quality food demand. The case of Romania
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Babes-Bolyai University (Ed.) 11th International Conference on "Environmental Legislation, Safety Engineering and Disaster Management": book of abstracts (2016)

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an ... [more ▼]

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an indicator of the population welfare degree and it is often used in assessing the food safety. The novelty lies in the investigation of meat consumption hindering factors, with a special emphasis on those related to the environmental protection. The main research objective was to evaluate the importance attached by consumers to meat products safety in order to develop resilience to environmental pressure through quality food production and consumption. Statistical analysis revealed the interest in meat free-off antibiotics, hormones and no genetically modified. From a pratical perspective, the results indicate directions that policy-making should follow to adapt the production sector to the market demands, along with promoting a more sustainable consumption pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic farming and the greening of the common Agricultural Policy made Walloon agriculture become more environment friendly in 2015
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina

in Babes-Bolyai University (Ed.) 11th International Conference on "Environmental Legislation, Safety Engineering and Disaster Management": book of abstracts (2016)

In Wallonia, organic farming continues to increase its share of agricultural activities, the number of organic farmers exceeding for the first time 10% of the total number of farmers in 2014, with 8.6% of ... [more ▼]

In Wallonia, organic farming continues to increase its share of agricultural activities, the number of organic farmers exceeding for the first time 10% of the total number of farmers in 2014, with 8.6% of the total agricultural area. Meadows represent 83% of the organic areas, general crops 15% and vegetables 1%. The number of cattle heads is still increasing, while poultry and laying hen recorded a significant progress during the last years. Organic products consumption is also increasing and the market share of organic products in food products reached 2.3% in 2014. On the other hand, the implementation of the new Common Agricultural Policy, and particularly its green payment, obliges 50% of Walloon farmers to practice crop diversification and 46% to have at least 5% of ecological focus area within their arable land in 2015, which represents more than 24,000 ha. So, organic farming and ecological focus areas do have today a significant share of the Walloon agricultural area, leading to a more sustainable agriculture. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude d’impact et appui à la mise en œuvre de la nouvelle reforme de la PAC au niveau wallon : rapport final
Terrones Gavira, François ULiege; Burny, Philippe ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

Report (2016)

La PAC, définie dans le traité de Rome et mise en oeuvre depuis 1962, est soumise, depuis le début des années 90, à un processus de réforme afin de répondre aux nouveaux défis de l’agriculture européenne ... [more ▼]

La PAC, définie dans le traité de Rome et mise en oeuvre depuis 1962, est soumise, depuis le début des années 90, à un processus de réforme afin de répondre aux nouveaux défis de l’agriculture européenne mais également afin d’honorer les engagements pris par l'Union européenne (UE) dans le cadre de ses relations commerciales internationales. Le 18 novembre 2010, la Commission européenne a publié une communication sur la PAC de l’après 2013, suivie le 12 octobre 2011 de propositions législatives, lançant de longues négociations entre le Conseil européen des Ministres de l’Agriculture et, pour la première fois de l’histoire de la PAC, le Parlement européen, nouveau co-législateur pour cette matière. En parallèle aux négociations sur la PAC se déroulaient celles relatives au cadre financier pluriannuel 2014-2020 (CFP). Ce dernier fixe non seulement les montants des ressources financières pour chaque catégorie de dépenses de l’UE mais également inclut des décisions sur des éléments importants des politiques elles-mêmes dont celles relatives à la PAC. Après plus de 18 mois de négociations budgétaires, les chefs d’Etat de chaque Etat membre (EM) sont parvenus à un accord concernant le CFP 2014-2020 lors du conseil européen des 7 et 8 février 2013. Peu de temps après cet accord budgétaire, le Conseil Agriculture, le Parlement européen et la Commission européenne ont abouti à un accord sur les Règlements relatifs à la PAC le 26 juin 2013, complété le 24 septembre 2013. Un des résultats du nouveau Règlement « Paiements directs », négocié entre les 28 EM et le Parlement européen, est une nouvelle architecture des paiements directs ainsi qu’un nombre très important de choix stratégiques à prendre par les EM, et dans le cas de la Belgique, les Régions, qui doivent choisir parmi différentes options qui restent ouvertes par la réglementation européenne. La plupart des choix politiques des EM et régions ont dû être notifiées à la Commission européenne pour le 1er août 2014, certains choix un peu plus tardivement (les dernières décisions, plus techniques, devaient être notifiées pour le 31 janvier 2015). [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the green payment within the scheme of the new Common Agricultural Policy (2015-2020): first results for 2015 in Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Terrones Gavira, François ULiege

in Quality-Access to Success (2016), (Supplement), 10-14

At the end of 2013, a new Common Agricultural Policy was defined at the European level, including the implementation of the so-called “green payment”, which obliges farmers to respect three new conditions ... [more ▼]

At the end of 2013, a new Common Agricultural Policy was defined at the European level, including the implementation of the so-called “green payment”, which obliges farmers to respect three new conditions in order to get financial support through direct payments. The year 2015 being the first implementation year, the consequences on Walloon agriculture are examined. It appears that 50% of Walloon farmers are not obliged to practice crop diversification, while 16% are obliged to have at least two crops on their arable land and 33% are obliged to have at least three crops on their arable land. Less than 1% does not respect the new diversification rules. Concerning the obligation to have at least 5% of ecological focus area on the arable land, it appears that 54% of Walloon farmers are in conditions not to be obliged to respect the measure. When they implement the measure, the percentage of ecological focus areas in arable land reaches 6.9% as a mean and 2.4% do not reach the requested 5%. Finally, it can be said that the green payment does not represent a big constraint for Walloon farmers, though eventual economic consequences are still to be precised, while environmental benefits are strengthened. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of the new Common Agricultural Policy (2015-2020) on the value of direct payments and on farmers’ income in Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege; Terrones Gavira, François ULiege

in Kyriazopoulos, G.; Petropoulos, D. (Eds.) 1st International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 2-4 October 2015: The advantages and disadvantages of Economic Crises: Conference proceedings (2016)

A new Common Agricultural Policy was defined in 2013, with a new structure for direct payment. In Wallonia, the government implemented the following scheme: 30% for the green payment, 29.9% for the basic ... [more ▼]

A new Common Agricultural Policy was defined in 2013, with a new structure for direct payment. In Wallonia, the government implemented the following scheme: 30% for the green payment, 29.9% for the basic payment, 17% for the additional payment for the first 30 ha, 1.8% for young farmers and 21.3% for couple payments. Due to convergence, the mean support through direct payments will decline from 21,900 € in 2014 to 19,283 € in 2019. The number of losers will be equivalent to the number of gainers. Regions where cereals and sugar beet are produced will lose the most, where the region suitable for cattle raising will gain somewhat. There will be a better distribution of direct payments among farmers: the Gini index will decline from 0.55 to 0.49. The highest negative impact on income will occur for the specialties “green crops”, “crops and dairy cattle” and “crops and non-dairy cattle”: the least negative impact will be observed within the specialties “dairy cattle”, “meat cattle” and “dairy and meat cattle”. The reform will be more profitable for the farms from 30 to 50 ha and will mainly impact the largest farms. Finally, the CAP reform implemented in Wallonia guarantees a smooth evolution to 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailA new index to measure the human well-being in Wallonia and its communes (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 1st International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 2-4 October 2015: The advantages and disadvantages of Economic Crises: Conference proceedings (2016)

In 2012, the Walloon Government ordered the Walloon Institute for Prospective, Evaluation and Statistics (IWEPS) to calculate five indexes in order to guide and evaluate the public actions, together with ... [more ▼]

In 2012, the Walloon Government ordered the Walloon Institute for Prospective, Evaluation and Statistics (IWEPS) to calculate five indexes in order to guide and evaluate the public actions, together with the GDP. The index for the conditions of human well-being (CWBI) is presently the first step in the elaboration of the wellbeing index. The methodology is the one used by the Council of Europe. Actually, the CWBI is calculated by using 60 basic indicators, gathered into 8 families. After normalisation, the CWBI is the arithmetic mean of the 60 basic indicators, each of them having the same weight. The CWBI was calculated for the 262 communes of Wallonia and varies from 0.428 to 0.674, with a regional mean of 0.572. An opposition between urban and rural communes clearly appears, the last ones having the best scores. Communes along the borders of Germany and Luxemburg have the highest indexes, while communes in the old industrial areas have the lowest scores. Employment, income, family relations and security are the factors which are the most narrowly linked to the CWBI. At the communal level, social and security expenses per capita have a significant and negative correlation coefficient with the CWBI. In the future, in order to elaborate a finer index, new data, up to now not directly available, will be collected at the communal level, about quantitative and qualitative aspects. [less ▲]

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