References of "Brichant, Jean-François"
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See detailDo canine scalene and sternomastoid muscles play a role in breathing?
De Troyer, A.; Cappello, M.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1994), 76(1), 242-52

To assess the respiratory function of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in the dog, we studied the effect of graded increases in inspiratory airflow resistance and single-breath airway occlusion on ... [more ▼]

To assess the respiratory function of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in the dog, we studied the effect of graded increases in inspiratory airflow resistance and single-breath airway occlusion on the electrical activity of these muscles in 18 supine anesthetized spontaneously breathing animals. The sternomastoids never showed any activity, and the scalenes showed some inspiratory activity during occlusion in only two animals. The adoption of the prone position and bilateral cervical vagotomy did not affect this pattern. Hypercapnia also did not elicit any sternomastoid activity and induced scalene inspiratory activity during occlusion in only four of nine animals. On microscopic examination, however, both muscles were found to contain large numbers of spindles, suggesting that they have the capacity to respond to stretch. In addition, with increases in inspiratory resistance, both the sternum and ribs were displaced in the caudal direction. As a result, the scalenes demonstrated a gradual inspiratory lengthening and the normal inspiratory lengthening of the sternomastoids was accentuated. Additional studies in three unanesthetized animals showed consistent activity in the scalene and sternomastoid muscles during movements of the trunk and neck but no activity during breathing, including occluded breathing. These observations thus indicate that the alpha-motoneurons of the scalene and sternomastoid muscles in the dog have very small central respiratory drive potentials with respect to their critical firing threshold. In this animal, these muscles do not have a significant respiratory function. [less ▲]

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See detailHématome extradural cervical spontané de la femme enceinte
Mahieu, X.; Kridelka, Frédéric ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (1994), 23(1), 99-102

Spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas are rare entities, especially during pregnancy. The authors report a case of a 26 years old women who developed as Brown-Sequard syndrome during pregnancy. The ... [more ▼]

Spontaneous spinal extradural hematomas are rare entities, especially during pregnancy. The authors report a case of a 26 years old women who developed as Brown-Sequard syndrome during pregnancy. The patient underwent first a caesarean and thereafter a prompt spinal surgical decompression. Complete sensory-motor recovery occurred after 48 hours. Differential diagnosis of cord compression, etiology of bleeding, conditions of recovery after surgery are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between Alprazolam and Hydroxyzine for Oral Premedication
Franssen, Colette ULg; Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien d'Anesthésie (1993), 40(1), 13-7

The safety and efficacy of alprazolam and hydroxyzine administered orally as surgical premedicants were compared in a double-blind controlled study. Sixty-five patients were given either alprazolam 1 mg ... [more ▼]

The safety and efficacy of alprazolam and hydroxyzine administered orally as surgical premedicants were compared in a double-blind controlled study. Sixty-five patients were given either alprazolam 1 mg or hydroxyzine 75 mg, one to two hours before surgery. Anxiety was assessed by both the patient and the anaesthetist, the patient using a visual analogue scale, the anaesthetist employing both analogue and ordinal ratings. Sedation was assessed by the anaesthetist only, using the same two methods. Amnesia was appraised with a simple memory test. Safety was assessed by recording adverse effects and measuring haemodynamic variables. Premedication with alprazolam produced a modest reduction in anxiety (28%) (P < 0.01) while hydroxyzine had no detectable effect. The comparison of the sedation level and of the memory test revealed no difference between the two premedicants. Minor side effects were only observed in the hydroxyzine group. Changes in blood pressure were more pronounced in the hydroxyzine group. This study shows that alprazolam and hydroxyzine are safe and efficient oral premedicants. However, alprazolam is preferable to hydroxyzine in terms of anxiolytic and adverse effects. [less ▲]

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See detailRespiratory response to abdominal and rib cage muscle paralysis in dogs.
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Gorini, Massimo; De Troyer, André

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1993), 74(5), 2309-17

To assess the respiratory response to abdominal and rib cage muscle paralysis, we measured tidal volume, esophageal and gastric pressures, arterial blood gases, and the electromyogram (EMG) of the ... [more ▼]

To assess the respiratory response to abdominal and rib cage muscle paralysis, we measured tidal volume, esophageal and gastric pressures, arterial blood gases, and the electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm during progressive epidural anesthesia (lidocaine 2%) in 35 supine anesthetized dogs. The EMG activity of the diaphragm was measured with fine-wire electrodes; the abdominal cavity was thus left intact. Paralysis of the abdominal muscles alone did not produce any alterations. In contrast, when all rib cage muscles were also paralyzed, there were substantial increases in the peak height and the rate of rise of diaphragmatic EMG activity that were associated with a decrease in tidal volume and an increase in arterial PCO2 (PaCO2); swings in transdiaphragmatic pressure, however, were unchanged. The increased diaphragmatic activation due to rib cage muscle paralysis persisted after bilateral cervical vagotomy and was well explained by the increased PaCO2. These observations indicate that in the dog 1) the rib cage muscles contribute significantly to tidal volume, and their paralysis causes, through the increased hypercapnic drive, a compensatory increase in diaphragmatic activation; and 2) the rib cage inspiratory muscles enhance the diaphragm's ability to generate pressure during breathing. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidural anesthesia and intrathoracic blood volume.
Warner, David O; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Ritman, Erik L et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1993), 77(1), 135-40

To investigate how epidural anesthesia changes intrathoracic gas volume, high epidural anesthesia was administered to five pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, and the total intrathoracic volume ... [more ▼]

To investigate how epidural anesthesia changes intrathoracic gas volume, high epidural anesthesia was administered to five pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, and the total intrathoracic volume at end-expiration was measured with a high-speed three-dimensional x-ray scanner. The amount of gas in the lungs at end-expiration [the functional residual capacity (FRC)] was measured with a nitrogen washout technique, and the intrathoracic tissue volume, including the intrathoracic blood volume, was calculated as the difference between intrathoracic volume at end-expiration and FRC. High epidural anesthesia with the local anesthetic etidocaine to a T-1 myotomal level significantly (P < 0.05) increased intrathoracic volume at end-expiration [76 +/- 35 mL (M +/- SD)] by significantly increasing both intrathoracic tissue volume (33 +/- 15 mL) and FRC (43 +/- 26 mL). Increases in intrathoracic tissue volume were probably caused by increases in intrathoracic blood volume. We conclude that increases in FRC caused by epidural anesthesia in anesthetized dogs lying supine may be minimized by a concurrent increase in intrathoracic blood volume. These results suggest that measurements of thoracic gas volume alone may be insufficient to describe chest wall responses to epidural anesthesia. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalgesic Efficiency of Propacetamol Hydrochlorid after Lumbar Disc Surgery
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1993), 44(4), 129-33

The influence of intravenous propacetamol hydrochlorid administration on postoperative analgesia and intramuscular opioid consumption was assessed in a randomized placebo-controlled study. Fourty patients ... [more ▼]

The influence of intravenous propacetamol hydrochlorid administration on postoperative analgesia and intramuscular opioid consumption was assessed in a randomized placebo-controlled study. Fourty patients scheduled for lumbar disc surgery were randomly allocated to two groups. They were given either propacetamol 2 g or saline every 6 hours, starting at the end of procedure for a 24 hours period. The pain intensity (VAS) was not significantly different between the two groups except 3 and 4 hours after surgery, where it was higher in the paracetamol group. The cumulative narcotic consumption (piritramide on request) was higher in the placebo group from 6 hours till 9 hours after surgery but not significantly different after 24 hours. Piritramide administration decreased VAS score significantly in both groups while propacetamol reduced it in a significant way only when given from 12 hours after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailReversal of Neurological Deficit with Naloxone: An Additional Report
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Longerstay, E. et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (1992), 18(6), 362-3

We report the repeated improvement in neurological function following naloxone administration in a patient who developed acute hemiplegia after an intracranial neurological procedure. The mechanisms ... [more ▼]

We report the repeated improvement in neurological function following naloxone administration in a patient who developed acute hemiplegia after an intracranial neurological procedure. The mechanisms responsible for the neurological deficit and for its reversal by naloxone are discussed. A review of the literature suggests that the beneficial effect of naloxone can result from an improvement in haemodynamic status or from metabolic effects that could be favorable during cerebral ischaemia. [less ▲]

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See detailAnesthésie loco-régionale et système respiratoire
Brichant, Jean-François ULg

in Conférences d'actualisation en Anesthésie-Réanimation (1992)

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See detailEffets de l'anesthésie péridurale sur le système respiratoire
Brichant, Jean-François ULg

Doctoral thesis (1991)

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See detailHalothane, enflurane, and isoflurane depress the peripheral vagal motor pathway in isolated canine tracheal smooth muscle.
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Gunst, Susan J; Warner, David O et al

in Anesthesiology (1991), 74(2), 325-32

Volatile anesthetics are potent bronchodilators, but the site of action for the dilation is unclear. To determine the site of action of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on the peripheral vagal motor ... [more ▼]

Volatile anesthetics are potent bronchodilators, but the site of action for the dilation is unclear. To determine the site of action of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on the peripheral vagal motor pathway, isolated strips of canine trachealis muscle were stimulated before and during exposure to halothane at 0.3, 1.0, 1.7, or 2.4 MAC, enflurane at 1 MAC, or isoflurane at 1 MAC. The sites and methods of stimulation were: 1) postsynaptic nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the intramural parasympathetic ganglia, with 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium iodide (DMPP); 2) postganglionic cholinergic nerve fibers, with electrical field stimulation (EFS); and 3) muscarinic cholinergic receptors of the smooth muscle, with acetylcholine (ACh). The concentration-response curve to DMPP was significantly shifted to the right by 0.3 MAC halothane, whereas 0.3 MAC halothane had no significant effect on the concentration-response curves to ACh and EFS. At concentrations greater than 1 MAC of halothane, enflurane, or isoflurane, concentration-response curves to all three stimuli were shifted significantly to the right; i.e., the contractile responses to ACh, EFS, and DMPP were reduced. At all concentrations of halothane the force of contraction was significantly more reduced during stimulation with DMPP than during stimulation with ACh, and at halothane concentrations greater than or equal to 1.7 MAC the response to EFS was significantly more reduced than that to ACh. We conclude that halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane attenuated airway constriction by several mechanisms, including 1) reduced excitability of the postsynaptic nicotinic receptors of the intramural parasympathetic ganglia and 2) an effect on the smooth muscle and/or on the muscarinic receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailChest wall motion during epidural anesthesia in dogs.
Warner, David O; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Ritman, Erik L et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1991), 70(2), 539-47

To determine the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal muscles to expiratory muscle activity during quiet breathing, we used lumbar epidural anesthesia in six pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized ... [more ▼]

To determine the relative contribution of rib cage and abdominal muscles to expiratory muscle activity during quiet breathing, we used lumbar epidural anesthesia in six pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized dogs lying supine to paralyze the abdominal muscles while leaving rib cage muscle motor function substantially intact. A high-speed X-ray scanner (Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor) provided three-dimensional images of the thorax. The contribution of expiratory muscle activity to tidal breathing was assessed by a comparison of chest wall configuration during relaxed apnea with that at end expiration. We found that expiratory muscle activity was responsible for approximately half of the changes in thoracic volume during inspiration. Paralysis of the abdominal muscles had little effect on the pattern of breathing, including the contribution of expiratory muscle activity to tidal breathing, in most dogs. We conclude that, although there is consistent phasic expiratory electrical activity in both the rib cage and the abdominal muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs lying supine, the muscles of the rib cage are mechanically the most important expiratory muscles during quiet breathing. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect and neurally mediated effects of halothane on pulmonary resistance in vivo.
Warner, David O; Vettermann, Jörg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (1990), 72(6), 1057-63

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle ... [more ▼]

It has been suggested that halothane inhibits contraction of airway smooth muscle in vivo mainly by reducing reflex activity in nerves innervating the muscle with only minimal direct effects on the muscle itself. To examine possible mechanisms of action of halothane at clinically relevant concentrations the authors studied the effect of halothane on increases in pulmonary resistance (RL) produced by either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS, which caused neurally mediated constriction) or the inhalation of nebulized acetylcholine (ACh, which directly stimulated the smooth muscle cell) in nine mongrel dogs. The frequency of bilateral VNS and the dose of nebulized ACh were adjusted to produce approximately equal increases in RL. Halothane reduced the response to both types of stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion. At halothane concentrations greater than or equal to 0.4 MAC, the VNS response was significantly less than the ACh response. When tetrodotoxin was given to block neural activity, the ACh response was unchanged, confirming that neural activation did not contribute significantly to smooth muscle contraction in response to ACh. The authors conclude that in addition to neurally mediated effects, halothane at clinically used concentrations has significant direct effects on airway smooth muscle stimulated by ACh. The relative importance of each factor in vivo should depend on the stimulus that causes contraction of airway smooth muscle. [less ▲]

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See detailMuscarinic receptor subtypes in canine trachea.
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Warner, David O; Gunst, Susan J et al

in American Journal of Physiology (1990), 258(6 Pt 1), 349-54

Prejunctional and postjunctional muscarinic receptor subtypes were characterized in canine trachealis muscle strips. In vitro contractile responses of muscle strips to acetylcholine or electric field ... [more ▼]

Prejunctional and postjunctional muscarinic receptor subtypes were characterized in canine trachealis muscle strips. In vitro contractile responses of muscle strips to acetylcholine or electric field stimulation were determined in the absence and the presence of gallamine, pirenzepine, and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP). Gallamine had no effect on the contractile response to acetylcholine but enhanced the contractile response to electric field stimulation. Pirenzepine and 4-DAMP reduced the contractile response to acetylcholine and electric field stimulation. The pA2 value for pirenzepine vs. acetylcholine [7.18 +/- 0.59 (SD)] was consistent with the affinity of pirenzepine for M2 or M3-receptors; whereas the pA2 value for 4-DAMP vs. acetylcholine (8.92 +/- 0.42) and the extremely low affinity of gallamine indicated postjunctional muscarinic receptors of the M3 subtype. The enhancement of the contractile response to electric field stimulation by gallamine suggested the presence of M2-prejunctional receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailHalothane decreases both tissue and airway resistances in excised canine lungs.
Vettermann, Jörg; Warner, David O; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1989), 66(6), 2698-703

Studies of the anesthetic effects on the airway often use pulmonary resistance (RL) as an index of airway caliber. To determine the effects of the volatile anesthetic, halothane, on tissue and airway ... [more ▼]

Studies of the anesthetic effects on the airway often use pulmonary resistance (RL) as an index of airway caliber. To determine the effects of the volatile anesthetic, halothane, on tissue and airway components of RL, we measured both components in excised canine lungs before and during halothane administration. Tissue resistance (Rti), airway resistance (Raw), and dynamic lung compliance (CL, dyn) were determined at constant tidal volume and at ventilatory frequencies ranging from 5 to 45 min-1 by an alveolar capsule technique. Halothane decreased RL at each breathing frequency by causing significant decreases in both Raw and Rti but did not change the relative contribution of Rti to RL at any frequency. Halothane increased CL,dyn at each breathing frequency, although there was little change in the static pressure-volume relationship. The administration of isoproterenol both airway and tissue components of RL; it may act by relaxing the contractile elements in the lung. Both components must be considered when the effects of volatile anesthetics on RL are interpreted. [less ▲]

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See detailVentilatory effects of continuous epidural infusion of fentanyl.
Renaud, B.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Clergue, F. et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1988), 67(10), 971-5

The effects of a continuous epidural administration of fentanyl on pain and on ventilation were studied in eight patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the knee. In each subject, epidural fentanyl ... [more ▼]

The effects of a continuous epidural administration of fentanyl on pain and on ventilation were studied in eight patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the knee. In each subject, epidural fentanyl was given by a bolus dose of 1 microgram.kg-1, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 microgram.kg-1.h-1 over 18 hours. Ventilatory measurements were performed during quiet breathing and during CO2 stimulation tests before surgery. After surgery measurements were made before epidural administration of fentanyl; 1, 2, 5, 18 hours after the start of epidural fentanyl infusion; and 6 hours after its discontinuation. Adequate pain relief was achieved in all patients during fentanyl administration. No significant change in ventilation was noted during quiet breathing. The slope of the ventilatory response to CO2 (VE/PaCO2) decreased significantly from 1.46 +/- 0.2 to 0.75 +/- 0.1 L.min-1.mm Hg-1 (mean +/- SEM; P less than 0.05) one hour after the onset of fentanyl administration, and remained stable throughout the infusion. Eighteen hours after the onset of epidural fentanyl infusion, VE/PaCO2 was still 0.76 +/- 0.14 L.min-1.mm Hg-1. At the end of fentanyl administration, plasma fentanyl levels measured in six patients had progressively increased from 0.42 +/- 0.02 ng.ml one hour after the onset of the infusion to 1.54 +/- 0.19 ng.ml at the end of the infusion. These results suggest that a continuous epidural administration of fentanyl is a technique of analgesia that can provide adequate pain relief but which is associated with ventilatory depression. However, with the doses used in this study, the ventilatory depression remained moderate and of no demonstrable clinical consequence. [less ▲]

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See detailActions of enflurane, isoflurane, vecuronium, atracurium, and pancuronium on pulmonary resistance in dogs.
Vettermann, Jörg; Beck, Kai C; Lindahl, Sten G et al

in Anesthesiology (1988), 69(5), 688-95

The effects of enflurane, isoflurane, vecuronium, atracurium, and pancuronium on pulmonary resistance and heart rate were studied in 30 vagotomized dogs lying supine and anesthetized with chloralose ... [more ▼]

The effects of enflurane, isoflurane, vecuronium, atracurium, and pancuronium on pulmonary resistance and heart rate were studied in 30 vagotomized dogs lying supine and anesthetized with chloralose-urethane. None of the five drugs affected pulmonary resistance when the airway was unstimulated. Enflurane and isoflurane significantly attenuated the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves. This effect was dose-dependent and similar for both anesthetics at equivalent multiples of their minimum alveolar concentration. Atracurium significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by vagus nerve stimulation; vecuronium had no significant effect. Pancuronium, up to a cumulative dose of 0.14 mg/kg, also significantly (P less than 0.05) enhanced the increase in pulmonary resistance induced by vagus nerve stimulation; but this effect was reversed by further increasing the dose. Pancuronium also attenuated the cardiodecelerator response to vagus nerve stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion. The underlying mechanisms for the attenuation of responses to vagus nerve stimulation by enflurane or isoflurane or for the increase in response with atracurium are unknown. Pancuronium at lower doses increases the response most likely by blocking prejunctional muscarinic receptors (M2) that physiologically inhibit vagally mediated increases in pulmonary resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration électromyographique du diaphragme après sternotomie pour chirurgie de revascularisation myocardique
Delhez, L.; Fleron, M. H.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Acta Belgica. Medica Physica (1988), 11

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See detailMonitorage des fractions inspirées et alvéolaires
Duranteau, R.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg

in Anesthésie par inhalation (1987)

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See detailSignes cliniques de l'anesthésie par inhalation
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Clergue, F.

in Anesthésie par inhalation (1987)

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See detailMonitorage de la ventilation assistée
Duranteau, R.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg

in La ventilation artificielle (1987)

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