References of "Bouché, Philippe"
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See detailFeasibility study for elephant inventory with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Bouché, Philippe ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, October 04)

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See detailDeveloppement of an original aerial-based inventory method: first steps towards the use of mini Unmanned Areal Vehicle in elephant inventory
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Bouché, Philippe ULg et al

Scientific conference (2012, May 22)

This research aims at developping a new methodology for counting large mammals by means of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Test flights have been performed in the game ranch of Nazinga (Burkina Faso) during ... [more ▼]

This research aims at developping a new methodology for counting large mammals by means of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Test flights have been performed in the game ranch of Nazinga (Burkina Faso) during the month of february 2012. Aerial images shows that elephant detection is quite feasible. The systems still requires a lot of improvements in order to be able to cover bigger surfaces for a given pixels resolution. Nevertheless, this method seems very promissing and could advantageously replace traditionnal aerial-based inventory. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvolution des effectifs des populations d’éléphants d’Afrique soudanosahélienne :enjeux pour leur conservation
Bouché, Philippe ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

The first objective of this thesis was to analyze the evolution of Sudano-Sahelian African elephant populations in a context of environmental challenges and increasing human demography. The second ... [more ▼]

The first objective of this thesis was to analyze the evolution of Sudano-Sahelian African elephant populations in a context of environmental challenges and increasing human demography. The second objective was to propose solutions for elephant conservation in the Sudano-Sahelian context. To fulfill these objectives, aerial surveys have been carried out in every protected area harboring a known population of elephants. This work was first implemented at a local level on several study cases and finally at a global level. Results of aerial surveys estimate the current elephant number at minimum 7,745 elephants, about 2% of the African elephant total population. This confirmed that the elephant populations have been progressively fragmented and confined to few protected areas representing 5% of the Soudano-Sahelian strip. The long term (four decades) elephant population trends has been studied by comparing our results with the database of the study area. The half of the monitored population collapse during the last 40 years. The viability of small elephant population of 200 elephants and below is critical and several of them collapsed. Contrasted local situation have been observed : if a number depletion is often observed, in some protected areas elephant populations are stable or increasing. Although, trends of other large mammals’ population is not linked to that of the elephants. This result allow to conclude that the elephant is not a good indicator of the abundance of other large mammals’ population. Causes of elephant populations’ depletion are both due to climate change (global drought) and socio-economic (human demography and land use pressure) issues. An appropriate and permanent field management, a better valorisation of elephants and the creation of negotiated corridors with local people could garantee the future of Sudano-Sahelian African elephants. [less ▲]

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See detailGame over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride et al

in Environmental Monitoring & Assessment (2012), 184(11), 7001-7011

The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in ... [more ▼]

The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the cease-fire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95 000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys reveal a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), reduncini and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70 to 80% during the same period. The future of the rest of the wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 77-91

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and ... [more ▼]

The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant.km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs. [less ▲]

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See detailWill Elephants Soon Disappear from West African Savannahs?
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Wittemyer, George et al

in PLoS ONE (2011), 6(6),

Precipitous declines in Africa’s native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6 ... [more ▼]

Precipitous declines in Africa’s native fauna and flora are recognized, but few comprehensive records of these changes have been compiled. Here, we present population trends for African elephants in the 6,213,000 km2 Sudano-Sahelian range of West and Central Africa assessed through the analysis of aerial and ground surveys conducted over the past 4 decades. These surveys are focused on the best protected areas in the region, and therefore represent the best case scenario for the northern savanna elephants. A minimum of 7,745 elephants currently inhabit the entire region, representing a minimum decline of 50% from estimates four decades ago for these protected areas. Most of the historic range is now devoid of elephants and, therefore, was not surveyed. Of the 23 surveyed elephant populations, half are estimated to number less than 200 individuals. Historically, most populations numbering less than 200 individuals in the region were extirpated within a few decades. Declines differed by region, with Central African populations experiencing much higher declines (276%) than those in West Africa (233%). As a result, elephants in West Africa now account for 86% of the total surveyed. Range wide, two refuge zones retain elephants, one in West and the other in Central Africa. These zones are separated by a large distance (,900 km) of high density human land use, suggesting connectivity between the regions is permanently cut. Within each zone, however, sporadic contacts between populations remain. Retaining such connectivity should be a high priority for conservation of elephants in this region. Specific corridors designed to reduce the isolation of the surveyed populations are proposed. The strong commitment of governments, effective law enforcement to control the illegal ivory trade and the involvement of local communities and private partners are all critical to securing the future of elephants inhabiting Africa’s northern savannas. [less ▲]

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See detailLe secteur privé à la rescousse de la faune sauvage en Afrique de l’Ouest. Evaluation écologique et économique de la Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri au Burkina Faso
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lungren, Clark; Moumouni, Dermé

in Parcs & Réserves (2011), 66(4), 12-22

Le Burkina Faso, s’est engagé depuis plusieurs années dans le domaine de la conservation de la Nature, mais souffre du manque de moyens nécessaires pour entretenir et développer son potentiel faunique. En ... [more ▼]

Le Burkina Faso, s’est engagé depuis plusieurs années dans le domaine de la conservation de la Nature, mais souffre du manque de moyens nécessaires pour entretenir et développer son potentiel faunique. En 1996, le Burkina Faso s’est engagé dans une réforme inédite dans ce pays visant à ouvrir la gestion de la faune au secteur privé. Cet article présente à travers l’exemple de la Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri comment le concessionnaire a pu, en mettant en œuvre un certain nombre d’aménagements et certaines activités de gestion de terrain, redynamiser la faune qui s’est multipliée par 3 en 12 ans et comment l’activité de grande chasse a pu créer une dynamique économique favorable à l’Etat, aux communautés locales et aux prestataires de services locaux et étrangers. L’analyse économique compare également les résultats économiques de la ZCK à d’autres zones de chasse d’Afrique Centrale et de l’Ouest. [less ▲]

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See detailHas the final countdown to wildlife extinction in Northern Central African Republic begun ?
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Renaud, Pierre-Cyril; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in African Journal of Ecology (2010), 48(4), 1-10

The wildlife populations of Northern Central African Republic experienced precipitous declines during the 1970s and 1980s. While anecdotes coming out of the region indicate that the wildlife populations ... [more ▼]

The wildlife populations of Northern Central African Republic experienced precipitous declines during the 1970s and 1980s. While anecdotes coming out of the region indicate that the wildlife populations remain under serious threat, little is known about their status. An aerial sample count was carried out in the Northern Central African Republic at the end of the dry season in June 2005 and covered an 85,000 km2 complex landscape containing national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Results show a dramatic decline of wildlife since the previous survey in 1985. In 20 years, large mammals’ numbers decreased by 65%, probably <br />because of poaching and diseases brought by illegal cattle transhumance. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Buffon kob (Kobus kob) populations showed the greatest decline (over 80% each), while buffalo (Syncerus caffer), roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) and Giant Lord’s Derby Eland (Taurotragus derbianus) populations seem stable or increasing over these last 20 years. The analysis of the wildlife population distribution by status of the different types of protected areas (national parks, hunting areas) showed that individual encounter rates of elephant and buffalo were lower in national parks than in neighbouring hunting areas, while those for roan, giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and Buffon kob were higher in the national parks. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial avoidance of invading pastoral cattle by wild ungulates: insights from using point process statistics
Hibert, Fabrice; Calenge, Clément; Hervé, Fritz et al

in Biodiversity & Conservation (2010)

Traditional rangelands in many developing countries are currently being encroached by cultivation, driving some herders to illegally use protected areas for grazing their cattle. Since cattle are an ... [more ▼]

Traditional rangelands in many developing countries are currently being encroached by cultivation, driving some herders to illegally use protected areas for grazing their cattle. Since cattle are an exotic species in these ecosystems, they might have an impact on the local wild herbivore communities, notably through competition. We used point pattern statistics to characterise the spatial relationships between wild ungulate species and cattle herds within a protected area in west Africa undergoing seasonal intrusions by cattle. We predicted that the wild ungulate species that are ecologically and morphologically similar to cattle, in terms of body mass and diet, would be more sensitive to grass depletion by cattle and would be separated from cattle to a larger extent. The spatial distribution of browsing and mixed-feeding antelopes did not seem to be affected much by cattle presence, whereas most grazing species showed spatial separation from cattle. Interestingly, elephants also showed significant separation from cattle herds. We discuss the likely processes that may have contributed to the observed spatial patterns. Thespatial displacement of certain wild species, including megaherbivores, affects the whole community structure and, thus, other components of the ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Zones Cynégétiques Villageoises du Nord de la République Centrafricaine : 15 ans déjà !
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Parcs & Réserves (2010), 65(2), 1-8

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See detailLes éléphants du Gourma. Mali. Statuts et menaces pour leur conservation
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Pachyderm (2009), 45

Un comptage aérien d’éléphants a été mené au Mali dans le Gourma afin d’actualiser le statut des éléphants qui y vivent et les menaces qui pèsent sur leur survie à long terme. Un effectif minimal de 344 ... [more ▼]

Un comptage aérien d’éléphants a été mené au Mali dans le Gourma afin d’actualiser le statut des éléphants qui y vivent et les menaces qui pèsent sur leur survie à long terme. Un effectif minimal de 344 individus a été enregistré, celui-ci semblant stable depuis 2002, au regard des résultats d’inventaires précédents. Les survols ont permis de constater que de fortes pressions anthropiques s’exercent sur les fragiles ressources naturelles du Gourma avec pour conséquence une compétition accrue entre les hommes et les éléphants vis à vis des ressources (habitats et eau), constituant ainsi une source d’exacerbation des conflits. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodes d'inventaire de la grande faune à l'usage des ZCV
Bouché, Philippe ULg

Learning material (2008)

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See detailRecensement Pédestre Des Grands Mammifères De la Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri. Burkina Faso. Mai 2008
Bouché, Philippe ULg

Report (2008)

La Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri (ZCK) est une des zones de grande chasse du Burkina Faso qui couvre 655 km² et fait partie de l’écosystème WAP. La ZCK a fait l’objet d’un inventaire pédestre par transect ... [more ▼]

La Zone de Chasse de Konkombouri (ZCK) est une des zones de grande chasse du Burkina Faso qui couvre 655 km² et fait partie de l’écosystème WAP. La ZCK a fait l’objet d’un inventaire pédestre par transect en ligne en mai 2006. Cet inventaire est le 3ème d’une série débuté en 2002, parallèlement à un suivi écologique démarré depuis 2003. Les principaux résultats obtenus au cours de cet inventaire sont les suivants : Globalement la ZCK accueille une densité globale de plus de 47 animaux/km² pour une biomasse/km² totale de plus de 15100 kg/km². Ces résultats portent la ZCK à un niveau de référence en Afrique. [less ▲]

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See detailNorthern Ghana elephant survey
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Pachyderm (2007), 42

Northern Ghana shelters an important protected areas network. However, the current elephant range is restricted to a few protected areas. An aerial total count was carried out in Mole National Park and ... [more ▼]

Northern Ghana shelters an important protected areas network. However, the current elephant range is restricted to a few protected areas. An aerial total count was carried out in Mole National Park and partially in Gbele Resource Reserve. The eastern and western corridors were surveyed by direct and indirect distance sampling counts. A minimum of 401 elephants were observed in Mole National Park while 15 elephants (coefficient of variation: 87%) were estimated by dung count in the extreme north of the western corridor. No elephant <br />sign was observed in the other areas surveyed. Human activities were widely spread in all areas except Mole National Park, where permanent human activities, fields and villages were outside the boundaries. Because of high human impact, elephant migration is now essentially non-existent in both corridors. The recent records of elephant in Gbele Resource Reserve make a case for a third corridor between Mole National Park and Bontioli in Burkina Faso through Gbele Resource Reserve. [less ▲]

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See detailL'éléphant au Ranch de Gibier de Nazinga
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Delvingt, Willy; Vermeulen, Cédric (Eds.) Nazinga (2007)

Cet article présente l'évolution des tendances des population d'éléphant au Ranch de Gibier de Nazinga ainsi que sa distribution.

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See detailDry-season status, trend and distribution of Konkombouri elephants and implications for their management, Burkina Faso
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Pachyderm (2007), 42

Konkombouri Hunting Zone is part of the transfrontier W–Arly–Pendjari ecosystem. Monthly dry-season records from wildlife monitoring show that the free-ranging elephant population increased from month to ... [more ▼]

Konkombouri Hunting Zone is part of the transfrontier W–Arly–Pendjari ecosystem. Monthly dry-season records from wildlife monitoring show that the free-ranging elephant population increased from month to month with the progression of the dry season and the reduction of water points that still contained water. However, with the arrival of the first important rains, elephant density continued to increase because water and new shoots were available everywhere. In 2005 and 2006 elephant density in the Konkombouri Hunting Zone reached the highest mean dry-season elephant density recorded in West Africa in recent decades. This situation increases the impact on habitat close to water points and heightens human–elephant conflicts. [less ▲]

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See detailHippopotamus of the W-Arli-Pendjari-Oti-Mandouri-Keran Ecosystem. West Africa. Status, distribution and conservation issues
Bouché, Philippe ULg

in Suiform soundings PPHSG Newsletter (2004), 4(1), 14-19

For the first time in April 2003, an aerial total wildlife count of the entire W-Arli-Pendjari-Oti- Mandouri-Keran (WAPOK) Ecosystem, the largest savannah ecosystem of West Africa, has been conducted ... [more ▼]

For the first time in April 2003, an aerial total wildlife count of the entire W-Arli-Pendjari-Oti- Mandouri-Keran (WAPOK) Ecosystem, the largest savannah ecosystem of West Africa, has been conducted. During this survey, Hippopotamus have been observed 51 times, totaling 696 individuals. An average of 13.86 ± 16.73 individuals was noted. The group size varied between 1 and 65 individuals. In the WAPOK ecosystem, the future of hippopotamus is ensured by the tourism activity in the area and the redistribution of tourism revenue to human communities living around the ecosystem, thanks to several conservation project, but more certainly, to the conservation initiative of several private stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailLes petites populations d'éléphants du Burkina Faso. statut, distribution et déplacements
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lungren, Clark

in Pachyderm (2004), 37

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See detailStatut et tendances des effectifs d’éléphants dans les aires protégées de l’Est du Burkina Faso
Bouché, Philippe ULg; Lungren, Clark; Ouédraogo, Léonard

in Pachyderm (2002), 32

Le Burkina Faso abrite l’effectif d’éléphants de savane le plus important de toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, là où cette espèce jouit d’une protection intégrale. Un recensement aérien par échantillon a été ... [more ▼]

Le Burkina Faso abrite l’effectif d’éléphants de savane le plus important de toute l’Afrique de l’Ouest, là où cette espèce jouit d’une protection intégrale. Un recensement aérien par échantillon a été mené dans le sud-est du Burkina Faso en avril et mai 2000. L’effectif total moyen atteignait 1.743 ± 648 éléphants, ce qui constitue la plus grande population d’éléphants de savane en Afrique de l’Ouest. La moyenne des groupes observés était de: 5,42 (Erreur standard = 11,68 animaux) (1 à 32 individus / groupe). La distribution des éléphants enregistrée confirme largement la distribution enregistrée les années précédentes. [less ▲]

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