References of "Borges, Alberto"
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See detailRole of pelagic calcification and export of carbonate production in climate change
Chou, Lei; Harlay, Jérôme ULg; De Bodt, Caroline et al

Poster (2009, November 16)

The marine carbon cycle constitutes a key component of the climate system. It has been shown that one-fourth of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean, leading to the ... [more ▼]

The marine carbon cycle constitutes a key component of the climate system. It has been shown that one-fourth of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean, leading to the acidification of the surface ocean and the modification of seawater carbonate chemistry. This could have major impacts on the ocean biogeochemical carbon cycling and ecosystem dynamics. Yet, the resulting feedbacks on climate change are still poorly understood. Interdisciplinary biogeochemical investigations, assisted by remote sensing, have been conducted during three consecutive years along the shelf break of the Northern Bay of Biscay where coccolithophorid blooms dominated by Emiliania huxleyi are frequently and recurrently observed. Rates of various processes governing the coccolithophore ecosystem dynamics have been determined and air-sea CO2 fluxes evaluated. The key results will be presented and discussed to evaluate the role in climate regulation of calcification, primary production and export processes during coccolithophorid blooms. [less ▲]

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See detailAir-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in sea ice in the Arctic (Amundsen Gulf)
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier et al

Conference (2009, November)

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See detailOceanic CO2 sink : the contribution of the marine cryosphere
Delille, Bruno ULg; Vancoppenolle, M.; Tilbrook, B. et al

Conference (2009, September)

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See detailSeasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)
Koné, Y.J.M.; Abril, G.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2009, May)

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See detailAir-ice CO2 fluxes in the Arctic coastal area
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier et al

Poster (2009, May)

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See detailBiogeochemistry and carbon budget during a coccolithophorid bloom in the northern Bay of Biscay (June 2006)
Harlay, Jérôme ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg; De Bodt, Caroline et al

Poster (2009, April 19)

Carbon cycling processes (primary production (PPp), calcification (CAL), bacterial production and pelagic community respiration (PCR)) and variables (partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and total alkalinity ... [more ▼]

Carbon cycling processes (primary production (PPp), calcification (CAL), bacterial production and pelagic community respiration (PCR)) and variables (partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and total alkalinity (TA)) were measured in early June 2006 at several stations in the northern Bay of Biscay. These measurements were characterized with respect to the coccolithophorid blooming (growth or decline) based on satellite remote sensing (high reflectance (HR)) and other biogeochemical measurements i.e. inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phaeopigments (Phaeo), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN)). The major HR patch was located over the shelf, along the continental margin and corresponded to declining bloom conditions characterized by moderate Chl-a <1.0 µg L-1, dissolved phosphate (PO4) depletion, low (<2.0 µmol L-1) dissolved silicate (DSi), low potential primary production (<0.25 µmol C L-1 h-1) and calcification rates (0.02-0.10 µmol C L-1 h-1). Yet, surface waters were undersaturated in CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. We present a coherent scheme of the C dynamics of a coccolithophorid bloom along the continental margin of the Bay of Biscay, an active hydrodynamic area, based on standing stocks and processes including 14C-based particulate primary production, CAL and PCR. A carbon budget obtained by integrating PPp, CAL and PCR over the water column highlights the importance of C extracellular production to sustain the bacterial demand in the twilight zone, which has also several repercussions on the fate of organic and inorganic C production in the photic zone during the different stages of the bloom. [less ▲]

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See detailAir-ice CO2 fluxes in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf)
Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier ULg; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier et al

Poster (2009, March)

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See detailTowards a comprehensive C-budgeting approach of a coccolithophorid bloom in the Northern Bay of Biscay (June 2006)
Harlay, Jérôme ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg; De Bodt, Caroline et al

Poster (2009, January 25)

A biogeochemical multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the northern Bay of Biscay, in early June 2006, during which 14C-based primary production and calcification were determined as well as O2-based ... [more ▼]

A biogeochemical multidisciplinary survey was carried out in the northern Bay of Biscay, in early June 2006, during which 14C-based primary production and calcification were determined as well as O2-based community respiration. Contemporary remote sensing images showed several patches of high reflectance (HR) in the investigated area. Based on remote sensing and in situ measured biogeochemical parameters, the area exhibited varying coccolithophorid bloom stages from its early development to the post-bloom stages. The major HR patch, characterizing a post-stationary stage of the bloom, was located between 48°N and 49°N over the shelf along the continental margin. It was associated with moderate chlorophyll-a levels, never exceeding 1.0 µg L-1, dissolved phosphorus and silica depletion, and undersaturation of CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium. Considered as the main drivers of the C cycle in this area, the CO2 fluxes associated with primary production, calcification and respiration were integrated in order to provide a comprehensive C budget in the area. [less ▲]

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See detailOur present understanding of Lake Kivu ecology
Darchambeau, François ULg; Sarmento, Hugo; Isumbisho, Mwapu et al

Conference (2009, January 19)

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See detailCarbon cycling in the mixolimnion of Lake Kivu : results from the CAKI project
Borges, Alberto ULg; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2009, January 19)

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See detailSeasonal Variability of Carbon Dioxide in the Rivers and Lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)
Koné, Yéfanlan José-Mathieu; Abril, Gwenaël; Kouadio, K. N. et al

in Estuaries and Coasts (2009), 32

We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé, and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou, and Grand-Lahou) in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four ... [more ▼]

We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé, and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou, and Grand-Lahou) in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four cruises covering the main climatic seasons. The three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, and the seasonal variability of pCO2 was due to dilution during the flooding period. Surface waters of the Potou, Ebrié, and Grand-Lahou lagoons were oversaturated in CO2 during all seasons. These lagoons behaved similarly to the oligohaline regions of macrotidal estuaries that are CO2 sources to the atmosphere due to net ecosystem heterotrophy and inputs of riverine CO2 rich waters. The Aby and Tendo lagoons were undersaturated in CO2 with respect to the atmosphere because of their permanent haline stratification (unlike the other lagoons) that seemed to lead to higher phytoplankton production and export of organic carbon below the pycnocline. [less ▲]

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See detailReconciling opposing views on carbon cycling in the coastal ocean: continental shelves as sinks and near-shore ecosystems as sources of atmospheric CO2
Chen, C. T. A.; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Deep-Sea Research Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography (2009), 56(8-10), 578-590

Despite their moderately-sized surface area, continental marginal seas play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, as they receive huge amounts of upwelled and riverine inputs of ... [more ▼]

Despite their moderately-sized surface area, continental marginal seas play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, as they receive huge amounts of upwelled and riverine inputs of carbon and nutrients, sustaining a disproportionate large biological activity compared to their relative surface area. A synthesis of worldwide measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) indicates that most open shelves in the temperate and high latitude regions are under-saturated with respect to atmospheric CO2 during all seasons, although the low latitude shelves seem to be over-saturated. Most inner estuaries and near-shore coastal areas on the other hand are over-saturated with respect to atmospheric CO2. The scaling of air-sea CO2 fluxes based on pCO2 measurements and carbon mass balance calculations indicate that the continental shelves absorb atmospheric CO2 ranging between 0.33 to 0.36 Pg C yr-1 that corresponds to an additional sink of 27% to ~30% of the CO2 uptake by the open oceans based on the most recent pCO2 climatology (Takahashi et al., 2008; Deep-Sea Research II, this issue). Inner estuaries, salt marshes and mangroves emit up to 0.50 Pg C yr-1, although these estimates are prone to large uncertainty due to poorly constrained ecosystem surface area estimates. Nevertheless, the view of continental shelves as sinks and near-shore ecosystems as sources of atmospheric CO2 allows reconciling long-lived opposing views on carbon cycling in the coastal ocean. [less ▲]

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See detailThe North Sea
Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; de Baar, Hein J. W. et al

in Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins (2009)

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See detailEffect of eutrophication on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the coastal Southern North Sea: a model study of the past 50 years
Gypens, N.; Borges, Alberto ULg; Lancelot, C.

in Global Change Biology (2009), 15(4), 1040-1056

The RIVERSTRAHLER model, an idealized biogeochemical model of the river system, has been coupled to MIRO-CO2, a complex biogeochemical model describing diatom and Phaeocystis blooms and carbon and ... [more ▼]

The RIVERSTRAHLER model, an idealized biogeochemical model of the river system, has been coupled to MIRO-CO2, a complex biogeochemical model describing diatom and Phaeocystis blooms and carbon and nutrient cycles in the marine domain, to assess the dual role of changing nutrient loads and increasing atmospheric CO2 as drivers of air–sea CO2 exchanges in the Southern North Sea with a focus on the Belgian coastal zone (BCZ). The whole area, submitted to the influence of two main rivers (Seine and Scheldt), is characterized by variable diatom and Phaeocystis colonies blooms which impact on the trophic status and air–sea CO2 fluxes of the coastal ecosystem. For this application, the MIRO-CO2 model is implemented in a 0D multibox frame covering the eutrophied Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea and receiving loads from the rivers Seine and Scheldt. Model simulations are performed for the period between 1951 and 1998 using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Model results suggest that the BCZ shifted from a source of CO2 before 1970 (low eutrophication) towards a sink during the 1970–1990 period when anthropogenic DIN and P loads increased, stimulating C fixation by autotrophs. In agreement, a shift from net annual heterotrophy towards autotrophy in BCZ is simulated from 1980. The period after 1990 is characterized by a progressive decrease of P loads concomitant with a decrease of primary production and of the CO2 sink in the BCZ. At the end of the simulation period, the BCZ ecosystem is again net heterotroph and acts as a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. R-MIRO-CO2 scenarios testing the relative impact of temperature, wind speed, atmospheric CO2 and river loads variability on the simulated air–sea CO2 fluxes suggest that the trend in air–sea CO2 fluxes simulated between 1951 and 1998 in the BCZ was mainly controlled by the magnitude and the ratio of inorganic nutrient river loads. Quantitative nutrient changes control the level of primary production while qualitative changes modulate the relative contribution of diatoms and Phaeocystis to this flux and hence the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced ocean carbon storage from anaerobic alkalinity generation in coastal sediments
Thomas, H.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Suykens, Kim ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2009), 6

The coastal ocean is a crucial link between land, the open ocean and the atmosphere. The shallowness of the water column permits close interactions between the sedimentary, aquatic and atmospheric ... [more ▼]

The coastal ocean is a crucial link between land, the open ocean and the atmosphere. The shallowness of the water column permits close interactions between the sedimentary, aquatic and atmospheric compartments, which otherwise are decoupled at long time scales ( =1000 yr) in the open oceans. Despite the prominent role of the coastal oceans in absorbing atmospheric CO2 and transferring it into the deep oceans via the continental shelf pump, the underlying mechanisms remain only partly understood. Evaluating observations from the North Sea, a NW European shelf sea, we provide evidence that anaerobic degradation of organic matter, fuelled from land and ocean, generates total alkalinity (AT) and increases the CO2 buffer capacity of seawater. At both the basin wide and annual scales anaerobic AT generation in the North Sea’s tidal mud flat area irreversibly facilitates 7–10%, or taking into consideration benthic denitrification in the North Sea, 20–25% of the North Sea’s overall CO2 uptake. At the global scale, anaerobic AT generation could be accountable for as much as 60% of the uptake of CO2 in shelf and marginal seas, making this process, the anaerobic pump, a key player in the biological carbon pump. Under future high CO2 conditions oceanic CO2 storage via the anaerobic pump may even gain further relevance because of stimulated ocean productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution, origin and cycling of carbon in the Tana River (Kenya): a dry season basin-scale survey from headwaters to the delta
Bouillon, S.; Abril, G.; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2009), 6

The Tana River basin (TRB) is the largest in Kenya (_120 000 km2). We conducted a survey during the dry season throughout the TRB, analyzing a broad suite of biogeochemical parameters. Biogeochemical ... [more ▼]

The Tana River basin (TRB) is the largest in Kenya (_120 000 km2). We conducted a survey during the dry season throughout the TRB, analyzing a broad suite of biogeochemical parameters. Biogeochemical signatures in headwater streams were highly variable. Along the middle and lower river course, total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations increased more than 30-fold despite the absence of tributary inputs, indicating important resuspension events of internally stored sediment. These resuspended sediment inputs were characterized by a lower and 14C-depleted OC content, suggesting selective degradation of more recent material during sediment retention. Masinga Dam (a large reservoir on the upper river) induced a strong nutrient retention (_50% for inorganic N, _72% for inorganic phosphate, and _40% for dissolved silicate). Moreover, while DOC pools and _13C signatures were similar above, in and below the reservoir, the POC pool in Masinga surface waters was dominated by 13C-depleted phytoplankton, which contributed to the riverine POC pool immediately below the dam, but rapidly disappeared further downstream, suggesting rapid remineralization of this labile C pool in the river system. Despite the generally high turbidity, the combination of relatively high oxygen saturation levels, low _18O signatures of dissolved O2 (all <+24.2‰), and the relatively low pCO2 values suggest that in-stream primary production was significant, even though pigment data suggest that phytoplankton makes only a minor contribution to the total POC pool in the Tana River. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms controlling the air-sea CO2 flux in the North Sea
Prowe, F. A. E.; Thomas, H.; Pätsch, J. et al

in Continental Shelf Research (2009), 29

The mechanisms driving the air–sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the North Sea are investigated using the three-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOHAM (ECOlogical model, HAMburg ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms driving the air–sea exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the North Sea are investigated using the three-dimensional coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOHAM (ECOlogical model, HAMburg). We validate our simulations using field data for the years 2001–2002 and identify the controls of the air–sea CO2 flux for two locations representative for the North Sea’s biogeochemical provinces. In the seasonally stratified northern region, net CO2 uptake is high (2:06molm 2 a 1) due to high net community production (NCP) in the surface water. Overflow production releasing semi labile dissolved organic carbon needs to be considered for a realistic simulation of the low dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations observed during summer. This biologically driven carbon drawdown outcompetes the temperature-driven rise in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) during the productive season. In contrast, the permanently mixed southern region is a weak net CO2 source (0:78molm 2 a 1). NCP is generally low except for the spring bloom because remineralization parallels primary production. Here, the pCO2 appears to be controlled by temperature. [less ▲]

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