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See detailTEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF N2O FLUXES FROM A FERTILIZED GRASSLAND: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM DYNAMIC CLOSED CHAMBERS
Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran ULg; Moureaux, Christine ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg et al

Poster (2013, April 09)

This work presents preliminary results of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes measured by dynamic closed chambers from a fertilized grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. It is part of a project ... [more ▼]

This work presents preliminary results of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes measured by dynamic closed chambers from a fertilized grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. It is part of a project funded by the public service of Wallonia (SPW-DGARNE), whose objectives are to make a carbon/CO2 balance of the grassland (Jérôme et al., 2013) and to quantify CH4 (Dumortier et al., 2013) and N2O fluxes. The site is located in Dorinne (Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory), Belgium (50° 18’ 44” N; 4° 58’ 07” E; 248 m al.). It is a permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha with a moderate slope of 1 to 2 %. Mineral fertilisation took place in March and May 2012. Two cylindrical chambers of 19,2 cm diameter and 11,5 cm height were placed inside a protected area around a micrometeorological station. An infrared gas analyser (Thermofischer 46i) was used in order to measure the N2O concentrations inside of the chambers, closed by automatically controlled lids and ventilated by a constant air flow of 1liter/min. These devices were completed by adjacent soil humidity and temperature sensors. The first measurement campaign took place during June and July 2012. The chambers were installed in the field and N2O fluxes were followed without manipulation. N2O fluxes were characterised by a background emission (between 2 and 10 ngN.m2s􀀀1) on which intense but time limited peaks (between 50 and 300 ngN.m2s􀀀1) superimposed. Peaks were found to be mainly linked to fertilisation and driven by precipitation. Background fluxes were found to correlate positively with soil temperature. Secondly, a manipulation experiment took place in November 2012: two different fertilizer treatments were applied to the chambers. Doses of respectively 100 and 200 kg N/ha of ammonium nitrate were sprayed in the chambers (equivalent to a 8mmprecipitation). N2O fluxes peaked shortly after fertiliser application (respectively 300 and 550 ngN.m2s􀀀1), as well as after a posterior rain event (respectively 800 and 1500 ngN.m2s􀀀1). The peak dynamics suggests a complex interaction between soil humidity and nitrogen availability, which is under study. Dumortier et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-2083-1, 2013 Jérôme et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 15, EGU2013-6989, 2013 [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of grazing on carbon balance of an intensively grazed grassland in Belgium
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran ULg et al

Poster (2013, April 09)

This work analyzes the impact of grazing on the carbon balance of a grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. The research was run at the Dorinne terrestrial observatory (DTO). The ... [more ▼]

This work analyzes the impact of grazing on the carbon balance of a grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. The research was run at the Dorinne terrestrial observatory (DTO). The experimental site is a permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha located in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18’ 44’’ N; 4° 58’ 07’’ E; 248 m asl.). Other studies are conducted at the DTO including measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide fluxes (Dumortier et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-2083-1, 2013; Beekkerk van Ruth et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-3211, 2013, respectively). Grassland carbon budget (Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was calculated from Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measured by eddy covariance by taking imports and exports of organic C and losses of carbon as CH4 into account (Soussana et al., 2010). After 2 years of measurements (May 2010 - May 2012), the grassland behaved on average as a CO2 source (NEE = 73 ±31 g C m-2 y-1). After inclusion of all the C inputs and outputs the site was closed to equilibrium (NBP = 23 ±34 g C m-2 y-1). To analyze the impact of grazing on CO2 fluxes, we studied the temporal evolution of gross maximal photosynthetic capacity GPPmax and dark respiration Rd (deduced from the response of daytime fluxes to radiation over 5-day windows). We calculated GPPmax and Rd variation between the end and the beginning of grazing or non-grazing periods (∆GPPmax and ∆Rd, respectively). We observed a significant decrease of GPPmax during grazing periods and measured a ∆GPPmax dependence on the average stocking rate. This allows us to quantify the assimilation reduction due to grass consumption by cattle. On the contrary, no Rd decrease was observed during grazing periods. Moreover, we found that cumulated monthly NEE increased significantly with the average stocking rate. In addition, a confinement experiment was carried out in order to analyze livestock contribution to Total Ecosystem Respiration. Each experiment extended over two days: the first day, cattle was confined in the footprint of the eddy covariance set-up (1.76 ha, 27 LU ha-1) and the second day, it was removed from it. We compared filtered half-hourly data made at 24h intervals, in the presence or absence of cattle, considering that environmental conditions were equivalent (air temperature, wind speed, radiation and wind direction). Results showed that CO2 fluxes were significantly higher when cattle were on the plot. Livestock contribution estimation to CO2 fluxes was on average 6.6 µmol m-2 s-1. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion durable de l'azote au-delà de la seule problématique "nitrate"
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17s1

The aim of the sustainable management of nitrogen is to reduce dramatically the risk of nitrogen leaching into groundwater. Regulations and recommendations have resulted in a more judicious use of manure ... [more ▼]

The aim of the sustainable management of nitrogen is to reduce dramatically the risk of nitrogen leaching into groundwater. Regulations and recommendations have resulted in a more judicious use of manure as a mineral fertilizer to benefit both the environment and farmers. Rehabilitating leguminous plants into our rotations and our forage areas needs to become a priority. These plants can partially substitute for imported soya and, at the same time, synthesize the free nitrogen available to plants. Management of intercropping and in particular of catch crops can no longer be limited to the single issue of nitrate in water. Integrated crop protection and risk reduction of greenhouse gas emissions also need to be taken into account and flexibility needs to be incorporated into the implementation of these intercropping rules. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation du troisième Programme de Gestion Durable de l'Azote en agriculture. Recommandations en matière de règlementations et de recherches scientifiques
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Vandenberghe, Christophe; Colinet, Gilles; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) et al 2ème Atelier Nitrate - Eau. Evaluation du Programme de Gestion Durable de l'Azote (2013)

In accordance with the Nitrates Directive, the third “Durable Nitrogen Management Plan” (PGDA) will be soon reviewed in Wallonia (Belgium). The second “Nitrate – Water” workshop took place between 28th ... [more ▼]

In accordance with the Nitrates Directive, the third “Durable Nitrogen Management Plan” (PGDA) will be soon reviewed in Wallonia (Belgium). The second “Nitrate – Water” workshop took place between 28th May and 1st June 2012. The workshop was attended by both Belgian scientists (Université catholique de Louvain - UCL, Walloon Agricultural Research Center CRA-W, Université de Liège - ULg, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech) and French scientists (National Institute for Agricultural Research - INRA). In the light of the results of experiments presented by scientists at this workshop, modifications to the PGDA are now recommended. These concern organic and mineral nitrogen fertilization for crops and meadows; catch crops; soil nitrate-nitrogen residue limitation in autumn, at the start of the nitrate leaching period; the management of meadow ploughing and a modification of the dairy cow standard for nitrogen production. [less ▲]

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See detail3. Contrôle des populations de mauvaises herbes
Jaunard, Delphine ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail5. Les régulateurs de croissance
Meza Morales, Walter; Seutin, Benoît ULg; Monfort, Bruno et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail6. Lutte intégrée contre les maladies
Duvivier, Maxime; Mahieu, Olivier; Heens, B. et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail4. La fumure azotée
Meza Morales, Walter; Monfort, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detailLivre Blanc Céréales
Bodson, Bernard ULg; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg

Book published by Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech - Edition février 2013 (2013)

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See detail2. Implantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Dufranne, Delphine et al

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail11. Perspectives - 2. La culture en association de froment et de pois: une opportunité pour réduire l'abondance des pucerons en été
Lopes, T.; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detail10. Environnement et gaz à effet de serre
Moureaux, Christine ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

in Bodson, Bernard; Destain, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Livre Blanc - Céréales (2013, February 27)

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See detailImpact of the depth on bacterial diversity in an agricultural soil
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Lambert, Christophe et al

Poster (2013, February 08)

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. They play an important role in soil formation, contribute to plant nutrition and are involved in various processes in agroecosystems ... [more ▼]

Bacteria are the most abundant and diverse microorganisms in soils. They play an important role in soil formation, contribute to plant nutrition and are involved in various processes in agroecosystems such as nutrient cycling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the depth on bacterial diversity and quantity in an agricultural soil. Samples was collected on May 2011 and May 2012 at three different depths : 10, 25 and 45 centimeters. The quantity of total bacteria was measured by real time PCR and the analysis of the diversity was performed by the high throughput sequencing technology. Results obtained by these methods show that the biomass and the bacterial quantity and diversity (Shannon index) decrease with the depth, particularly at 45 centimeters. The biomass is, in average, 6.5 fold less important at 45 cm than at 10 cm and the quantity is 17 fold lower at 45 cm than at 10 cm. Our results also indicate that many taxa, such as Betaprotebacteria, Deltaproterobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Burkholderiales are influenced by the depth. The results will be presented in more details on the poster. [less ▲]

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See detailLong term measurements of volatile organic compounds exchanges above a maize field at Lonzee (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; SALERNO, Giovanni ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2013, February), 78(1), 127-132

VOC (volatile organic compounds) include a wide set of molecules which are mostly emitted by the plants. Atmospheric scientists are strongly interested in these compounds because of their important role ... [more ▼]

VOC (volatile organic compounds) include a wide set of molecules which are mostly emitted by the plants. Atmospheric scientists are strongly interested in these compounds because of their important role in the atmospheric chemistry and their final impact on air pollution and climate change. Evaluation of current and future VOC emissions is thus necessary and requires a comprehensive understanding of VOC production and exchange dynamics under a wide panel of climatic conditions and ecosystems. Forest and non pastured grasslands have been largely studied for the last decade. However, knowledge about VOC fluxes from croplands remains scarce. Our study focuses on the VOC exchanges between a maize field and the atmosphere. It is incorporated in a wider project that aims to study VOC fluxes from two croplands (maize and winter wheat) and a pastured grassland. VOC fluxes have been measured on a maize field during the whole growing season using a micrometeorological method (eddy covariance). While first results show half-hourly bidirectionnal exchanges among all the preselected compounds, in average methanol stands for the greatest emitted VOC, followed by green leaf volatiles, and acetic acid is the greatest taken up VOC. Small isoprene and monoterpenes fluxes are also observed. A diurnal pattern is found for all those VOC, with greater emission/uptake during the day, suggesting a flux dependence on environmental parameters. These environmental controls will be further investigated [less ▲]

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See detailImpact de substances informatives utilisées pour le contrôle des pucerons de céréales sur la diversité et l’abondance de l’entomofaune non cible
Bayendi-Loudit, Sandrine ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2013), 65

Wheat is one of the most cultivated cereals in the world. However, this crop is under attack by many pests and pathogens. In order, to avoid the massive use of the chemicals, other cropping systems ... [more ▼]

Wheat is one of the most cultivated cereals in the world. However, this crop is under attack by many pests and pathogens. In order, to avoid the massive use of the chemicals, other cropping systems semiochemicals can be adopted for a better management of the pests. This study aims to evaluate the use of three semiochemicals ((E)-β-farnesene (EBF), garlic extract and (Z)-3-hexenol) and paraffin on the entomofauna of wheat. This study was conducted at Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech’s experimental farm for nine weeks. Two techniques were used for collecting insects: yellow traps and visual monitoring. The collected insects were sorted, counted and classified taxonomically to the family or species level. This study highlighted the presence of a great diversity of families with EBF treatment and a better proportion of pest and beneficial insects with the smallest quantity of Aphididae. The latter are the most abundant pests on the entire field whatever the considered treatment. The main encountered pests are from Curculionidae, Cecidomyiidae and Chloropidae. Although Chrysomelidae was not high, some damages were observed at the field. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; San Martin y Gomez, Gilles et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2013), 78

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to ... [more ▼]

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIV and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. Two parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. marginata. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the third Action Programme. Recommendations for regulatory and scientific research
Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(SPL1), 301-306

In accordance with the Nitrates Directive, the third "Durable Nitrogen Management Plan" (PGDA) will be soon reviewed in Wallonia (Belgium). The second "Nitrate - Water" workshop took place between 28th ... [more ▼]

In accordance with the Nitrates Directive, the third "Durable Nitrogen Management Plan" (PGDA) will be soon reviewed in Wallonia (Belgium). The second "Nitrate - Water" workshop took place between 28th May and 1st June 2012. The workshop was attended by both Belgian scientists (Université catholique de Louvain - UCL, Walloon Agricultural Research Center CRA-W, Université de Liège - ULg, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech) and French scientists (National Institute for Agricultural Research - INRA). In the light of the results of experiments presented by scientists at this workshop, modifications to the PGDA are now recommended. These concern organic and mineral nitrogen fertilization for crops and meadows; catch crops; soil nitrate-nitrogen residue limitation in autumn, at the start of the nitrate leaching period; the management of meadow ploughing and a modification of the dairy cow standard for nitrogen production. [less ▲]

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See detailStockage de carbone et flux de gaz à effet de serre en prairie (synthèse bibliographique)
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2013), 17(1), 103-117

Grassland carbon (C) sequestration can play an important role in mitigating total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of livestock production systems. An accurate inventory of livestock production system ... [more ▼]

Grassland carbon (C) sequestration can play an important role in mitigating total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of livestock production systems. An accurate inventory of livestock production system contribution to GHG emissions requires to think in terms of global budget, by considering both the GHG sources and the mitigation potential trough grassland soil carbon sequestration. There is a huge variability in C and GHG balances of grasslands that is mainly due to management practices and climatic conditions. The present article shows that, to reduce the uncertainties of the results, long term measurements at the field scale are necessary. Also, it shows the importance of taking the fluxes of the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) into account when calculating the GHG budget. This article also highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the fluxes, in relation to environmental factors and management practices, in order to propose mitigation strategies able to enhance soil carbon sequestration in soils and to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions. [less ▲]

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