References of "Bodson, Bernard"
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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems
Parvin, Nargish; Degré, Aurore ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 05)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at aggregate scale or more specifically at pedon scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till versus winter ploughing) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution versus no-till without organic matter restitution). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity, hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. In addition there will be soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were calibrated with the sensors. The calibration results were significantly (p<0.05) different between Solcouvert and Solresidus and there was also significant (p<0.05) difference among depths of same field especially between 0-15 and 50-60 cm. Soil bulk density and textural differences are the main reason for the differences of moisture content of different sites and depths measured by the moisture probes. In addition, the results were inconsistent along with overestimation of moisture content if the manufacturer based equation is used for the calibration. We conclude that, site and depth wise calibration of low cost sensors is very essential for the interpretation of results. In our study, to capture the total soil moisture networks, the moisture sensors will be in the field during the crop season. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailEtablissement du bilan de carbone d’une exploitation agricole wallonne pratiquant le système allaitant : effets du climat et de la gestion du pâturage. Rapport de synthèse. Janvier 2012 – Décembre 2013.
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Dumortier, Pierre ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

Report (2013)

Dans l’optique d’une atténuation des émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre (GES) des systèmes d’élevage, les écosystèmes prairiaux peuvent jouer un rôle important vu leur potentiel de séquestration de carbone ... [more ▼]

Dans l’optique d’une atténuation des émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre (GES) des systèmes d’élevage, les écosystèmes prairiaux peuvent jouer un rôle important vu leur potentiel de séquestration de carbone (C) dans les sols. Une évaluation pertinente de la contribution des systèmes d’élevage herbivores aux émissions de GES nécessite de raisonner en termes de bilan, en considérant à la fois les sources de GES et leur compensation via la séquestration de carbone par les prairies. Le projet « Etablissement du bilan de carbone d’une exploitation agricole wallonne pratiquant le système allaitant : effets du climat et de la gestion du pâturage » a pour objectif d’établir un inventaire de la contribution nette des systèmes d’élevage en Wallonie aux flux de GES (CO2, N2O, CH4). A long terme, nous étudierons les possibilités de réduction de ces émissions nettes par des adaptations des modes de conduite des systèmes d’élevage en adéquation avec leurs objectifs économiques et sociaux. L’exploitation étudiée est une exploitation agricole du type « naisseur-éleveur ». L’élevage se compose de vaches allaitantes et des veaux non sevrés de l’année de race « Blanc Bleu Belge culard ». Le système d’alimentation se base essentiellement sur la prairie permanente durant la période estivale et les produits conservés de la prairie durant la période hivernale. Ce rapport constitue l’état d’avancement du projet au terme de la deuxième biennale. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives offertes par la culture en association de froment et de pois protéagineux d’hiver
Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

in Autonomie protéique et biométhanisation à la ferme (2013, November 27)

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See detailA comparison of within-season yield prediction methodologies
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2013, November)

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See detailDoes Belgian bioethanol comply with European Renewable Energy Directive ?
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2013, November)

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined ... [more ▼]

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined guidelines to assess carbon footprint of a biofuel depending on biomass source. It also provided generic values of GHG emissions relative to each step of the life cycle taking into account all steps from the cultivation to the end-of-life. These values are used to evaluate the sustainability of European biofuels depending on the used crops and the used transformation technology. This study, based on local crops cultivated in Belgium (sugar beet and wheat), compares specific Belgian values with European generic ones. Belgium yields for both crops are among the best of the continent. Specific Belgian values for fertilizers and pesticides are used. The transformation of wheat into bioethanol is modelled using industrial data. As recommended by the RED, no land use change is taken into account for Belgium. Greenhouse gas emissions induce by the life cycle of Belgium sugar beet bioethanol are similar to the ones mentioned in the European directive but impact repartition is different. In our case, the transformation step achieves a higher part of the impact. That can be explained by the higher cultivation yield. Belgian wheat bioethanol obtains better results than those mentioned by the European directive with a 9% higher reduction. Cultivation step is the major step for this impact. Importance of fertilizers consumptions and associated emissions are highlighted. The comparison of both bioethanols impacts for climate change category, using an energy basis, shows that wheat allows a higher reduction of GHG emissions than sugar beet. If the comparison is performed on a cultivated area basis, results are reversed and sugar beet achieves a twofold reduction compared with wheat. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the importance of N fertilizers and associated emissions and on energy consumptions relative to the transformation step. These analyses reveal non-negligible impact variations. A range of GHG reduction that can be reached using Belgian sugar beet and wheat bioethanol are then calculated. In any case, sugar beet does not achieve the amount of reduction given by the RED, while the opposite effect is shown for wheat with a reduction at least as high as the RED default value. These results indicate the importance of make use of specific values to assess the sustainability of bioethanol for a specific country using a specific crop and a specific technology. Further measurements and research about emission factors due to fertilizers application could improve the accuracy of our results. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop association to improve biological control: case study on pea and wheat aphids
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, September 13)

Nowadays, strategies used to control aphids in fields of pea, Pisum sativum L., and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., still rely on synthetic insecticides which have negative effects on the environment and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, strategies used to control aphids in fields of pea, Pisum sativum L., and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., still rely on synthetic insecticides which have negative effects on the environment and human health. This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods, with special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests – the ‘push-pull’approach. In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures of pea and wheat. The abundance and diversity of adult aphidophagous insects (predators and parasitoids) were accessed weekly using yellow traps, while aphids were observed directly on plants. In both crops, the percentage of plants infested with aphids and density of aphid colonies were significantly higher in monocultures during periods of aphid abundance. Mixed cropping was particularly beneficial for the pea, whereas strip-cropping was more efficient for the wheat. The abundance of beneficials was significantly higher in monocultures comparing to the other treatments. Quantitative aphid-natural enemy food webs showed that the abundance of the two main ladybird species, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.), increased with the occurrence of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) on pea plants. Abundance of the two main species of Syrphidae, Sphaerophoria scripta (L.) and Eupeodes corollae (F.), increased with the occurrence of Sitobion avenae (F.) and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) on wheat plants. This study shows that increasing diversity within crops can help lower aphid infestations. However, additional methods are needed to more efficiently attract aphidophagous beneficials and promote the natural control of aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailVariétés - 2. Escourgeon et orge d'hiver fourragers
Monfort, Bruno; Couvreur, Luc; Jacquemin, Guillaume et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailVariétés - 1. Froment d'hiver
Meza Morales, Walter; Mahieu, O.; Heens, Benoît et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailImplantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Roisin, Christian; Monfort, Bruno et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailLivre Blanc - Céréales
Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

Book published by Gembloux-Agro Bio Tech - Edition septembre 2013 (2013)

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See detailImpact of grazing on carbon dioxide flux exchanges in an intensively managed grassland
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2013, September)

To date, there are few studies assessing the impact of specific management events, particularly grazing, on carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in managed grasslands. Grazing effects are indeed ... [more ▼]

To date, there are few studies assessing the impact of specific management events, particularly grazing, on carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in managed grasslands. Grazing effects are indeed difficult to discern. They vary with the stocking rate and the length of the grazing period. Moreover, they are often masked by environmental responses. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of grazing on the CO2 fluxes of a grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. The research was run at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO), located in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18’ 44’’ N; 4° 58’ 07’’ E; 248 m asl.). The site is a permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha subjected to intensive management. Grassland carbon budget at the system boundaries is calculated from Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 measured by eddy covariance by taking imports and exports of organic C and losses of carbon as methane into account. After 2 years of measurements, the site was close to equilibrium. If management practices (harvest, fertilization and imports as supplementary feedings) and climatic conditions had a significant impact on the C balance, the impact of grazing was uncertain, especially on CO2 fluxes. To do this analysis, we distinguished the long term and the short term impacts of grazing on CO2 fluxes. The long term effect results from the biomass consummation by the cattle and from the cattle effluents that modify assimilation and respiration fluxes. This could be quantified only by comparing fluxes before and after grazing periods. The short term impact is due to cattle respiration that is a part of total ecosystem respiration and should be measured in its presence in the field. For the long term effects of grazing on CO2 fluxes, we analyzed the temporal evolution of gross maximal photosynthetic capacity GPPmax and dark respiration normalized at 10°C (Rd,10). Those parameters were deduced from the response of daytime CO2 fluxes to radiation over 5-day windows. We calculated parameters variations between the beginning and the end of grazing and non-grazing periods (∆GPPmax, ∆Rd,10) and analyzed their dependence to stocking rate. We found a significant decreased of ∆GPPmax that allowed us to quantify the assimilation reduction due to grass consumption by cattle. Discrimination of this impact from flux response to climate was possible only after gathering and treating two years of measurements taken under various climatic conditions. At the opposite, no significant evolution of Rd,10 with the average stocking rate was found. The short term impacts were an increase of CO2 fluxes in presence of cattle. It could be distinguished and quantified only thanks to confinement experiments. Each experiment extended over two days: the first day, cattle was confined in the footprint of the eddy covariance set-up (1.76 ha, 27 LU ha-1) and the second day, it was removed from it. We compared filtered half-hourly data made at 24h intervals, in the presence or absence of cattle, considering that environmental conditions were equivalent (air temperature, wind speed, radiation and wind direction). Livestock contribution to CO2 fluxes was estimated to be 2.25 ± 0.68 kg C LU-1 d-1. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPACT OF COVER CROP AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ON CROP PRODUCTION
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

Poster (2013, July 03)

The aim of this project is to study the crop development in relation to soil tillage and organic residue management and to understand its impact on crop production but also on the dynamics of weed ... [more ▼]

The aim of this project is to study the crop development in relation to soil tillage and organic residue management and to understand its impact on crop production but also on the dynamics of weed populations and intensity of fungal diseases occurring on the crops. Various cropping systems with different tillage methods dedicated to bury the residues from the previous crop and/or from the intercropping and to prepare the implantation of following crop are studied. [less ▲]

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See detailYield variability linked to climate uncertainty and nitrogen fertilisation
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Stafford, John V. (Ed.) Precision agriculture '13 (2013, July)

At the parcel scale, crop models such as STICS are powerful tools to study the effects of variable inputs such as management practices (e.g. nitrogen (N) fertilisation). In combination with a weather ... [more ▼]

At the parcel scale, crop models such as STICS are powerful tools to study the effects of variable inputs such as management practices (e.g. nitrogen (N) fertilisation). In combination with a weather generator, we built up a general methodology that allows studying the yield variability linked to climate uncertainty, in order to assess the best N practice. Our study highlighted that, applying the Belgian farmer current N practice (60 60 60 kgN.ha-1), the yield distribution was found to be very asymmetric with a skewness of -1.02 and a difference of 5% between the mean (10.5 t.ha-1) and the median (11.05 t.ha-1) of the distribution. Which implied that, under such practice, the probability for farmers to achieve decent yields, in comparison of the mean of the distribution, was the highest. [less ▲]

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See detailLong term measurements of VOC exchanges above a maize field at Lonzée (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; SALERNO, Giovanni ULg et al

Poster (2013, June 10)

For the last decades, VOC had arisen scientifict interest due to their important role in the atmospheric chemistry and their final impact on air pollution and climate change. Terrestrial ecosystems being ... [more ▼]

For the last decades, VOC had arisen scientifict interest due to their important role in the atmospheric chemistry and their final impact on air pollution and climate change. Terrestrial ecosystems being the main VOC source, evaluation of current and future biogenic VOC emissions through VOC exchange modeling is thus necessary to better estimate future climate and assess future air pollution risks. BVOC exchanges depend on edaphic variables and are plant species specific. Therefore, their modeling and global budget evaluation requires a comprehensive understanding of production and exchange dynamics under a wide panel of climatic conditions and ecosystems, which necesserily implies BVOC exchange measurements under varied conditions. In that perspective, forest and non pastured grasslands have been largely studied for the last decade, but knowledge about BVOC fluxes from croplands remains still scarce. As a consequence, crop species-specific standard emissions that feed bottom-up BVOC emission models are still often assigned to a default value that is in addition kept constant for the entire growth season, although recent research has shown that plant phenology, acclimation and stress can drastically influence BVOC emissions. To help filling this knowledge gap, we run a project that aims to study VOC fluxes from two major croplands, maize (2nd most important culture worldwide) and winter wheat (1st most important culture worldwide), and a pastured grassland. We present here a specific study focussing on the VOC exchanges between a maize field and the atmosphere. VOC fluxes were measured at ecosystem-scale during the whole 2012 growing season using the eddy covariance by mass-scaning technique with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer. Together with VOC fluxes, we also recorded a wide set of ancillary data including CO2 fluxes, meteorological variables and biomass evolution. As far as we know, we are the first study dealing with BVOC measurements on maize at ecosystem scale and spanning all the phenological stages of the crop. Although first results show half-hourly bidirectionnal exchanges among all the preselected compounds, in average methanol is the greatest emitted VOC, followed by green leaf volatiles. Acetic acid and acetaldehyde are the greatest taken up VOC. Small isoprene and monoterpene fluxes are also observed. A diurnal pattern is found for all those VOC, with greater emission/uptake during the day, suggesting a flux dependence on environmental parameters. Influence of environmental controls, biomass evolution (including growth primary production) and phenology on fluxes is currently under investigation. Our research allows to quantify BVOC exchanges by a maize field throughout a whole growing season. Hence, obtained results will refine the understanding of the BVOC exchanges mechanisms by including both environmental and phenological parameters. Such results are expected to be very useful for BVOC modeling, especially for oxygenated compounds such as methanol. [less ▲]

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See detailA Site-Specific Grain Yield Response Surface : Computing the Identity Card of a Crop Under Different Nitrogen Management Scenarios
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in The acts of the EFITA2013 congress (2013, June)

At the parcel scale, crop models such as STICS are powerful tools to study the effects of variable inputs such as management practices (e.g. nitrogen (N) fertilization). In combination with a weather ... [more ▼]

At the parcel scale, crop models such as STICS are powerful tools to study the effects of variable inputs such as management practices (e.g. nitrogen (N) fertilization). In combination with a weather generator, we propose a general methodology that allows studying the yield variability linked to climate uncertainty, in order to assess the best practices in applying fertilizers. Our study highlights that, using the usual practice of Belgian farmers, namely applying three doses of 60kgN/ha, the yield’s distribution presents the highest degree of asymmetry. This implies the highest probability to achieve yields superior to the mean. The computed return time of expected yield shows that 9 years out of 10, a grain yield of 7.26 tons.ha-1 could at least be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Soils in Agriculture and Archaeology by NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Fernandez Pierna, Juan Antonio; Vincke, Damien; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg et al

Conference (2013, May 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (11 ULg)