References of "Bodson, Bernard"
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See detailAssessing the potential of an algorithm based on mean climatic data to predict wheat yield
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Ferrandis, Salvador et al

in Precision Agriculture (2014)

The real-time non-invasive determination of crop biomass and yield prediction is one of the major challenges in agriculture. An interesting approach lies in using process-based crop yield models in ... [more ▼]

The real-time non-invasive determination of crop biomass and yield prediction is one of the major challenges in agriculture. An interesting approach lies in using process-based crop yield models in combination with real-time monitoring of the input climatic data of these models, but unknown future weather remains the main obstacle to reliable yield prediction. Since accurate weather forecasts can be made only a short time in advance, much information can be derived from analyzing past weather data. This paper presents a methodology that addresses the problem of unknown future weather by using a daily mean climatic database, based exclusively on available past measurements. It involves building climate matrix ensembles, combining different time ranges of projected mean climate data and real measured weather data originating from the historical database or from real-time measurements performed in the field. Used as an input for the STICS crop model, the datasets thus computed were used to perform statistical within-season biomass and yield prediction. This work demonstrated that a reliable predictive delay of 3-4 weeks could be obtained. In combination with a local micrometeorological station that monitors climate data in real-time, the approach also enabled us to (i) predict potential yield at the local level, (ii) detect stress occurrence and (iii) quantify yield loss (or gain) drawing on real monitored climatic conditions of the previous few days. [less ▲]

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See detailUnusual occurrence of cocoons in population of the saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in Belgium
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; Skuhravá, Marcela et al

in Journal of Insect Science [=JIS] (2014)

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum ... [more ▼]

The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls, drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the influence of crop management strategies on the distribution of soil water content by ERT
Chelin, Marie ULg; Parvin, Nargish ULg; Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 20)

Amongst other functions, cover crops are known to increase the stability of the soil structure. Commonly, their suppression is realized by using conventional tillage, but that it has been demonstrated to ... [more ▼]

Amongst other functions, cover crops are known to increase the stability of the soil structure. Commonly, their suppression is realized by using conventional tillage, but that it has been demonstrated to damage the soil structure, which directly impacts the soil water content. The proposed alternatives vary in terms of date, depth and type of tillage. As the soil water content is a major factor in agriculture, it is essential to better understand the influence of the cover crop management on its spatio-temporal distribution. Recent studies demonstrated the relevancy of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to estimate the three-dimensional soil water content distribution. However, only a few of them were performed under field conditions. This study aims at (i) validating the use of the ERT method to estimate the soil water content distribution under field conditions (ii) quantifying the influence of cover crop management on the dynamic of soil water content along the growing season of a maize crop and on Belgian soil types. Three types of cover crop management content will be daily monitored: strip tillage, spring tillage and winter tillage. In order to assess the impact of plants on the soil water distribution, an additional plot will be burned after winter tillage. ERT will be used on a surface of 2 m² for each cover crop management. The validation of the average soil water content will be attended by using Time Domain Reflectrometers (TDR) and suction cups. The water stock obtained by ERT will be validated by using data from a weather station for the estimation of the evapotranspiration and rainfall and minirhizotrons for the assessment of the root water uptake. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of agricultural practices on soil microbial communities in Belgium
Degrune, Florine ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 11)

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on ... [more ▼]

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on finding ways to reduce the use of chemicals, and investigating microbial life may lead to solutions. We know that bacteria and fungi are deeply involved in nutrient cycles. Recently the emergence of massive parallel sequencing has enabled us to realize that microbial diversity is huger than we expected. With such a tool it should be possible to study how soil management practices affect the microbial diversity of agricultural soils. A few such studies have been conducted, most of them focusing on bacteria. For Belgium in particular, there is a lack of data on this topic. Here the aim was to see how residue management and tillage practices affect communities of both bacteria and fungi in Belgian agricultural soils. For this we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S bacterial and 28S fungal rRNA genes. Soil samples came from an experiment in which faba beans were grown with four soil management practices (tillage and no tillage, with and without crop residues), each repeated four times in a Latin square. Several chemical and physical characteristics were measured on each sample. The results show that fungi and bacteria are both impacted by Tillage practices. The main soil drivers are Magnesium and Phosphorus for Fungi communities, and Phosphorus and Potassium for bacteria communities. Finally, the fungi variance observed between plots is explained at 38% by Tillage, Magnesium and phosphorus. And the bacteria variance is explained at 28% by Tillage, Phosphorus and Potassium. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems with preliminary results of soil moisture sensor calibration
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 05)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at aggregate scale or more specifically at pedon scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till (ST) versus winter ploughing (WP)) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution (NI) versus no-till without organic matter restitution (NO)). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity, hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. In addition, there will be soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were calibrated with the sensors. The calibration results were significantly (p<0.05) different between Solcouvert and Solresidus and there was also significant (p<0.05) difference among depths of same field especially between 0-15 and 50-60 cm. Soil bulk density and textural differences are the main reason for the differences of moisture content of different sites and depths measured by the moisture probes. In addition, the results were inconsistent along with overestimation of moisture content if the manufacturer based equation is used for the calibration. In our study, to capture the total soil moisture networks, the moisture sensors will be in the field in winter to spring and summer to autumn. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems
Parvin, Nargish; Degré, Aurore ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 05)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. Mostly the preferential flow of water is addressed by the apparent velocity through the soil but this study will focus on soil structure along with soil moisture dynamics at aggregate scale or more specifically at pedon scale. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field known as Solcouvert (objects: strip-till versus winter ploughing) and Solresidus (objects: no-till with organic matter restitution versus no-till without organic matter restitution). Soil profile description has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil sampling has been done in different depths of soil according to the soil profile description. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity, hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. In addition there will be soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were calibrated with the sensors. The calibration results were significantly (p<0.05) different between Solcouvert and Solresidus and there was also significant (p<0.05) difference among depths of same field especially between 0-15 and 50-60 cm. Soil bulk density and textural differences are the main reason for the differences of moisture content of different sites and depths measured by the moisture probes. In addition, the results were inconsistent along with overestimation of moisture content if the manufacturer based equation is used for the calibration. We conclude that, site and depth wise calibration of low cost sensors is very essential for the interpretation of results. In our study, to capture the total soil moisture networks, the moisture sensors will be in the field during the crop season. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailEtablissement du bilan de carbone d’une exploitation agricole wallonne pratiquant le système allaitant : effets du climat et de la gestion du pâturage. Rapport de synthèse. Janvier 2012 – Décembre 2013.
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Dumortier, Pierre ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

Report (2013)

Dans l’optique d’une atténuation des émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre (GES) des systèmes d’élevage, les écosystèmes prairiaux peuvent jouer un rôle important vu leur potentiel de séquestration de carbone ... [more ▼]

Dans l’optique d’une atténuation des émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre (GES) des systèmes d’élevage, les écosystèmes prairiaux peuvent jouer un rôle important vu leur potentiel de séquestration de carbone (C) dans les sols. Une évaluation pertinente de la contribution des systèmes d’élevage herbivores aux émissions de GES nécessite de raisonner en termes de bilan, en considérant à la fois les sources de GES et leur compensation via la séquestration de carbone par les prairies. Le projet « Etablissement du bilan de carbone d’une exploitation agricole wallonne pratiquant le système allaitant : effets du climat et de la gestion du pâturage » a pour objectif d’établir un inventaire de la contribution nette des systèmes d’élevage en Wallonie aux flux de GES (CO2, N2O, CH4). A long terme, nous étudierons les possibilités de réduction de ces émissions nettes par des adaptations des modes de conduite des systèmes d’élevage en adéquation avec leurs objectifs économiques et sociaux. L’exploitation étudiée est une exploitation agricole du type « naisseur-éleveur ». L’élevage se compose de vaches allaitantes et des veaux non sevrés de l’année de race « Blanc Bleu Belge culard ». Le système d’alimentation se base essentiellement sur la prairie permanente durant la période estivale et les produits conservés de la prairie durant la période hivernale. Ce rapport constitue l’état d’avancement du projet au terme de la deuxième biennale. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives offertes par la culture en association de froment et de pois protéagineux d’hiver
Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

in Autonomie protéique et biométhanisation à la ferme (2013, November 27)

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See detailA comparison of within-season yield prediction methodologies
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2013, November)

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See detailDoes Belgian bioethanol comply with European Renewable Energy Directive ?
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Poster (2013, November)

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined ... [more ▼]

The craze for biofuels has increased in recent years mainly to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumptions. The European Renewable Energy Directive (RED), published in 2009, defined guidelines to assess carbon footprint of a biofuel depending on biomass source. It also provided generic values of GHG emissions relative to each step of the life cycle taking into account all steps from the cultivation to the end-of-life. These values are used to evaluate the sustainability of European biofuels depending on the used crops and the used transformation technology. This study, based on local crops cultivated in Belgium (sugar beet and wheat), compares specific Belgian values with European generic ones. Belgium yields for both crops are among the best of the continent. Specific Belgian values for fertilizers and pesticides are used. The transformation of wheat into bioethanol is modelled using industrial data. As recommended by the RED, no land use change is taken into account for Belgium. Greenhouse gas emissions induce by the life cycle of Belgium sugar beet bioethanol are similar to the ones mentioned in the European directive but impact repartition is different. In our case, the transformation step achieves a higher part of the impact. That can be explained by the higher cultivation yield. Belgian wheat bioethanol obtains better results than those mentioned by the European directive with a 9% higher reduction. Cultivation step is the major step for this impact. Importance of fertilizers consumptions and associated emissions are highlighted. The comparison of both bioethanols impacts for climate change category, using an energy basis, shows that wheat allows a higher reduction of GHG emissions than sugar beet. If the comparison is performed on a cultivated area basis, results are reversed and sugar beet achieves a twofold reduction compared with wheat. Sensitivity analyses are performed on the importance of N fertilizers and associated emissions and on energy consumptions relative to the transformation step. These analyses reveal non-negligible impact variations. A range of GHG reduction that can be reached using Belgian sugar beet and wheat bioethanol are then calculated. In any case, sugar beet does not achieve the amount of reduction given by the RED, while the opposite effect is shown for wheat with a reduction at least as high as the RED default value. These results indicate the importance of make use of specific values to assess the sustainability of bioethanol for a specific country using a specific crop and a specific technology. Further measurements and research about emission factors due to fertilizers application could improve the accuracy of our results. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop association to improve biological control: case study on pea and wheat aphids
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, September 13)

Nowadays, strategies used to control aphids in fields of pea, Pisum sativum L., and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., still rely on synthetic insecticides which have negative effects on the environment and ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, strategies used to control aphids in fields of pea, Pisum sativum L., and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., still rely on synthetic insecticides which have negative effects on the environment and human health. This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods, with special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests – the ‘push-pull’approach. In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures of pea and wheat. The abundance and diversity of adult aphidophagous insects (predators and parasitoids) were accessed weekly using yellow traps, while aphids were observed directly on plants. In both crops, the percentage of plants infested with aphids and density of aphid colonies were significantly higher in monocultures during periods of aphid abundance. Mixed cropping was particularly beneficial for the pea, whereas strip-cropping was more efficient for the wheat. The abundance of beneficials was significantly higher in monocultures comparing to the other treatments. Quantitative aphid-natural enemy food webs showed that the abundance of the two main ladybird species, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (L.), increased with the occurrence of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) on pea plants. Abundance of the two main species of Syrphidae, Sphaerophoria scripta (L.) and Eupeodes corollae (F.), increased with the occurrence of Sitobion avenae (F.) and Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) on wheat plants. This study shows that increasing diversity within crops can help lower aphid infestations. However, additional methods are needed to more efficiently attract aphidophagous beneficials and promote the natural control of aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailVariétés - 2. Escourgeon et orge d'hiver fourragers
Monfort, Bruno; Couvreur, Luc; Jacquemin, Guillaume et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailVariétés - 1. Froment d'hiver
Meza Morales, Walter; Mahieu, O.; Heens, Benoît et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailImplantation des cultures
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Roisin, Christian; Monfort, Bruno et al

in Destain, Jean-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard (Eds.) Livre Blanc Céréales (2013, September 12)

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See detailLivre Blanc - Céréales
Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

Book published by Gembloux-Agro Bio Tech - Edition septembre 2013 (2013)

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See detailImpact of grazing on carbon dioxide flux exchanges in an intensively managed grassland
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2013, September)

To date, there are few studies assessing the impact of specific management events, particularly grazing, on carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in managed grasslands. Grazing effects are indeed ... [more ▼]

To date, there are few studies assessing the impact of specific management events, particularly grazing, on carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in managed grasslands. Grazing effects are indeed difficult to discern. They vary with the stocking rate and the length of the grazing period. Moreover, they are often masked by environmental responses. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of grazing on the CO2 fluxes of a grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. The research was run at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO), located in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18’ 44’’ N; 4° 58’ 07’’ E; 248 m asl.). The site is a permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha subjected to intensive management. Grassland carbon budget at the system boundaries is calculated from Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 measured by eddy covariance by taking imports and exports of organic C and losses of carbon as methane into account. After 2 years of measurements, the site was close to equilibrium. If management practices (harvest, fertilization and imports as supplementary feedings) and climatic conditions had a significant impact on the C balance, the impact of grazing was uncertain, especially on CO2 fluxes. To do this analysis, we distinguished the long term and the short term impacts of grazing on CO2 fluxes. The long term effect results from the biomass consummation by the cattle and from the cattle effluents that modify assimilation and respiration fluxes. This could be quantified only by comparing fluxes before and after grazing periods. The short term impact is due to cattle respiration that is a part of total ecosystem respiration and should be measured in its presence in the field. For the long term effects of grazing on CO2 fluxes, we analyzed the temporal evolution of gross maximal photosynthetic capacity GPPmax and dark respiration normalized at 10°C (Rd,10). Those parameters were deduced from the response of daytime CO2 fluxes to radiation over 5-day windows. We calculated parameters variations between the beginning and the end of grazing and non-grazing periods (∆GPPmax, ∆Rd,10) and analyzed their dependence to stocking rate. We found a significant decreased of ∆GPPmax that allowed us to quantify the assimilation reduction due to grass consumption by cattle. Discrimination of this impact from flux response to climate was possible only after gathering and treating two years of measurements taken under various climatic conditions. At the opposite, no significant evolution of Rd,10 with the average stocking rate was found. The short term impacts were an increase of CO2 fluxes in presence of cattle. It could be distinguished and quantified only thanks to confinement experiments. Each experiment extended over two days: the first day, cattle was confined in the footprint of the eddy covariance set-up (1.76 ha, 27 LU ha-1) and the second day, it was removed from it. We compared filtered half-hourly data made at 24h intervals, in the presence or absence of cattle, considering that environmental conditions were equivalent (air temperature, wind speed, radiation and wind direction). Livestock contribution to CO2 fluxes was estimated to be 2.25 ± 0.68 kg C LU-1 d-1. [less ▲]

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See detailIMPACT OF COVER CROP AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT ON CROP PRODUCTION
Hiel, Marie-Pierre ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg

Poster (2013, July 03)

The aim of this project is to study the crop development in relation to soil tillage and organic residue management and to understand its impact on crop production but also on the dynamics of weed ... [more ▼]

The aim of this project is to study the crop development in relation to soil tillage and organic residue management and to understand its impact on crop production but also on the dynamics of weed populations and intensity of fungal diseases occurring on the crops. Various cropping systems with different tillage methods dedicated to bury the residues from the previous crop and/or from the intercropping and to prepare the implantation of following crop are studied. [less ▲]

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