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See detailAn Overview Of Methodology For Predicting Activities And Functionalities Of A Wide Range Of Carbohydrate- Based Surfactants From Their Fundamental Properties
Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

in 8th World surfactant congress and business convention (2011, June 06)

Introduction and Background: Carbohydrate-based surfactants (CBS) are, today, among the most attractive amphiphilic compounds owing to their high potentiality for a large product concept. The main ... [more ▼]

Introduction and Background: Carbohydrate-based surfactants (CBS) are, today, among the most attractive amphiphilic compounds owing to their high potentiality for a large product concept. The main fundamental reasons are the abundance of their precursors from renewable resources, the excellent environmental compatibility, and the quasi-unlimited availability of their molecular structure and geometry. Based on the latter aspect, CBS would be expected to generate a wide range of functionalities and activities for food and non-food applications. All kinds of amphiphilic compounds including small surfactants, bolaforms, geminis, oligomeric, and polymeric molecules with a single or a multiple hydrophobic tails can be designed by synthetic routes thanks to a large number of reactive chemical groups in their basic structure. Consequently, various methodologies are required, and could be used in complementary for identifying all of their potentiality for further development. Methodology: The methodology is based on the characterization in the laboratory scale, i.e. using only small amounts of sample, of CBS properties at fluid and solid interfaces, in bulk liquid phases, and at the solid state with simplified models. Results and Discussion: In this communication, an overview of functionality and activity-predicting methods for a wide range of CBS structures varying in head polar groups, hydrophobic tail and number, and linkers will be presented and discussed. Performances and complementarities of different approaches, methodologies, and techniques will be emphasized. These include sample preparation and analysis procedures, interfacial-characterizing instruments, mainly tensiometers and Langmuir balances used both in dynamic and (quasi)-static modes, particle size and electrical charge analyser, and (micro)calorimeters using differential scanning, isothermal titration, and thermogravimetry methods. Conclusion: The knowledge of these basic properties is helpful for predicting their main activities and functionalities like their aptitude for forming and stabilizing colloidal systems, and for developing biological activities. This is also necessary for the rational design of CBS amphiphilic structure regarding to specific properties. The same approach can also be applied for other required features as the compound stability, toxicity, and biodegradability. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure-Surface Activity Relationships Of Uronic Acid-Derivative Surfactants From Renewable Resources Applications
Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Richard, Gaetan ULg et al

Poster (2011, June)

Introduction and Background: Uronic acid-derivative surfactants are amphiphilic compounds with growing interests owing to their potential applications in various areas [1]. This class of carbohydrate ... [more ▼]

Introduction and Background: Uronic acid-derivative surfactants are amphiphilic compounds with growing interests owing to their potential applications in various areas [1]. This class of carbohydrate-based surfactants can be easily prepared from renewable raw materials in a wide range of structure by modular synthesis thanks to the presence of one carboxylic and numerous hydroxyl groups. The polar head group configurations according to the stereochemistry of OH groups, and geometry (cyclic or not), the hydrophobic tail (number and length of alkyl chain), and the type of linker (ester, acetal and amide, etc) are among the main variables in their structural entities. Therefore, the investigation of their structure-surface activity relationships appears valuable for increasing backgrounds, and achieving a rational design for selecting the best structures to be used in different industrial fields [2]. Methodology: A few analogous of glucuronic acid-derivative surfactants have been synthesized by chemical or enzymatic routes. After purification, their structure has been confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques (RMN, MS, IR). Surface tensions of true aqueous solution have been then measured in dynamic and static modes using a series of complementary techniques. Critical micelle concentrations, minimum molecular areas, and maximum surface excesses have also been determined. Results and Discussion: Glucuronic acid derivative surfactants under investigation vary in the polar head group configuration including cyclic or non-cyclic structure and α or β anomeric form, in the hydrophobic tail regarding to the chain length (C8 to C14), the presence of a double bond, as well as an OH group at the terminal carbon, and in the type of linker, ester in C6 or acetal in C1. Results showed that all of these structural attributes affect both dynamic and equilibrium surface properties of glucuronic acid -based surfactants. Conclusion: A set of synthetic glucuronic acid-based surfactants varying in the polar head group, hydrophobic tail, and linker allow us to generate various surface-active properties at the air-water interface, and to increase the knowledge on relationships between their structure and surface-active properties. [1] Laurent, P.; Razafindralambo, H.; Wathelet, B.; Blecker, C.; Wathelet, J.-P.; Paquot, M., Synthesis and Surface-Active Properties of Uronic Amide Derivatives, Surfactants from Renewable Organic Raw Materials. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents 2010, in press. [2] Razafindralambo, H.; Blecker, C.; Mezdour, S.; Deroanne, C.; Crowet, J.; Brasseur, R.; Lins, L.; Paquot, M., Impacts of the Carbonyl Group Location of Ester Bond on Interfacial Properties of Sugar-Based Surfactants: Experimental and Computational Evidences. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2009, 113 (26), 8872-8877. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Belgian Walloon Region within DGTRE research project of excellence (TECHNOSE). [less ▲]

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See detailFermentation of date palm juice by curdlan gum production from Rhizobium radiobacter ATCC 6466 (TM): Purification, rheological and physico-chemical characterization
Ben Salah, Riadh; Jaouadi, Bassem; Bouaziz, Amin et al

in Lwt-Food Science And Technology (2011), 44(4), 1026-1034

The present study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using date palm juice byproducts for curdlan production by Rhizobium radiobacter ATCC 6466(TM) in batch experiments. A number of ... [more ▼]

The present study was undertaken to investigate the possibility of using date palm juice byproducts for curdlan production by Rhizobium radiobacter ATCC 6466(TM) in batch experiments. A number of operational parameters, namely pH value, temperature range, inoculum ratio, agitation speed, carbon concentration, nitrogen source, and fermentation time, were investigated in terms of their optimal values for as well as individual and synergistic effects on curdlan production. The findings indicated that the strain exhibited a high ability to use the natural substrate under investigation. A curdlan production yield of 22.83 g/l was obtained in 500-ml agitated flasks (50 ml) when the strain was cultivated in the optimal medium (pH, 7; ammonium sulphate concentration, 2 g/l; date glucose juice concentration, 120 g/l) operating at 30 degrees C with an inoculum ratio of 5 ml/100 ml, an agitation speed of 180 rpm, and a fermentation period of 51 h. The purified date byproducts-curdlan (DBP-curdlan) had a molecular weight of 180 kDa, a linear structure composed exclusively of beta-(1,3)-glucosidic linkages, a melting temperature (T(m)) and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of 1.24 and -3.55 degrees C. respectively. The average measured heights of its molecules were noted to fluctuate between 14.1 +/- 0.07 and 211.73 +/- 0.6 mu m. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on the susceptibility of the bovine milk fat globule membrane proteins to enzymatic hydrolysis and organization of some of the proteins
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in International Dairy Journal (2011), 21(5), 312-318

Isolated milk fat globules were subjected to enzyme hydrolysis by a specific protease (trypsin) and a nonspecific protease (pronase E) to study the asymmetric arrangement of milk fat globule membrane ... [more ▼]

Isolated milk fat globules were subjected to enzyme hydrolysis by a specific protease (trypsin) and a nonspecific protease (pronase E) to study the asymmetric arrangement of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins. The remaining proteins on the globules after proteolysis were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. By this proteomic approach, the results confirmed different susceptibility of the MFGM proteins to proteolysis by enzymes. Butyrophilin and adipophilin were completely digested by trypsin and by pronase E, whereas lactadherin and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were almost resistant to hydrolysis by trypsin and partially attacked by pronase E. Based on our results and recent bibliographic data, an up-dated model of the organization of some MFGM proteins is proposed and discussed. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHPLC profile and dynamic surface properties of the proteose-peptone fraction from bovine milk and from whey protein concentrate
Innocente, Nadia; Biasutti, Marialuisa; Blecker, Christophe ULg

in International Dairy Journal (2011), 21(4), 222-228

Extraction of proteose-peptones (PPs) was carried out from fresh milk, from milk after prolonged incubation (12 days at 37 degrees C) and from two different whey protein concentrates (WPCs). The high ... [more ▼]

Extraction of proteose-peptones (PPs) was carried out from fresh milk, from milk after prolonged incubation (12 days at 37 degrees C) and from two different whey protein concentrates (WPCs). The high performance liquid chromatography profiles of these extracts were compared. PPs eluted as three chromatographic peaks, which increased during milk incubation. The PP extracts from WPCs showed a number of peaks that are attributable to small peptides belonging to the proteose-peptone fraction and probably derive from proteolysis during storage of WPC. The dynamic properties at the air-water interface of the PP extracts were investigated by the drop-volume method. The PPs extracted from fresh milk showed the lowest values and a more rapid reduction in surface tension. PPs from WPCs were found to be effective as surfactants, even though a less marked reduction in surface tension compared with PPs from milk samples was shown. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPRODUCTION OF XANTHAN GUM FROM XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS NRRL B-1459 BY FERMENTATION OF DATE JUICE PALM BY-PRODUCTS (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)
Ben Salah, Riadh; Chaari, Kacem; Besbes, Souhail et al

in Journal of Food Process Engineering (2011), 34(2), 457-474

In this work, we studied the possibility to use date juice for xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. The results showed that this strain has a high ability to metabolize date juice ... [more ▼]

In this work, we studied the possibility to use date juice for xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. The results showed that this strain has a high ability to metabolize date juice. The data on optimization of physiological conditions of fermentation, pH, temperature, inoculum's size, glucose and nitrogen concentration showed that the maximum xanthan yield of 24.5 g/L was obtained from 60 g/L glucose, 3 g/L ammonium sulphate when batch fermentation was carried with 5% inoculum's size at pH 7, 28C, 48 h, on a rotary orbital shaker at 180 rpm. The polysaccharide purified by high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed by thin layer chromatography contained glucose, glucoronic acid and mannose. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Agri-food by-products rich in sugars may be used to produce high added value food ingredients such as xanthan gum. No work has studied the production of this polysaccharide from date. This study is focused on given value addition to date by-product (hard texture) by production of xanthan gum. The effect of several parameters (pH, temperature, inoculum's size, agitation speed, nitrogen source and carbon concentration) on production yield was investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailDate syrup: Effect of hydrolytic enzymes (pectinase/cellulase) on physico-chemical characteristics, sensory and functional properties
Abbes, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Lwt-Food Science And Technology (2011), 44(8), 1827-1834

This work is a contribution to give value addition to second grade dates (with hard texture) by the production of enzymatically treated syrup with high commercial value. It was observed that the pulp ... [more ▼]

This work is a contribution to give value addition to second grade dates (with hard texture) by the production of enzymatically treated syrup with high commercial value. It was observed that the pulp:water at ratio 1:3 treated with 50 U of pectinase and 5 U of cellulase during 120 min at 50 degrees C gave the highest recovery of total soluble solids (72.37 g of total soluble solids/100 g fresh basis) and the lower turbidity (186.45 NTU) compared with control without enzyme addition (Total soluble solids yields: 66.34 g of total soluble solids/100 g fresh basis and turbidity: 1513 NTU). physico-chemical measurements indicated that carbohydrates were predominant in all date varieties as well as their syrups (similar to 69.59-83.76 g/100 g dry matter in dates and similar to 62.14-74.68 g/100 g fresh weight in syrup). Allig variety was characterised by a high content of reducing sugars content (similar to 77.91 g/100 g dry matter), contrary to Deglet Nour (similar to 23.17 g/100 g dry matter) and Kentichi (similar to 21.3 g/100 g dry matter). The CIE L* a* b* colour values of the enzyme-treated date syrup of Deglet Nour, Allig and Kentichi variety showed lighter colours (L* values ranging from 24.16 to 44) than the control without enzyme (L* values ranging from 0.545 to 17.2). Hedonic evaluation showed that enzyme-treated date syrup was more appreciated by consumers. Microbiological study showed that date syrups were free from aerobes, moulds, coliforms and enterobacteriaceae and were microbiologically stable during five months storage. Results suggested that enzymatic treatment could be used for production of date syrup with high commercial value (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of oven-drying temperature on physico-chemical and functional properties of date fibre concentrates
Borchani, C.; Besbes, S.; Masmoudi, M. et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2011)

Agri-food by-products rich in dietary fibres may be used as feeds and health foods. Owing to its high fibre content, date flesh could be useful in human nutrition. It is interesting to study the influence ... [more ▼]

Agri-food by-products rich in dietary fibres may be used as feeds and health foods. Owing to its high fibre content, date flesh could be useful in human nutrition. It is interesting to study the influence of oven-drying temperatures of date fibre concentrates (DFC) on their physicochemical and functional properties for possible use as a potential fibre source in the enrichment of food. DFC from 11 Tunisian date cultivars were dried at different temperatures (40, 50 and 60 °C) and analysed regarding proximate composition (moisture, ash, protein and lipids), physicochemical (water activity (aw), pH) and functional properties (water holding capacity (WHC), swelling capacity (SC), oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC)). DFC dried at different temperatures showed interesting functional characteristics such as hydration properties, high OHC (2.73–4.60 g oil/g dry fibre) and EC (5.93–12.87%) values. Although drying temperatures promoted little modifications affecting the physicochemical properties of DFC, significant decreases in WHC, SC and EC of DFC were noticed at the highest temperature (60 °C) for most of the date varieties. The observed influence of drying temperature on functional DFC properties calls for the use of low temperature in order to obtain DFC as suitable food ingredient. [less ▲]

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See detailWill isomalto-oligosaccharides, a well-established functional food in Asia, break through the European and American market? The status of knowledge on these prebiotics
Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Delzenne, Nathalie; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition (2011)

This critical review article present the current state of knowledge on isomaltooligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in ... [more ▼]

This critical review article present the current state of knowledge on isomaltooligosaccharides, some well known functional oligosaccharides in Asia, to evaluate their potential as emergent prebiotics in the American and European functional food market. It includes first a unique inventory of the different families of compounds which have been considered as IMO and their specific structure. A description of the different production methods including the involved enzymes and their specific activities, the substrates and the types of IMO produced. Considering the structural complexity of IMO products, specific characterization methods are described as well as purification methods which enable the riddance of digestible oligosaccharides. Finally an extensive review of their techno-functional and nutritional properties enables to place IMO inside the growing prebiotic market. This review is of a particular interest considering that IMO commercialization in America and Europe is a topical subject due to the recent submission, by Bioneutra INC. (Canada), of a novel food file to the UK Food Standards Agency as well as several patents for IMO production. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of drying methods on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of date fibre concentrates
Borchani, I.; Besbes, S.; Masmoudi, M. et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 125

Effects of different drying methods (freeze-, oven- and sun-drying) on physico-chemical properties of date fibre concentrates (DFC) from three potential Tunisian cultivars were investigated. DFC had high ... [more ▼]

Effects of different drying methods (freeze-, oven- and sun-drying) on physico-chemical properties of date fibre concentrates (DFC) from three potential Tunisian cultivars were investigated. DFC had high contents of dietary fibre (71.01–93.46% dry matter), with high proportions of insoluble dietary fibre. Freeze dried DFC had the highest values of swelling, water holding and oil holding capacities. This drying method gave also the lightest DFC colour. Kentichi fibre produced by freeze-drying had the highest viscosity and the lowest bulkier particles. The present work assessed polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of DFC using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The highest polyphenol content was found for freeze dried DFC, contrary to radical scavenging activity which was not affected by drying methods. Results suggest that freeze dried DFC had the highest potential to be used as a functional ingredient in food products. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: a review
Elleuch, mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothy; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2011), 124

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See detailSynthèse des connaissances sur la déshydratation osmotique
Bchir, Brahim; Besbes, Souhail; Giet, Jean-Michel et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2011), 15(1), 129-142

Parmi les procédés de conservation des produits végétaux, la déshydratation osmotique présente un intérêt économique et nutritionnel certain. Cette technique, économe en énergie, est susceptible de ... [more ▼]

Parmi les procédés de conservation des produits végétaux, la déshydratation osmotique présente un intérêt économique et nutritionnel certain. Cette technique, économe en énergie, est susceptible de prolonger la période de disponibilité des produits alimentaires et leur confère des propriétés sensorielles nouvelles et appréciées. Elle permet ainsi aux acteurs de la filière agro-alimentaire d’écouler leurs productions à de meilleurs prix et aux consommateurs d’en disposer tout au long de l’année. Cette technique est un outil facile à mettre en place, surtout dans les pays en voie de développement, en raison de son faible cout. Le présent article a pour objectif de présenter une synthèse de la littérature concernant la technique de déshydratation osmotique afin d’en rappeler les bases théoriques et pratiques, mais aussi d’en préciser les nouvelles tendances et voies de recherches récentes. [less ▲]

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See detailFlaxseed proteins: food uses and health benefits flaxseed proteins
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Van Remoortel, Vinciane ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Science & Technology (2011), 46(2), 221-228

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See detailEffect of ageing on different egg yolk fractions on surface properties at the air–water interface
Freschi, Jérôme ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in International Journal of Food Science & Technology (2011), 46

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of egg ageing on the surface properties of whole and fractionated yolk at the air–water interface. Eggs were stored at 4 Cfor 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of egg ageing on the surface properties of whole and fractionated yolk at the air–water interface. Eggs were stored at 4 Cfor 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks after laying.A laboratory scale fractionation process was then applied at each ageing time. Egg yolk was separated into two fractions, plasma composed of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and livetins, and granules formed by highdensity lipoproteins (HDLs), phosvitins and LDLg (g = granule). Moreover, recombined plasma and granules fractions were investigated to highlight a potential synergic effect on surface properties. Results have shown the main contribution of LDLs on surface properties of yolk and an improvement of granules surface properties when they are disrupted. Moreover, ageing affected surface properties differently depending on the considered fractions. Broken LDLsand disrupted granules could explain this observed behaviour. Recombined fractions showed different compression isotherms at the air–water interface than whole yolk. [less ▲]

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