References of "Blecker, Christophe"
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See detailMilk-clotting properties of plant rennets and their enzymatic, rheological and sensory role in cheese making: a Review
Ben Amira, Amal; Besbes, Souhail; Attia, Hamadi et al

in International Journal of Food Properties (in press)

Plant rennets hold an important position amongst various coagulants used in cheese technology. The selection of a suitable plant coagulant is important due to the increasing global demands of cheese ... [more ▼]

Plant rennets hold an important position amongst various coagulants used in cheese technology. The selection of a suitable plant coagulant is important due to the increasing global demands of cheese alongside reduced supply of calf rennet. Thus, a literature synthesis is presented to investigate recent achievements on their functional properties and enzymatic role in cheese making. Efforts have also been done to compare certain rheological and sensory properties of final products, arising from some plant and animal based rennets. In fact, some coagulants such as actinidin or dubiumin produce cheeses with sensory qualities similar to those produced by animal rennet. Others, like ginger, cucumisin or hieronymain proteases contribute to develop very different textures and flavors, due to excessive proteolytic activity and production of bitter peptides. For milk-clotting enzymes with high non-specific action, several improvement strategies have been developed to produce cheeses with sensory properties close to those of animal rennet. For example, the mixture of coagulants (cardosins/chymosin), the selection of appropriate milk or its ultrafiltration, as well as the increase of salting time of cheese during ripening could be efficient ways to improve texture and reduce bitterness. Concerning cheeses with high yield loss, the whey could be used for a traditional production of whey cheese. To conclude, the selection of appropriate plant rennet with high MCA/PA ratio and the optimization of all coagulation parameters play a central role in manufacturing cheese with superior rheological and sensory properties. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of proteins from wild cardoon flowers (Cynara cardunculus L.) by a proteomic approach
Ben Amira, Amal; Bauwens, Julien ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Biology (in press)

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for ... [more ▼]

Proteomic approach was applied to identify total proteins, particularly the enzymatic content, from wild cardoon flowers. As the selection of an appropriate sample preparation method is the key for getting reliable results, two different extraction/precipitation methods (trichloroacetic acid and phenol/ammonium acetate) were tested on fresh and lyophilized flowers. After two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D–E) separations, a better protein pattern was obtained after phenol extraction from lyophilized flowers. Only 46 % of the total analyzed spots resulted in a protein identification by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF. Four proteases (cardosins A, E, G, and H), which have become a subject of great interest in dairy technology, were identified. They presented molecular weights and isoelectric points very close and high levels of homology between matched peptides sequences. The absence of the other cardosins (B, C, D, and F) could be an advantage, as it reduces the excessive proteolytic activity that causes bitter flavors and texture defects, during cheese making. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of lignin structure on oil production via hydroprocessing with a copperdoped porous metal oxide catalyst
Gillet, sebastien; Petitjean, Laurence; Aguedo, Mario ULg et al

in Bioresource Technology (in press)

A copper-catalyzed depolymerization strategy was employed to investigate the impact of lignin structure on the distribution of hydroprocessing products. Specifically, lignin was extracted from beech wood ... [more ▼]

A copper-catalyzed depolymerization strategy was employed to investigate the impact of lignin structure on the distribution of hydroprocessing products. Specifically, lignin was extracted from beech wood and miscanthus grass. The extracted lignins, as well as a commercial lignin (P1000), were then fractionated using ethyl acetate to provide three different portions for each source of lignin [total of 9 fractions]. Each fraction was structurally characterized and treated with a copper-doped porous metal oxide (Cu-PMO) catalyst under 4 MPa H2 and at 180 °C for 12 hours. The reaction conditions provided notable yields of oil for each fraction of lignin. Analysis of the oils indicated phenolic monomers of commercial interest. The structure of these monomers and the yield of monomer-containing oil was dependent on the origin of the lignin. Our results indicate that hydroprocessing with a Cu-PMO catalyst can selectively provide monomers of commercial interest by careful choice of lignin starting material. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysiological and bio-functional properties of gum arabic: a notable interest for certain human diseases
Eloundou Mballa, Pierre; Goffin, Dorothée ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

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See detailInsect fatty acids: A comparison of lipids from three Orthopterans and Tenebrio molitor L. larvae
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2017), 20(2), 337-340

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and ... [more ▼]

In order to explore some potential insect sources of food lipids, the lipid compositions of three Orthopterans (Acheta domesticus, Conocephalus discolor and Chorthippus parallelus) were analyzed and compared with those of Tenebrio molitor larvae. A. domesticus, Co. discolor, Ch. parallelus and T. molitor larvae were found to contain approximately 15%, 13%, 10% and 32% lipids on dry weight, respectively. The lipids from three Orthopterans contain much higher amounts of essential fatty acids than those of T. molitor larvae. The two Orthopterans of the suborder Ensifera i.e., A. domesticus and Co. discolor contain linoleic acid in major quantities, while Ch. parallelus of the suborder Caelifera, contain α-linolenic acid in major quantities. The consumption of linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acid is linked with numerous health promoting effects. The factors that contribute to differences in fatty acid profiles of these insects are being discussed. At last the nutritional parameters including polyunsaturated to saturated and omega 6 to omega 3 fatty acid ratios of these insect lipids are also being discussed to understand the potential role of these lipids in human nutrition. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosity properties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel state
Gillet, Sébastien; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Petrut, Raoul et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2017), 96

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See detailSurface behavior of soluble protein fractions from Spirulina platensis
Barka, Abakoura; Blecker, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailMicrobiological load of edible insects found in Belgium
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Insects (2017)

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of extraction pH on techno-functional properties of crude extracts from wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) flowers
Ben Amira, Amal ULg; Makhlouf, Ines; Petrut, Raul Flaviu et al

in Food Chemistry (2017), 225

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See detailPESTO SAUCE TYPE PRODUCTS: INFLUENCE OF BEESWAX AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON RHEOLOGY AND COLLOIDAL STABILITY
Bouacida, Saoussen; Muresan, Vlad; Essaidi, Ismahen et al

in Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences (2017), 6(3), 911-920

One of the major problems for pesto sauce type products is the tendency of oil to cream, causing their alteration and decreasing consumer’s acceptability. In this study, colloidal and oxidative stability ... [more ▼]

One of the major problems for pesto sauce type products is the tendency of oil to cream, causing their alteration and decreasing consumer’s acceptability. In this study, colloidal and oxidative stability of pesto samples with (0.5-1.2%) of beeswax was evaluated during storage at 4, 20 and 40°C. The rheological behavior and color analysis was evaluated at the same temperatures. Sensory evaluation by using a hedonic test was also perfomed. Increasing the samples beeswax content increased the pesto colloidal stability. The samples with 0.8-1.2% have the highest stability and overall performed well on sensory analysis. The peroxide values of samples increased significantly (p<0.05) with storage time and temperature, as well as the p-anisidine values. During the storage at 40°C, peroxide values of samples without wax and with 1,2% wax increased from 11.75 to 33.81 and 32.72 meq O2/kg, respectively. In the same condition, p-Anisidine values increased from 4.51 to 10.71 and 9.94, respectively. For these same samples stored 793 h, peroxide values increased from 13.33 to 33.81 and to 32.72 meq O2/kg, when the temperature increased from 4 to 40°C. The same observation was made for p-anisidine values, which increased from 8.40 to 10.71 and 9.94. As expected, the pesto samples showed the best oxidative stability at low temperature. It was shown that beeswax content, temperature and time of storage are important parameters for controlling pesto rheology, colloidal and oxidative stability. In fact, the pseudo plasticity of samples increases with increasing beeswax added and with decreasing the temperature. The colloidal and oxidative stability of samples decreased as the storage time and temperature increased. [less ▲]

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See detailCould new information influence attitudes to foods supplemented with edible insects?
Barsics, Fanny; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in British Food Journal (2017)

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Broader acceptance of entomophagy (i.e. human consumption of insects) will depend on factors that impact consumers’ perceptions of edible insects. The purpose of this study was to examine how a broad-based information session would affect consumers’ perceptions and attitudes about an edible insect product. Design: During a taste testing session, preceded or followed by an information session about entomophagy, participants rated the organoleptic characteristics of two bread samples on 9-point hedonic scales. The two bread samples were identical, though one was faux-labelled as containing an insect product. Findings: General Linear Model (GLM) analysis showed effects of gender, information session exposure, entomophagy familiarity, and entomophagy experience on participants’ ratings of the samples. Wilcoxon‑Mann-Whitney ranked sum tests showed that appearance, flavour, and overall liking were significantly better rated for the bread sample labelled as insect-free by participants who attended the presentation a priori. Potential ways to improve information content and delivery in favour of encouraging dietary shifts are discussed. Practical applications: This study shows that information about insect-based products could change consumers’ perceptions of such products. The results provide clues regarding how the food industry can adapt communication for target audiences. Originality: Actual edible insect products were not used in this study. Paradoxically, it is the first to show the impact of an information session on the acceptability of edible insect products, by revealing participants’ perceptual expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosityproperties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel state
Gillet, Sébastien; Aguedo, Mario ULg; Petrut, Raul Flaviu ULg et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2017), 96

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See detailFoam fractionation as a tool to study the air-water interfacestructure-function relationship of wheat gluten hydrolysates
Wouters, Arno G.B.; Rombouts, Ine; Schoebrechts, Nele et al

in Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2017), 151

Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates withfoaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whetherfoam ... [more ▼]

Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates withfoaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whetherfoam-liquid fractionation can concentrate wheat gluten peptides with foaming properties. Foam andliquid fractions had high and very low foam stability (FS), respectively. In addition, foam fractions wereable to decrease surface tension more pronouncedly than un-fractionated samples and liquid fractions,suggesting they are able to arrange themselves more efficiently at an interface. As a second objective,foam fractionation served as a tool to study the structural properties of the peptides, causing thesedifferences in air-water interfacial behavior. Zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity measurements didnot fully explain these differences but suggested that hydrophobic interactions at the air-water interfaceare more important than electrostatic interactions. RP-HPLC showed a large overlap between foam andliquid fractions. However, a small fraction of very hydrophobic peptides with relatively high averagemolecular mass was clearly enriched in the foam fraction. These peptides were also more concentratedin un-fractionated DH 2 hydrolysates, which had high FS, than in DH 6 hydrolysates, which had low FS.These peptides most likely play a key role in stabilizing the air-water interface. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfacial and foaming properties of five commercial dairy products and two types of proteose-peptone fractions
Ripollés, D.; Parrón, J.A.; Petrut, R. et al

Poster (2016, November 28)

Functional properties of surfactants contained in dairy products, like emulsifying, foaming and wetting properties, result from their capacity to reduce the surface tension by adsorption and formation of ... [more ▼]

Functional properties of surfactants contained in dairy products, like emulsifying, foaming and wetting properties, result from their capacity to reduce the surface tension by adsorption and formation of cohesive films at the interface. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to determine surface tension, but those that give dynamic measurements, rather than equilibrium measurements of surface tension, are more suitable to study functional properties. Furthermore, the surface activity of surfactants depends on the mechanical properties of the films that are formed at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the intramolecular interactions established. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of adsorption, mechanical properties of monolayer films and foaming properties of five different commercial dairy products (whey protein concentrate (WPC), buttermilk, butter serum and two skimmed milks) and two proteose-peptone fractions. [less ▲]

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See detailValorization of Seeds from Some Field Border Flowering Seeds
Paul, Aman ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Mutwale Kapepula, Paulin ULg et al

Poster (2016, September 20)

Flowering strips are now being increasingly cultivated along the fields to improve biodiversity. However after serving for the desired function, these plants have no utilization besides animal feed. It ... [more ▼]

Flowering strips are now being increasingly cultivated along the fields to improve biodiversity. However after serving for the desired function, these plants have no utilization besides animal feed. It could be really interesting to valorize some commonly grown plant in these strips to render food or health promoting compounds. With this objective in mind the seeds of Achillea millefolium, Anthriscus sylvestris and Prunella vulgaris were investigated for lipids, proteins and phenolic content. Further the lipids were analyzed for fatty acid profile using gas chromatography and the phenolic compounds in the methanolic extract of defatted seeds were identified using HPLC-DAD. The antiradical activity of the methanolic extracts obtained from defatted seeds was investigated using DPPH and ABTS assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of these seed extracts was evaluated on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by stimulated neutrophils and on the specific activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a pro-oxidant enzyme marker of inflammation. Seeds from all three plants were analyzed with interesting levels of lipids, proteins and phenolic content. Linoleic acid, oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids analyzed in A. millefolium, A. sylvestris and P. vulgaris respectively. On the other hand different phenolic acid formed the major phenolic constituents. Seed extracts displayed high ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities in a dose dependent manner. Also a strong dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity of all three extracts was observed against ROS production by neutrophils and MPO activity. Results indicate that these seed show a great potential to render lipids which could be utilized as human food, further the defatted seeds could be directly included in human diet due to interesting levels of proteins and anti-inflammation ability. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on contribution of lipids towards the mechanical properties of milk fat globule membrane monolayer
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, September 20)

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) stabilizes fat globule in milk in form of emulsion. The primary monolayer of MFGM is rich in proteins and secondary bilayer is rich in polar lipids. MFGM finds application ... [more ▼]

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) stabilizes fat globule in milk in form of emulsion. The primary monolayer of MFGM is rich in proteins and secondary bilayer is rich in polar lipids. MFGM finds application as an additive in dairy and food industry (e.g. emulsions, infant formulas & reduced-fat products) for its emulsifying and stabilizing properties. MFGM received much attention in recent years due to both its health- beneficial & technological functionalities. This work has been carried out with the objective to understand contribution of various components towards the surface properties of complete MFGM. MFGM was isolated from fresh raw cream. During isolation of MFGM apart from polar lipids and MFGM proteins, neutral lipids are also isolated which have their origin in fat globules but are often considered as a constituent of MFGM. The MFGM was further fractioned into lipid fraction, defatted fraction and polar lipids. The mechanical properties of monolayer were studied for the above fractions using Langmuir film balance. Study of surface properties can also be linked to their techno-functional properties by calculating film elasticity of the compression isotherm which can be linked to emulsifying and stabilizing properties. The analysis of compression isotherms revealed that film elasticity is highly influenced by polar lipids. The behaviour of the MFGM appeared to be influenced by neutral lipid and defatted fraction during beginning of compression and by polar lipids at the end of compression. [less ▲]

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