References of "Blairy, Sylvie"
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See detailLa place de la supervision en thérapie cognitive et comportementale en Europe
Pomini, Valentino; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Douilliez, Céline et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2011), XVI(3), 48-67

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See detailCognitive and Emotional Empathy in Alcohol-Dependent Patients (ADs): a Review of the Literature
Dethier, Marie ULg; Douws, Laetitia; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2011), 16(2), 56-69

The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy » covers and the distinction made between cognitive and emotional empathy. We will describe then the different studies that got interested in the capacities for empathy in ADs patients. These studies concern predominantly one precise aspect of cognitive empathy: the capacity to infer an emotional state on the basis of emotional facial expressions (EFEs). Up to now, the other domain of cognitive empathy –the decoding of affective prosody and of nonverbal mulimodal stimuli and the attribution of intentions and beliefs– and emotional empathy are under-investigated in alcohol-dependence. In this review of the literature, we will identify the consequences that empathy problems could have on interpersonal relationships as well as the domains that still have to be to investigate regarding empathy in ADs patients, and notably the remediation of these deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailMarital Satisfaction in Couples with an Alcoholic Husband
Dethier, Marie ULg; Counerotte, Christelle; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Family Violence (2011), 26

Both members of 15 heterosexual couples with an alcoholic husband (AC) and of 15 matched couples with healthy members (HC) filled out first, the Marital Adjustment Test (Locke & Wallace, 1959), second ... [more ▼]

Both members of 15 heterosexual couples with an alcoholic husband (AC) and of 15 matched couples with healthy members (HC) filled out first, the Marital Adjustment Test (Locke & Wallace, 1959), second, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and finally, a questionnaire on emotional feeling state in which the participant had to evaluate his or her own emotions and the emotions experienced by his or her partner. Results showed that both AC members reported lower marital satisfaction and a lower level of self-esteem than HC members. Furthermore, they were less congruent with their partner regarding the evaluation of their partner’s emotional feeling states (EFS). These deficits could have repercussions on marital happiness, which itself would have repercussions on the alcoholic’s treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailUne thérapie destinée aux patients schizophrènes - Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT): Résultats préliminaires
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Pauly, Marc; Nachtergael, Hilde et al

Poster (2011)

Objective: Autonoetic awareness enables to mentally relive personal events in memory to be aware of one’s own experiences across subjective time and so to have a feeling of individuality and self ... [more ▼]

Objective: Autonoetic awareness enables to mentally relive personal events in memory to be aware of one’s own experiences across subjective time and so to have a feeling of individuality and self-direction. It is intimately associated with our awareness of ourselves as persons with a past and a future. Autonoetic awareness thereof contributes to construction of our identity by the recovery of past events, particularly specific events, and the imagination of future events. According to Danion’s theoretical model (2001), autonoetic awareness impairment is at the heart of schizophrenia. This deficit should depend on defective associations between separate aspects of the events during the recall and therefore, it is associated with a reduction in accessing specific information in autobiographical memory (AM). This impairment should explain identity perturbation, cognitive deficits, negative and positive symptomatology present in schizophrenia. Supporting this model, the present study evaluates the effect of a cognitive and behavioural intervention called Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT) on autonoetic awareness, AM and the capacity to imagine oneself in the future, in schizophrenia patients. Method: Fifteen patients with schizophrenia participated to SAT and, 8 patients took part in the Integrative Program Therapy (IPT) of Brenner. Before and after therapy, patients were asked to complete questionnaires to evaluate the autonoetic awareness, AM, projection into the future as well as affective and symptomatology scales. Results: For SAT, the participants reported more specific past and future events after than before the remediation therapy. Furthermore, patients reported significantly less depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as less negative symptoms after compared before the SAT. For IPT, no significant differences emerged. Discussion: These results are in line with previous study (Blairy et al., 2008) and support the notion that, in schizophrenia the retrieving of past specifics memories and projection into the future can be improved. La conscience autonoétique (CA) nous permet de revivre mentalement des évènements personnellement vécus, d’en prendre conscience à travers un temps subjectif et de ressentir un sentiment d’individualité. Elle contribue à la construction de notre identité via la récupération d’évènements passés, particulièrement les évènements spécifiques, et l’imagination d’évènements futurs. Selon le modèle de Danion (2001), une perturbation au niveau de la CA serait au cœur de la schizophrénie. Celle-ci résulterait d’un relâchement des associations entre les différents éléments d’un évènement lors du rappel et dés lors, serait associée à une réduction de l’accès aux informations spécifiques en mémoire autobiographique. Cette perturbation pourrait expliquer les troubles de l’identité, les déficits cognitifs ainsi que la symptomatologie présents dans la schizophrénie. Afin de remédier à ces déficits, nous avons élaboré une intervention cognitive et comportementale, destinée à des patients schizophrènes, qui s’appuie sur ce modèle. Cette étude présente les résultats préliminaires de la SAT en la comparant au 1er module du programme IPT. [less ▲]

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See detailLes problèmes psychologiques liés à la consommation de cannabis
Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2010, October 26)

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See detailClinical outcomes of a new cognitive-behaviour bibliotherapy for premature ejaculation
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; Andrianne, Robert ULg; Bauwens, Sabrina et al

Conference (2010, October 08)

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder. However, only few affected people consult clinicians in order to overcome this problem. Although no definitive consensus about its ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder. However, only few affected people consult clinicians in order to overcome this problem. Although no definitive consensus about its aetiology emerges, some mechanisms of PE are now well known. This allows more precise and efficient treatments, both at pharmacological as well as cognitive-behavioural levels. Further, studies have shown that reading didactical documents about their PE problem might be useful to men. Such approach is called “bibliotherapy”. AIM. The aim of the present study was to improve the bibliotherapy approach on the basis of up to date knowledge and techniques. The expected benefits were: (1) an efficient manual shorter than previous ones, (2) therapeutic principles easier to assimilate and (3) a method thereby made accessible to a large public which usually does not consult for this type of sexual problem. METHOD. A short bibliotherapy named Practical Guide of PE [in French] was tested among 421 PE subjects (DSM-IV diagnosis criteria). Self-reported anxiety, sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory latency time, feeling of control and distress were measured: (1) at baseline, (2) at 4-8 months and (3) at 10-14 months after reading the Practical guide of PE. A control condition was composed by 67 subjects left on a waiting-list for two months after baseline. RESULTS. Significant improvements were found for all the self-reported parameters, either at 4-8 and at 10-14 months after the bibliotherapy. The improvements were associated with an adjustment of sexual cognitions (SIQ, McCormick & Jordan). The response to treatment seemed better when the severity of PE was moderate, but did not seem related to variables such as age, educational level and personality traits (TCI-R, Cloninger; STAI Y-B, Spielberger.) CONCLUSION: Its cost/benefit ratio makes the Practical Guide an ideal first line therapeutic tool. Its large diffusion might be useful in order to improve sexual health in populations [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional facial expressions decoding in siblings of children with autism
Dethier, Marie ULg; Sojic, Barbara ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, October 08)

The ability to identify other people’s emotions, including their emotional facial expression (EFE), is fundamental to many social processes. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits ... [more ▼]

The ability to identify other people’s emotions, including their emotional facial expression (EFE), is fundamental to many social processes. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in several empathy-related processes, including EFE decoding (e.g. Ashwin, Chapman, Colle, & Baron-Cohen, 2007). The object of this study was to investigate the capacity to decode accurately EFE in siblings of children with ASD. Indeed, autism is considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors and relatives of ASD individuals present different type of deficits including the domains of language, theory of mind, and executive functioning (e.g., Fombonne, Bolton, Prior, Jordan, & Rutter, 1997). Fifteen 6-to-15 years old siblings of children with ASD were compared to matched siblings of typically developing children on a decoding task of adults EFE. The children had to match a story depicting an adult in an emotional situation to a picture of an adult EFE. The emotions investigated were joy, anger, sadness, fear, surprise, disgust, and contempt. The differences of EFE accuracy between siblings of ASD and siblings of typically developing children are discussed in reference to the characteristics of the relationship with their ASD brother or sister. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFE) recognition in children
Dethier, Marie ULg; Taskin, Asliane; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, June 04)

Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on ... [more ▼]

Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on problems with the decoding of other persons’ emotional facial expression (EFE). Up to now, the research on EFE recognition in socially anxious children has produced mixed results. Whereas some studies reported differences between anxious and healthy children in EFE recognition (e.g., Simonian, Beidel, Turner, Berkes, & Long, 2001), others didn’t find such differences (Melfsen & Florin, 2002). In this study, we addressed two new issues in the investigation of EFE recognition in socially anxious children. Firstly, we investigated self-esteem. Socially anxious children show low confidence in one’s cognitive and social abilities. Furthermore, high self-esteem is related to high capacities of EFE recognition (Garfield, Rogoff, & Steinberg, 1987), and more generally to high level of social functioning (Serretti et al., 1999 ; Shapira et al., 1999). Indeed, the perception of ourselves depends on the way we think others people perceive us. Secondly, past researches have investigated this issue in low anxious situations and thus, not in situations in which social anxious individuals feel threatened. The originality of the present study is that it addresses the relationship between EFE recognition performance and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. We predicted a low capacity to decode EFE in socially anxious children. Moreover, we hypothesised a relationship between a low self-esteem and difficulties to decode accurately EFE in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 years) were placed in an anxious social situation of performance in which they were instructed to count aloud backwards, beginning at 200 in increments of 13. Children assessed their emotional feeling state, including their degree of anxiety, before and after the anxious social situation. Furthermore, children were assessed on an EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs depicting EFE of happiness, anger, disgust, and sadness. For each photograph, they evaluated the presence of nine types of emotions on a 7-point Likert scale. They also completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). No correlations emerged between the accuracy of EFE recognition and an increase of anxious feelings after the anxious social situation. However, self-esteem was correlated with performance on the EFE recognition test, r (70) = -.33, p < .01. Moreover, the lower the child’s level of self-esteem was, the more he/she perceived negative emotions (fear, anger, disgust, and shame) in EFE of anger. In conclusion, social anxiety doesn’t seem to interfere with EFE recognition performance in an anxious social situation. However, low level of self-esteem in children appears to be associated with deficits and interpretative bias in EFE recognition in an anxious social situation. The recognition of the expression of anger, an emotion socially threatening, seems particularly biased in children with low level of self-esteem. [less ▲]

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See detailCapacities of cognitive and emotional empathy in relationship to interpersonal difficulties in alcohol dependant patients (AD)
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, June 04)

The term empathy refers to two related human abilities: mental perspective taking (cognitive empathy) and the vicarious sharing of emotions (emotional empathy). The main object of this study was to ... [more ▼]

The term empathy refers to two related human abilities: mental perspective taking (cognitive empathy) and the vicarious sharing of emotions (emotional empathy). The main object of this study was to explore the relationship between capacities of both aspects of empathy and their relationships with interpersonal difficulties in alcohol-dependant patients (AD). The research in alcoholism empathy has focalised around one aspect of cognitive empathy - the capacity to infer an emotional state-, and that essentially on the basis of emotional facial expression (EFE) recognition. However, researchers have shown little interest in the investigation of the other aspects of cognitive empathy. The present study focuses on the capacity to infer interpersonal intentions and on emotional empathy. As documented by the research on EFE decoding, AD patients show deficits in cognitive empathy. In this study, we investigated their capacity to infer interpersonal intentions in social situation. We hypothesized that AD patients compared to healthy individuals and to depressed patients will attributed more intentions of reject and of aggressiveness to other people on the basis of their EFE. In this study, emotional empathy was defined as the modulation of the emotional feeling state of the participant in function of the EFE display by other people. We hypothesized that the modulation in AD patient will be different from the one of healthy people in function of the Cloninger subtype of alcoholism (Cloninger, Bohman, Sigvardsson, 1987). This emotional reactivity will be more important in Type II alcoholism and less important in Type I alcoholism. As Mimicry facilitates feelings of empathy in healthy people, it was also investigated. Twenty type I AD patients, 20 type II AD patients, 20 depressed patients, and 20 healthy subjects participated to the study. The alcoholism subtype identification was maid according to the criteria from von Knorring, Bohman, von Knorring, and Oreland (1985). The participant completed questionnaires assessing the quality of interpersonal relationships, their usual quantity of alcohol consumption, and, for AD patients, their level of alcohol dependence. Their capacity to recognise faces was evaluated by the Benton facial recognition test. The empathy tasks were computerized. In the cognitive empathy task, the participants had to evaluate the adequacy (in a 7-point Likert scale) between a film of a face changing from a neutral EFE to an emotional EFE (the photographs come from the material of Matsumoto & Ekman, 1988) and an adjective descriptive of personality. Each adjective was weighted on the interpersonal dimensions of reject, aggressiveness, dominance, and affiliation. In the emotional empathy task, the participants had to evaluate their own emotional feeling state (in a 7-point Likert scale; from very negative to very positive) after watching a series of films depicting emotional faces (same material as before). During this task, the participant’s face was filmed in order to assess mimicry. The differences of empathy capacities between AD patients and control participants (depressed and healthy) are discussed in reference to the characteristics of their interpersonal relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailOvergenerality Bias and these Consequences in Borderline Personality Disorder.
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Smets, Virginie; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, June)

Objective: The present study investigated the Autobiographical Memory (AM) in borderline disorder population. AM is an entity that encompasses the individuals’past personnal experiences. Previous ... [more ▼]

Objective: The present study investigated the Autobiographical Memory (AM) in borderline disorder population. AM is an entity that encompasses the individuals’past personnal experiences. Previous researches have shown disturbances in AM among several psychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This disturbances take the overgeneral retrieving form. Thus, when patients were asked to retrieve a specific event located in time and place, they recalled an overgeneral event. This deficit is not an isolated phenomen. Indeed the researches showed that AM deficits is related to decreasing of the ability to solve interpersonnal problem (Evans et al., 1992; Goddard et al., 1996) and impairments to project onself into the specific future events (D’argembeau et al., 2008; Williams et al., 1996). Impairments to respond adequately to social problems or to concrete plans for the future create hopelessness and to contribute to suicide attempt (Arie et al., 2008). Given the high risk of suicide or suicide attempts present in the Bordeline Personnality Disorder (BPD), consideration of AM in this population is appropriate. The aim of the present study was investigate the AM, the projection into the future and the problem solving in patients suffering from BPD. Method: 21 subjects BPD and 21 healthy controls participated in this study. First, the participants were asked to complete TeMA (validated French versions of AMT by Neumann & Philippot, 2006). Participants were instructed to generate specific past and future memories in response to cues words. Secondly, they were had to complete the OTT, they were asked to yield the most solutions as possible to daily problems. Finally the depression was controlled as well as neuropsychological variables. Results: The subjects with BPD recalled less specific past events and imagined less specific future events than healthy subjects (t(40) = 2.21, p = .031; t(40) = 3.4, p = .001, respectively). In addition, the number of past and future specific events was marginally correlated (r(42) = .31, p = .051). However, no difference between two groups on OTT and no correlation between past specificity and problem solving emerged. Discussion: As other clinical populations, the subjects with a BPD encounter deficits to retrieve specific past events. Moreover, these impairments are associated with deficits to imagine specific future events. Nevertheless, the ability to generate specific events was not related to the ability to solve problem. The observation of reduced specificity in the generation of autobiographical material is particularly clinically relevant. Indeed, difficulty in imagining the future may contribute to relapse. In conclusion, more systematic measure of this ability should be taken in both research and clinical fields. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcoolisme et attribution d’intentions interpersonnelles sur base d’expressions faciales émotionnelles : Etude pilote
Dethier, Marie ULg; Volkova, Alessia; Neumann, Aurore et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2010), 15(3), 1-7

The ability to understand the emotional states of others is necessary in order to develop high quality interpersonal relationships. Alcohol-dependents (AD) display interpretative errors when decoding ... [more ▼]

The ability to understand the emotional states of others is necessary in order to develop high quality interpersonal relationships. Alcohol-dependents (AD) display interpretative errors when decoding emotional facial expressions (EFE). EFE communicate information not only regarding emotional states but also regarding interpersonal intentions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether, exposed to EFE, AD differ from healthy individuals in attributions of interpersonal intentions of dominance and affiliation. The purpose of dominance is to control the environment and the purpose of affiliation is to maintain the relationship with the object. In the present study, twenty AD and 20 healthy subjects attributed intentions of dominance and affiliation to 12 faces portraying joy, anger or sadness. Results revealed that AD differ from healthy individual in attribution of dominance but not of affiliation. AD make mistakes when decoding expressed emotions. The present study suggests that, compared to healthy subjects, they also tend to anticipate, in a biased way, interpersonal intentions. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation des programmes de réadaptation psychiatrique proposés dans les centres de réadaptation fonctionnelle: Etude préliminaire
Limam, Sarra; Bianchi, Julien; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2010)

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See detailEvaluation d'une nouvelle bibliothérapie de l'éjaculation précoce
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; Andrianne, Robert ULg; Bauwens, S. et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2010)

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See detailSelf-Awareness Therapy (SAT) for Schizophrenic Patients
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Nachtergael, Hilde; Pauly, Marc et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailEffets du cannabis sur la santé psychologique
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Seutin, Vincent; Scuvée, Jacqueline; Quertemont, Etienne (Eds.) Regards croisés sur le cannabis (2010)

Les individus intoxiqués au cannabis rapportent généralement des effets subjectifs plaisants, même si des symptômes désagréables ne sont pas à exclure chez certaines personnes ou à certaines occasions ... [more ▼]

Les individus intoxiqués au cannabis rapportent généralement des effets subjectifs plaisants, même si des symptômes désagréables ne sont pas à exclure chez certaines personnes ou à certaines occasions. L’intoxication cannabique aiguë perturbe différents processus cognitifs plus ou moins intensément. Les effets les plus nets sont probablement les altérations de la mémoire qui surviennent lors de l’intoxication cannabique, et en particulier la perturbation de la consolidation de nouveaux souvenirs. Toutefois, on observe également lors de l’intoxication cannabique une altération de la flexibilité mentale et comportementale rendant les comportements plus rigides et plus impulsifs. Enfin, le cannabis perturbe clairement l’estimation subjective de l’écoulement du temps, donnant ainsi l’impression d’un ralentissement du temps. Ces derniers effets expliquent d’ailleurs en partie l’accroissement lors d’une intoxication cannabique des risques d’accidents de conduite automobile. En conclusion, et compte tenu des difficultés méthodologiques mentionnées précédemment, on peut affirmer que les gros consommateurs de cannabis, surtout ceux qui ont fumé du cannabis quotidiennement pendant de longues périodes couvrant parfois des années, présentent un fonctionnement cognitif légèrement altéré. Les déficits cognitifs identifiés sont plutôt de faible magnitude, touchent généralement la mémoire et disparaissent le plus souvent après quelques semaines d’abstinence. Il semble donc que le cannabis produit des altérations cognitives essentiellement durant les périodes de consommation. Les effets observés dans les semaines qui suivent l’arrêt de la consommation chez les gros consommateurs sont vraisemblablement liés au syndrome de sevrage cannabique ou à la présence résiduelle de cannabis dans l’organisme. Le fait que les déficits cognitifs identifiés chez les consommateurs chroniques de cannabis abstinents ressemblent fortement aux effets de l’intoxication cannabique (légers troubles de la mémoire, réduction de la flexibilité mentale et impulsivité), renforce l’idée qu’il pourrait s’agir d’effets résiduels du cannabis qui mettent plus longtemps à se résorber chez les très gros consommateurs. A ce jour, les études scientifiques n’ont donc pas encore démontré de manière incontestable l’existence de troubles cognitifs persistants, voire permanents, chez les consommateurs réguliers de cannabis devenus abstinents depuis plusieurs mois, mais ils ne les ont pas exclus non plus. Une conclusion prudente serait dès lors que les déficits cognitifs persistants induits par la consommation régulière de grosses quantités de cannabis sont relativement limités et transitoires. Ceci n’exclut pas la survenue d’autres problèmes à long terme, comme par exemple le développement d’une addiction au cannabis, des difficultés sociales ou relationnelles ou d’autres effets sur la santé. D’autres études, méthodologiquement mieux contrôlées, seront cependant nécessaires pour conclure définitivement sur la question de l’existence d’altérations cognitives persistantes suite à la consommation chronique de cannabis. Compte tenu des résultats parfois contradictoires de la littérature scientifique, il n’est pas aisé de tirer des conclusions fermes à propos des effets du cannabis sur la santé psychologique et particulièrement sur les effets persistants susceptibles de se perpétuer au-delà des périodes d’intoxication. Alors que le tableau de l’intoxication/ivresse cannabique est relativement clair, les effets persistants d’une consommation abusive de cannabis sont l’objet d’âpres débats. On peut néanmoins tirer les conclusions suivantes. Les études les plus récentes concordent pour affirmer que l’abus de cannabis, surtout durant l’adolescence, est susceptible de provoquer des troubles psychotiques ou, de manière encore plus évidente, de les précipiter chez des individus fragiles. L’abus chronique de cannabis semble aussi favoriser les troubles de l’humeur, tels que dépression et trouble bipolaire. L’existence d’un syndrome amotivationnel qui serait induit par l’abus chronique de cannabis est plus controversée, même s’il est observé dans certaines études. Ce syndrome amotivationnel supposé est en partie lié à différents troubles cognitifs induits par le cannabis. S’il est avéré que la consommation chronique de cannabis provoque effectivement des altérations du fonctionnement cognitif et tout particulièrement de la mémoire, il reste à déterminer si ces déficits cognitifs persistent au-delà des périodes d’intoxications ou s’ils s’estompent progressivement après l’arrêt de l’abus de cannabis. [less ▲]

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See detailMarital satisfaction in couples with an alcoholic member
Dethier, Marie ULg; Counerotte, Christelle; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2009, October 23)

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