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See detailEmotional Response to Body and Facial Feedback in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Dethier, Marie ULg; Duchateau, Régis; El Hawa, Maya et al

in Alcoologie et Addictologie (2013), 35(2), 117-125

Introduction: The object of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of body postures and facial expressions manipulation on subjective feelings in male alcohol dependent (ADs) divided into two ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The object of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of body postures and facial expressions manipulation on subjective feelings in male alcohol dependent (ADs) divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s typology in order to gain some understanding of their difficulties in the regulation of emotions and in interpersonal relationships. Method: Twenty type I ADs, twenty-one type II ADs, and twenty control participants adopted facial expressions and body postures according to specific instructions and maintained these positions for 10 seconds. Expressions and postures entailed anger, sadness, and happiness as well as a neutral (baseline) condition. After each expression/posture manipulation, participants evaluated their subjective emotional state (including cheerfulness, sadness, and irritation). Results: The three groups reported heightened subjective feelings in concordance with the facial and posture manipulation with no difference emerging between AD and control participants, F(1, 60) = 0.01, p = .91, or between the three groups, F(2, 59) = 1.03, p = .36. Conclusions: Similarly to control participants, ADs from the two subtypes may be responsive to the combined effect of facial and body feedback and could, subsequently, benefit from its regulative effects. [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional regulation impairments following severe traumatic brain injury: an investigation of the body and facial feedback effects
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Rosenberg, Hannah et al

in Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society (2013), 19(4), 367-379

The object of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of body and facial feedback in adults who had suffered from a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to gain some understanding of their ... [more ▼]

The object of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of body and facial feedback in adults who had suffered from a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to gain some understanding of their difficulties in the regulation of negative emotions. Twenty-four participants with TBI and 28 control participants adopted facial expressions and body postures according to specific instructions and maintained these positions for 10 seconds. Expressions and postures entailed anger, sadness, and happiness as well as a neutral (baseline) condition. After each expression/posture manipulation, participants evaluated their subjective emotional state (including cheerfulness, sadness, and irritation). TBI participants were globally less responsive to the effects of body and facial feedback than control participants, F (1, 50) = 5.89, p = .02, η2 = .11. More interestingly, the TBI group differed from the Control group across emotions, F (8,400) = 2.51, p = .01, η2 = .05. Specifically, participants with TBI were responsive to happy but not to negative expression/posture manipulations whereas control participants were responsive to happy, angry, and sad expression/posture manipulations. In conclusion, TBI appears to impair the ability to recognise both the physical configuration of a negative emotion and its associated subjective feeling. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional and Psychological Characteristics of Belgian Men with Premature Ejaculation and Their Partners
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; ANDRIANNE, Robert ULg; Bauwens, Sabrina et al

in Archives of Sexual Behavior (2013), 42

Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain ... [more ▼]

Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain largely imprecise. The present study examined functional and psychometric dynamics at work in a PE population. A total of 461 men with PE and 80 partners completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported ejaculatory latency time, the feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, trait anxiety (STAI-B), sexual cognitions (SIQ), social anxiety (LSAS and SISST), and personality traits (TCI-R). In our sample, the median latency time to ejaculation was between 1 and 2 minutes. Sexual satisfaction and distress correlated more strongly with the feeling of control than with the self-reported latency time. Men experienced more distress and dissatisfaction related to PE than did their partners while overestimating their partners’ distress and dissatisfaction. PE participants’ scores differed significantly, albeit slightly, from STAI-B, SIQ, LSAS, and SISST norms. The differences were negligible on TCI-R. Some differences became stronger when subtypes were considered. Participants combining generalized and lifelong PE with self-reported latency times of < 30 sec reported lower sexual satisfaction and control, higher distress, higher social anxiety, and harm avoidance (TCI-R/HA) scores. By contrast, the situational subtype of PE was found to be characterized by a higher level of satisfaction, a greater feeling of control, less distress, and higher trait anxiety scores. However, the trends remained statistically discrete. [less ▲]

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See detailUne étude de la vulnérabilité cognitive des parents au premier degré de patients schizophrènes
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Duke, Géraldine; Xhenseval, Laure et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2012, December), XVII(4), 53

Schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives suffer from cognitive deficits in different area (memory, executive, attentional and language functions) which allows us to consider these deficits ... [more ▼]

Schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives suffer from cognitive deficits in different area (memory, executive, attentional and language functions) which allows us to consider these deficits as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients also suffer from a lack of autobiographical memory and instability of identity: our study aims to determine whether this deficit and this instability are endophenotypes of schizophrenia. In order to reach this objective, we evaluated first-degree relatives. The results show that first-degree relatives suffer from cognitive deficits but, contrary to our hypotheses, not any deficit of specificity or instability of identity have been highlighted among these parents. [less ▲]

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See detailUne étude de la vulnérabilité cognitive des parents au premier degré de patients schizophrènes
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Duke, Géraldine; Xhenseval, Laure et al

Poster (2012, November 24)

Les patients schizophrènes et leurs parents au premier degré présentent des déficits cognitifs dans différents domaines (mémoire, fonctions exécutives, attentionnelles et langagières) ce qui permet de ... [more ▼]

Les patients schizophrènes et leurs parents au premier degré présentent des déficits cognitifs dans différents domaines (mémoire, fonctions exécutives, attentionnelles et langagières) ce qui permet de considérer ces déficits comme des endophénotypes de la schizophrénie. Les patients schizophrènes souffrent aussi d’un déficit en mémoire autobiographique et d’une instabilité de l’identité : l’objectif de notre étude est de déterminer si ce déficit et cette instabilité sont des endophénotypes de la schizophrénie. Pour ce faire, nous avons évalué des parents au premier degré. Les résultats mettent en évidence des déficits cognitifs chez les parents au premier degré mais, contrairement à ce que nous attendions, nous n’observons pas de déficit de spécifique et d’instabilité de l’identité chez ces parents. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dépression comment y faire face ?
Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2012, November 08)

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See detailCapacity for Cognitive and Emotional Empathy in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors : Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors (2012), 26(3), 371-383

This study assessed two previously unexplored facets of empathy in alcohol-dependent patients (ADs) divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s alcoholism typology: the attribution of intentions ... [more ▼]

This study assessed two previously unexplored facets of empathy in alcohol-dependent patients (ADs) divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s alcoholism typology: the attribution of intentions according to emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional contagion in reaction to EFEs. Twenty-three male Type-I ADs, 21 male Type-II ADs, and 24 male control participants were compared in two computerized tasks. First, participants rated the extent to which an adjective descriptive of personality weighted on interpersonal dimensions (of rejection, aggressiveness, dominance, and affiliation) corresponded with a video of a neutral EFE that changed to an intense EFE. Second, participants evaluated their own emotional states after watching a series of videos that depicted EFEs while their own face was being filmed. The results showed that Type-I ADs attributed more rejection intentions and fewer affiliation intentions to EFEs compared with controls; however, depression might better explain this biased attribution. Furthermore, AD subtypes showed a different pattern of intention attribution according to the emotions that were portrayed and the sex of the stimulus. In addition, angry EFE mimicry was stronger in Type-II ADs than other participants. Finally, ADs expressed fewer positive emotions and more negative emotions than controls when watching EFEs. These findings emphasize the importance of differentiating alcoholism subtypes and contribute to the understanding of AD interpersonal behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailUne évaluation des programmes de réadaptation psychiatrique proposés dans les Centres de Réadaptation Fonctionnelle en Belgique
Limam, Sarra; Bianchi, Julien; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2012), 17

La vie des personnes souffrant d’une maladie mentale est souvent caractérisée par une pauvreté de la vie personnelle, professionnelle et sociale. Les programmes de réhabilitation psychiatrique ont été ... [more ▼]

La vie des personnes souffrant d’une maladie mentale est souvent caractérisée par une pauvreté de la vie personnelle, professionnelle et sociale. Les programmes de réhabilitation psychiatrique ont été développés pour soutenir l’insertion sociale et professionnelle de ces personnes. Les recherches antérieures ont montré que ces programmes peuvent contribuer à l’amélioration du bien-être de l'individu. L’objectif de la présente étude a été d’évaluer les effets d’interventions cognitives et comportementales offertes par des Centres de Réadaptation Fonctionnelle (CRF) en Belgique, sur la symptomatologie clinique, le fonctionnement cognitif et social. Une étude longitudinale a été conduite dans laquelle les patients ont été évalués après 6 et 12 mois de thérapie. Les résultats soutiennent l’idée que les Centres de Réadaptation Fonctionnelle offrent des interventions thérapeutiques qui peuvent améliorer le fonctionnement social et cognitif des patients ainsi que leur symptomatologie clinique. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous and Posed Emotional Facial Expressions Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Rosenberg, Hannah et al

in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology (2012), 34(9), 936-947

Aim: The current study aimed to test the intensity of spontaneous emotional expressions and the accuracy of posed emotional expressions in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Twenty ... [more ▼]

Aim: The current study aimed to test the intensity of spontaneous emotional expressions and the accuracy of posed emotional expressions in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method: Twenty-three participants with TBI and 27 matched control participants were asked to relate personal angry, happy, and sad events (spontaneous expressivity) and to pose angry, happy, and sad expressions in response to a photo or word cue (posed expressivity). Their emotional facial expressions were coded via judges’ ratings. Results: Participants with TBI had less intense sad expressions when relating a sad event compared to control participants. No group difference emerged in the happy and angry events, the latter possibly due to differentially low inter-rater reliability for anger ratings. Participants with TBI were impaired in their ability to pose sad emotions. Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that patients with TBI are impaired at expressing sad expressions either spontaneously or deliberately. This may reflect difficulties in the initiation or suppression of facial expression as well as an impaired semantic knowledge of the facial configuration of sad expression. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical outcomes of a new self-help booklet for premature ejaculation
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; ANDRIANNE, Robert ULg; Bauwens, Sabrina et al

in Journal of Sexual Medicine (2012), 9

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is quite common. Although effective treatments do exist, only a few affected people consult a practitioner in order to overcome their problem. At the same time ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is quite common. Although effective treatments do exist, only a few affected people consult a practitioner in order to overcome their problem. At the same time, studies have shown that reading didactical documents about their PE problem (bibliotherapy) can be useful to men. AIM. The aim of this study was to improve the bibliotherapy approach using up to date knowledge and techniques. The expected benefits were: (1) an effective manual shorter than previous ones, (2) easier to assimilate therapeutic principles and (3) a method thereby made accessible to a broad population most of whom usually do not consult for this type of sexual problem. METHOD. A short bibliotherapy titled The Practical Guide of PE [in French] was tested among PE subjects who were diagnosed with PE according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Assessments were made at baseline (N = 421), at 4-8 months (N = 120) and at 10-14 months (N = 79) after they read The Practical Guide. A control group of 66 subjects was left on a waiting list and was assessed two months after baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Self-reported ejaculatory latency time, feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, anxiety experienced during sexual intercourse and sexual cognitions (SIQ). RESULTS. Significant improvements were found for all the self-reported parameters, both at 4-8 and at 10-14 months after the bibliotherapy. The improvements were associated with an adjustment of sexual cognitions. The response to treatment seemed better for those subjects with moderate PE. Although the severity criteria used in this study did not precisely meet the ISSM criteria for lifelong PE, they were likely related. The response did not seem to be affected by variables such as age, education or personality. CONCLUSION. Its cost/benefit ratio makes The Practical Guide a valuable therapeutic tool. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition in children
Dethier, Marie ULg; Taskin, Aslihan Serap; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2012), 17(2), 2-9

This study addresses the relationship between the capacity of emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the relationship between the capacity of emotional facial expressions (EFEs) recognition and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 years) were placed in an anxious social situation of performance in which they were instructed to count aloud backwards, beginning at 200 in decrements of 13. After that, children were assessed on a decoding test of 16 photographs depicting EFE. For each photograph, they evaluated the presence of nine types of emotions. They also completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Pierrehumbert et al., 1987). No correlations emerged between the accuracy of EFE recognition and an increase of anxious feelings after the anxious social situation. However, self-esteem was correlated with performance on the EFE recognition test. Moreover, the lower the child’s level of self-esteem was, the more he/she perceived negative emotions in EFEs. In conclusion, social anxiety doesn’t seem to interfere with EFEs recognition performance in an anxious social situation. However, low level of self-esteem in children appears to be associated with deficits and interpretative bias in EFEs recognition in an anxious social situation. [less ▲]

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See detailCapacity for Cognitive and Emotional Empathy in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Dethier, Marie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2011, October 28)

This study assessed two facets of empathy never explored before in male alcohol-dependent patients (ADs) divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s typology of alcoholism: the attribution of ... [more ▼]

This study assessed two facets of empathy never explored before in male alcohol-dependent patients (ADs) divided into two groups according to Cloninger’s typology of alcoholism: the attribution of intentions according to emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional contagion in reaction to EFEs. Twenty three type I ADs, 21 type II ADs, and 24 controls were compared in two computerized tasks. First, the participants had to rate to what extent an adjective descriptive of personality weighted on the interpersonal dimensions of rejection, aggressiveness, dominance, and affiliation corresponded to a film changing from a neutral EFE to an intense EFE. Second, they had to evaluate their own emotional state after watching a series of films depicting EFEs while their own face was being filmed. The results showed that ADs attributed more intentions of rejection and fewer intentions of affiliation to EFEs of men compared to male controls and that this biased attribution was largely due to depression. Furthermore, AD subtypes showed a different pattern of intention attribution according to the emotions portrayed and according to the sex of the stimulus. In addition, the mimicry of angry EFEs was stronger in type II ADs than in other participants. Finally, ADs expressed fewer positive emotions and more negative emotions than controls when watching EFEs. Our findings outline the importance of differentiation in terms of alcoholism subtype, and contribute to the understanding of the interpersonal behaviors of ADs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa place de la supervision en thérapie cognitive et comportementale en Europe
Pomini, Valentino; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Douilliez, Céline et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2011), XVI(3), 48-67

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See detailCognitive and Emotional Empathy in Alcohol-Dependent Patients (ADs): a Review of the Literature
Dethier, Marie ULg; Douws, Laetitia; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2011), 16(2), 56-69

The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article is to assert the current state of the scientific literature on the issues regarding empathy in alcohol-dependents patients (ADs). We will first explain what the term « empathy » covers and the distinction made between cognitive and emotional empathy. We will describe then the different studies that got interested in the capacities for empathy in ADs patients. These studies concern predominantly one precise aspect of cognitive empathy: the capacity to infer an emotional state on the basis of emotional facial expressions (EFEs). Up to now, the other domain of cognitive empathy –the decoding of affective prosody and of nonverbal mulimodal stimuli and the attribution of intentions and beliefs– and emotional empathy are under-investigated in alcohol-dependence. In this review of the literature, we will identify the consequences that empathy problems could have on interpersonal relationships as well as the domains that still have to be to investigate regarding empathy in ADs patients, and notably the remediation of these deficits. [less ▲]

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See detailMarital Satisfaction in Couples with an Alcoholic Husband
Dethier, Marie ULg; Counerotte, Christelle; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Family Violence (2011), 26

Both members of 15 heterosexual couples with an alcoholic husband (AC) and of 15 matched couples with healthy members (HC) filled out first, the Marital Adjustment Test (Locke & Wallace, 1959), second ... [more ▼]

Both members of 15 heterosexual couples with an alcoholic husband (AC) and of 15 matched couples with healthy members (HC) filled out first, the Marital Adjustment Test (Locke & Wallace, 1959), second, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and finally, a questionnaire on emotional feeling state in which the participant had to evaluate his or her own emotions and the emotions experienced by his or her partner. Results showed that both AC members reported lower marital satisfaction and a lower level of self-esteem than HC members. Furthermore, they were less congruent with their partner regarding the evaluation of their partner’s emotional feeling states (EFS). These deficits could have repercussions on marital happiness, which itself would have repercussions on the alcoholic’s treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailUne thérapie destinée aux patients schizophrènes - Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT): Résultats préliminaires
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Pauly, Marc; Nachtergael, Hilde et al

Poster (2011)

Objective: Autonoetic awareness enables to mentally relive personal events in memory to be aware of one’s own experiences across subjective time and so to have a feeling of individuality and self ... [more ▼]

Objective: Autonoetic awareness enables to mentally relive personal events in memory to be aware of one’s own experiences across subjective time and so to have a feeling of individuality and self-direction. It is intimately associated with our awareness of ourselves as persons with a past and a future. Autonoetic awareness thereof contributes to construction of our identity by the recovery of past events, particularly specific events, and the imagination of future events. According to Danion’s theoretical model (2001), autonoetic awareness impairment is at the heart of schizophrenia. This deficit should depend on defective associations between separate aspects of the events during the recall and therefore, it is associated with a reduction in accessing specific information in autobiographical memory (AM). This impairment should explain identity perturbation, cognitive deficits, negative and positive symptomatology present in schizophrenia. Supporting this model, the present study evaluates the effect of a cognitive and behavioural intervention called Self-Awareness Therapy (SAT) on autonoetic awareness, AM and the capacity to imagine oneself in the future, in schizophrenia patients. Method: Fifteen patients with schizophrenia participated to SAT and, 8 patients took part in the Integrative Program Therapy (IPT) of Brenner. Before and after therapy, patients were asked to complete questionnaires to evaluate the autonoetic awareness, AM, projection into the future as well as affective and symptomatology scales. Results: For SAT, the participants reported more specific past and future events after than before the remediation therapy. Furthermore, patients reported significantly less depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as less negative symptoms after compared before the SAT. For IPT, no significant differences emerged. Discussion: These results are in line with previous study (Blairy et al., 2008) and support the notion that, in schizophrenia the retrieving of past specifics memories and projection into the future can be improved. La conscience autonoétique (CA) nous permet de revivre mentalement des évènements personnellement vécus, d’en prendre conscience à travers un temps subjectif et de ressentir un sentiment d’individualité. Elle contribue à la construction de notre identité via la récupération d’évènements passés, particulièrement les évènements spécifiques, et l’imagination d’évènements futurs. Selon le modèle de Danion (2001), une perturbation au niveau de la CA serait au cœur de la schizophrénie. Celle-ci résulterait d’un relâchement des associations entre les différents éléments d’un évènement lors du rappel et dés lors, serait associée à une réduction de l’accès aux informations spécifiques en mémoire autobiographique. Cette perturbation pourrait expliquer les troubles de l’identité, les déficits cognitifs ainsi que la symptomatologie présents dans la schizophrénie. Afin de remédier à ces déficits, nous avons élaboré une intervention cognitive et comportementale, destinée à des patients schizophrènes, qui s’appuie sur ce modèle. Cette étude présente les résultats préliminaires de la SAT en la comparant au 1er module du programme IPT. [less ▲]

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See detailLes problèmes psychologiques liés à la consommation de cannabis
Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2010, October 26)

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See detailClinical outcomes of a new cognitive-behaviour bibliotherapy for premature ejaculation
Kempeneers, Philippe ULg; Andrianne, Robert ULg; Bauwens, Sabrina et al

Conference (2010, October 08)

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder. However, only few affected people consult clinicians in order to overcome this problem. Although no definitive consensus about its ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION. Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder. However, only few affected people consult clinicians in order to overcome this problem. Although no definitive consensus about its aetiology emerges, some mechanisms of PE are now well known. This allows more precise and efficient treatments, both at pharmacological as well as cognitive-behavioural levels. Further, studies have shown that reading didactical documents about their PE problem might be useful to men. Such approach is called “bibliotherapy”. AIM. The aim of the present study was to improve the bibliotherapy approach on the basis of up to date knowledge and techniques. The expected benefits were: (1) an efficient manual shorter than previous ones, (2) therapeutic principles easier to assimilate and (3) a method thereby made accessible to a large public which usually does not consult for this type of sexual problem. METHOD. A short bibliotherapy named Practical Guide of PE [in French] was tested among 421 PE subjects (DSM-IV diagnosis criteria). Self-reported anxiety, sexual satisfaction, ejaculatory latency time, feeling of control and distress were measured: (1) at baseline, (2) at 4-8 months and (3) at 10-14 months after reading the Practical guide of PE. A control condition was composed by 67 subjects left on a waiting-list for two months after baseline. RESULTS. Significant improvements were found for all the self-reported parameters, either at 4-8 and at 10-14 months after the bibliotherapy. The improvements were associated with an adjustment of sexual cognitions (SIQ, McCormick & Jordan). The response to treatment seemed better when the severity of PE was moderate, but did not seem related to variables such as age, educational level and personality traits (TCI-R, Cloninger; STAI Y-B, Spielberger.) CONCLUSION: Its cost/benefit ratio makes the Practical Guide an ideal first line therapeutic tool. Its large diffusion might be useful in order to improve sexual health in populations [less ▲]

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See detailEmotional facial expressions decoding in siblings of children with autism
Dethier, Marie ULg; Sojic, Barbara ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, October 08)

The ability to identify other people’s emotions, including their emotional facial expression (EFE), is fundamental to many social processes. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits ... [more ▼]

The ability to identify other people’s emotions, including their emotional facial expression (EFE), is fundamental to many social processes. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits in several empathy-related processes, including EFE decoding (e.g. Ashwin, Chapman, Colle, & Baron-Cohen, 2007). The object of this study was to investigate the capacity to decode accurately EFE in siblings of children with ASD. Indeed, autism is considered to be substantially influenced by genetic factors and relatives of ASD individuals present different type of deficits including the domains of language, theory of mind, and executive functioning (e.g., Fombonne, Bolton, Prior, Jordan, & Rutter, 1997). Fifteen 6-to-15 years old siblings of children with ASD were compared to matched siblings of typically developing children on a decoding task of adults EFE. The children had to match a story depicting an adult in an emotional situation to a picture of an adult EFE. The emotions investigated were joy, anger, sadness, fear, surprise, disgust, and contempt. The differences of EFE accuracy between siblings of ASD and siblings of typically developing children are discussed in reference to the characteristics of the relationship with their ASD brother or sister. [less ▲]

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