Overexpression of CD9 in human breast cancer cells promotes the development of bone metastases.
; Bellahcene, Akeila ; et al
in Anticancer Research (2012), 32(12), 5211-20
BACKGROUND: Bone is a preferred target for circulating metastatic breast cancer cells. We found that the CD9 protein was up-regulated in the B02 osteotropic cell line, derived from the aggressive parental ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Bone is a preferred target for circulating metastatic breast cancer cells. We found that the CD9 protein was up-regulated in the B02 osteotropic cell line, derived from the aggressive parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Here, we investigated the putative relationship between CD9 expression and the osteotropic phenotype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overexpression of CD9 was analyzed by immunoblotting in different cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess CD9 expression in primary tumors and metastatic lesions. In vivo experiments were conducted in mice using a monoclonal antibody against CD9. RESULTS: CD9 overexpression was confirmed in osteotropic cells. CD9 was significantly overexpressed in bone metastases versus primary tumors and visceral metastatic lesions. Finally, in vivo experiments showed that an antibody against CD9 delays homing of B02 cells in bone marrow, slowing down bone destruction. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals a potential implication of CD9 in the formation of bony metastases from breast cancer cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
The angiogenesis suppressor gene AKAP12 is under the epigenetic control of HDAC7 in endothelial cells.
Turtoi, Andrei ; Mottet, Denis ; Matheus, Nicolas et al
in Angiogenesis (2012)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of 18 enzymes that deacetylate lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins and to a large extent govern the process of angiogenesis. Previous studies ... [more ▼]
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of 18 enzymes that deacetylate lysine residues of both histone and nonhistone proteins and to a large extent govern the process of angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that specific inhibition of HDAC7 blocks angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood and hence preclude any meaningful development of suitable therapeutic modalities. The goal of the present study was to further the understanding of HDAC7 epigenetic control of angiogenesis in human endothelial cells using the proteomic approach. The underlying problem was approached through siRNA-mediated gene-expression silencing of HDAC7 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). To this end, HUVEC proteins were extracted and proteomically analyzed. The emphasis was placed on up-regulated proteins, as these may represent potential direct epigenetic targets of HDAC7. Among several proteins, A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) was the most reproducibly up-regulated protein following HDAC7 depletion. This overexpression of AKAP12 was responsible for the inhibition of migration and tube formation in HDAC7-depleted HUVEC. Mechanistically, H3 histones associated with AKAP12 promoter were acetylated following the removal of HDAC7, leading to an increase in its mRNA and protein levels. AKAP12 is responsible for protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phosphorylated STAT3 increasingly binds to the chromatin and AKAP12 promoter and is necessary for maintaining the elevated levels of AKAP12 following HDAC7 knockdown. We demonstrated for the first time that AKAP12 tumor/angiogenesis suppressor gene is an epigenetic target of HDAC7, whose elevated levels lead to a negative regulation of HUVEC migration and inhibit formation of tube-like structures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (12 ULg)
Both osteopontin-c and osteopontin-b splicing isoforms exert pro-tumorigenic roles in prostate cancer cells.
; ; et al
in Prostate (2012)
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of the osteopontin (opn, spp1) gene generates three protein splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), designated as OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, which have demonstrated specific roles in ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Alternative splicing of the osteopontin (opn, spp1) gene generates three protein splicing isoforms (OPN-SI), designated as OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, which have demonstrated specific roles in different tumor models. This work aims to investigate the roles of each OPN-SI in prostate cancer (PCa) progression by using in vivo and in vitro functional assays. METHODS: The expression levels of OPN-SI in prostate cell lines were analyzed by qRT-PCR. PC-3 was stably transfected with expression vectors containing OPNa, OPNb, and OPNc, as well as empty vector controls. PC-3 cells overexpressing each construct were analyzed for in vivo tumor growth and in relation to different aspects mimicking tumor progression, such as cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and soft agar colony formation. RESULTS: OPN-SI are overexpressed in PCa as compared to non-tumoral prostate cell lines. OPNc and OPNb overexpressing cells significantly activated enhanced xenograft tumor growth and PC-3 proliferation, migration, invasion, and soft agar colony formation, as well as the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF. These isoforms also support sustained proliferative survival. We found that both OPNc and OPNb pro-tumorigenic roles are mainly mediated through PI3K signaling. Inhibition of this pathway by using LY294002 specifically inhibited tumor progression features evoked by OPNc and OPNb overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide evidence that both OPNc and OPNb splicing isoforms promote distinct aspects of PCa progression by inducing PI3K signaling. These data give support to strategies aiming to downregulate OPNc and OPNb expression as an approach to inhibit PCa progression. Prostate (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (8 ULg)
Galectin-1 in Melanoma Biology and Related Neo-Angiogenesis Processes.
; ; et al
in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2012)
Aggressiveness of advanced melanomas relates in part to their marked propensity to develop neoangiogenesis and metastases. Among its numerous pro-cancer roles, galectin (gal)-1 expressed and/or secreted ... [more ▼]
Aggressiveness of advanced melanomas relates in part to their marked propensity to develop neoangiogenesis and metastases. Among its numerous pro-cancer roles, galectin (gal)-1 expressed and/or secreted by both cancer and endothelial cells stimulates proliferation and angiogenesis. This study first shows that gal-1 is more highly expressed at both mRNA and protein levels than its congeners in melanomas and particularly in advanced lesions. The roles of gal-1 were further investigated in vivo in the highly proliferating and vascularized pseudometastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma model using stable knockdown B16F10 cells and wild-type versus gal-1 knockout mice, and then in vitro in B16F10 tumoral and lung microvascular cells. Gal-1 depletion in the B16F10 tumor cells but not in the tumor-bearing mice significantly increased melanoma-bearing mice survival. Tumor-derived gal-1 thus seems to have more critical roles than the host-derived one. In fact, gal-1 displays distinct effects on the H-Ras-dependent p53/p21 pathways: in primary lung microvessel endothelial cells, gal-1 seems to be involved in the maintenance of senescent status through the induction of both p53 and p21 while it stimulates B16F10 cancer cell proliferation through a p53/p21 decrease. Altogether, these data point to gal-1 as a potential target to combat melanomas.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 24 May 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.142. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg)
Dual function of ERR alpha in breast cancer and bone metastasis formation: implication of VEGF and osteoprotegerin.
; ; et al
in Cancer Research (2011), 71(17), 5728-38
Bone metastasis is a complication occurring in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer patients. The estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) has been implicated in breast cancer and bone ... [more ▼]
Bone metastasis is a complication occurring in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer patients. The estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) has been implicated in breast cancer and bone development, prompting us to examine whether ERRalpha may function in promoting the osteolytic growth of breast cancer cells in bone. In a mouse xenograft model of metastatic human breast cancer, overexpression of wild-type ERRalpha reduced metastasis, whereas overexpression of a dominant negative mutant promoted metastasis. Osteoclasts were directly affected and ERRalpha upregulated the osteoclastogenesis inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), providing a direct mechanistic basis for understanding how ERRalpha reduced breast cancer cell growth in bone. In contrast, ERRalpha overexpression increased breast cancer cell growth in the mammary gland. ERRalpha-overexpressing primary tumors were highly vascularized, consistent with an observed upregulation of angiogenic growth factor, the VEGF. In support of these findings, we documented that elevated expression of ERRalpha mRNA in breast carcinomas was associated with high expression of OPG and VEGF and with disease progression. In conclusion, our results show that ERRalpha plays a dual role in breast cancer progression in promoting the local growth of tumor cells, but decreasing metastatic growth of osteolytic lesions in bone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (5 ULg)
Dentin Matrix Protein 1 induces membrane expression of VE-cadherin on endothelial cells and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis by blocking VEGFR-2 phosphorylation.
Pirotte, Sophie ; Lamour, Virginie ; Lambert, Vincent et al
in Blood (2011), 117(8), 2515-26
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a member of the Small Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, a group of proteins initially described as mineralized extracellular matrices ... [more ▼]
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a member of the Small Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) family, a group of proteins initially described as mineralized extracellular matrices components. More recently, SIBLINGs have been implicated in several key steps of cancer progression, including angiogenesis. Although pro-angiogenic activities have been demonstrated for two SIBLINGs, the role of DMP1 in angiogenesis has not been addressed yet. We demonstrated that this extracellular matrix protein induced the expression of VE-cadherin, a key regulator of intercellular junctions and contact inhibition of growth of endothelial cells that is also known to modulate VEGFR-2 activity, the major high affinity receptor for VEGF. DMP1 induced VE-cadherin and p27(Kip1) expression followed by cell cycle arrest in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a CD44-dependent manner. VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis responses were specifically blocked upon DMP1 pre-treatment of HUVEC. Indeed, subsequently to VE-cadherin induction, DMP1 inhibited VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and Src-mediated signaling. However, DMP1 did not interfere with bFGF-induced angiogenesis. In vivo, DMP1 significantly reduced laser-induced choroidal neovascularization lesions and tumor-associated angiogenesis. These data enable us to put DMP1 on the angiogenic chessboard for the first time and to identify this protein as a new specific inhibitor of VEGF-induced angiogenesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 187 (42 ULg)
Role of the Focal Adhesion Protein Kindlin-1 in Breast Cancer Growth and Lung Metastasis.
; ; et al
in Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2011), 103
Background Fermitin family member 1 (FERMT1, Kindlin-1) is an epithelial-specific regulator of integrin functions and is associated with Kindler syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by skin ... [more ▼]
Background Fermitin family member 1 (FERMT1, Kindlin-1) is an epithelial-specific regulator of integrin functions and is associated with Kindler syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by skin blistering, atrophy, and photosensitivity. However, the possible role of kindlin-1 in cancer remains unknown. Methods Kindlin-1 expression was quantified in several human cancers using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and published microarray datasets. The association between kindlin-1 expression and patient metastasis-free survival (N = 516) was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses. Effects of ectopic expression or silencing of kindlin-1 on cell signaling, migration, and invasion were assessed in human breast cancer cell lines using western blotting, immunofluorescence, wound healing assays, and invasion on Matrigel or type I collagen substrates. Breast tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated in 12-week-old female BALB/c mice (10 controls and six Kindlin-1-knockdown mice). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Kindlin-1 expression was consistently higher in tumors than in normal tissues in various cancer types metastasizing to the lungs, including colon and bladder cancer. Kindlin-1 expression was associated with metastasis-free survival in both breast and lung adenocarcinoma (breast cancer: hazard ratio of lung metastasis = 2.55, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.39 to 4.69, P = .001; lung cancer: hazard ratio of metastasis = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.25 to 3.07, P = .001). Overexpression of kindlin-1 induced changes indicating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling, constitutive activation of cell motility, and invasion (number of migrating cells, Kindlin-1 cells vs control, mean = 164.66 vs 19.00, difference = 145.6, 95% CI = 79.1 to 212.2, P = .004; invasion rate, Kindlin-1-cells vs control = 9.65% vs 1.92%, difference = 7.73%, 95% CI = 4.75 to 10.70, P < .001). Finally, Kindlin-1 depletion in an orthotopic mouse model statistically significantly inhibited breast tumor growth (P < .001) and lung metastasis (P = .003). Conclusion These results suggest a role for kindlin-1 in breast cancer lung metastasis and lung tumorigenesis and advance our understanding of kindlin-1 as a regulator of TGFbeta signaling, offering new avenues for therapeutic intervention against cancer progression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (8 ULg)
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can inhibit angiogenesis in vivo without the involvement of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase.
; ; Bellahcene, Akeila et al
in Bone (2011), 48(2), 259-66
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are widely used to block bone destruction associated with bone metastasis because they are effective inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. More ... [more ▼]
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are widely used to block bone destruction associated with bone metastasis because they are effective inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. More specifically, once internalized by osteoclasts, N-BPs block the activity of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. In addition to their antiresorptive activity, preclinical evidence shows that N-BPs have antiangiogenic properties. However, the exact reasons for which N-BPs inhibit angiogenesis remain largely unknown. Using different angiogenesis models, we examined here the effects of zoledronate, risedronate and three structural analogs of risedronate (NE-58025, NE-58051 and NE-10790) with lower potencies to inhibit FPPS activity. Risedronate and zoledronate were much more potent than NE-compounds at inhibiting both endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and vessel sprouting in the chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In addition, only risedronate and zoledronate inhibited the revascularization of the prostate gland in testosterone-stimulated castrated rats. Moreover, as opposed to NE-compounds, risedronate and zoledronate induced intracellular accumulation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) in endothelial cells by blocking the activity of the IPP-consuming enzyme FPPS. Thus, these results indicated that N-BPs inhibited angiogenesis in a FPPS-dependent manner. However, drug concentrations used to inhibit angiogenesis, both in vitro and in the CAM and prostate gland assays, were high. In contrast, a low concentration of risedronate (1 muM) was sufficient to inhibit blood vessel formation in the ex vivo rat aortic ring assay. Moreover, NE-58025 (which had a 7-fold lower potency than risedronate to inhibit FPPS activity) was as effective as risedronate to reduce angiogenesis in the rat aortic ring assay. In conclusion, our results suggest that low concentrations of N-BPs inhibit angiogenesis in a FPPS-independent manner, whereas higher drug concentrations were required to inhibit FPPS activity in vivo. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 163 (12 ULg)
Novel HDAC/DNMT twin inhibitors interfere with angiogenesis
Shiva Shankar, Thammadihalli Veerasangaiah ; ; Blacher, Silvia et al
DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are two key epigenetic modifications that play central role in regulation of gene expression. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA ... [more ▼]
DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are two key epigenetic modifications that play central role in regulation of gene expression. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) inhibitors are potent antiangiogenic compounds. Though combination of HDAC and DNMT inhibitors are now being examined in clinical trials of hematological malignancies, very little work has been done to understand the effect of this combination on normal and tumoral angiogenesis. We have designed and tested a family of twin drugs with intrinsic HDAC and DNMT inhibitory activities in relevant models of angiogenesis in vitro (endothelial cells, pericytes and the 3D aortic ring assay) and in vivo (the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay). We have identified a lead compound having quantifiable antiangiogenic effect without cytotoxicity associated with increased global acetylation and decreased DNA methylation levels. This compound is presently used to develop effective approaches to treat cancer by modulating the process of angiogenesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 191 (68 ULg)
Selective osteopontin knockdown exerts anti-tumoral activity in a human glioblastoma model.
Lamour, Virginie ; ; et al
in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2010), 126
Osteopontin (OPN), a member of the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoprotein) family, is overexpressed in human glioblastoma. Higher levels of OPN expression correlate with increased ... [more ▼]
Osteopontin (OPN), a member of the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoprotein) family, is overexpressed in human glioblastoma. Higher levels of OPN expression correlate with increased tumor grade and enhanced migratory capacity of tumor cells. Based on these observations, we explored the possibility that knocking down OPN expression in glioblastoma cells could exert an anti-tumoral activity using an avian in vivo glioblastoma model that mimics closely human gliobastoma. Human U87-MG glioma cells transfected with specific anti-OPN small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were grafted onto the chicken chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). OPN-deficient U87-MG cells gave rise to tumors that were significantly smaller than tumors formed from untransfected cells (paired t-test, p<0.05). Accordingly, the amount of proliferating cells in OPN-deficient tumors showed a six-fold reduction when compared to control tumors. However, OPN inhibition did not affect significantly tumor-associated angiogenesis. In vitro, OPN-silenced U87-MG and U373-MG cells showed decreased motility and migration. This is the first demonstration that OPN inhibition blocks glioma tumor growth, making this invasion-related protein an attractive target for glioma therapy. (c) 2009 UICC. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (10 ULg)
HDAC4 represses p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression in human cancer cells through a Sp1-dependent, p53-independent mechanism.
Mottet, Denis ; Pirotte, Sophie ; Lamour, Virginie et al
in Oncogene (2009), 28(2), 243-56
Cancer cells have complex, unique characteristics that distinguish them from normal cells, such as increased growth rates and evasion of anti-proliferative signals. Global inhibition of class I and II ... [more ▼]
Cancer cells have complex, unique characteristics that distinguish them from normal cells, such as increased growth rates and evasion of anti-proliferative signals. Global inhibition of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) stops cancer cell proliferation in vitro and has proven effective against cancer in clinical trials, at least in part, through transcriptional reactivation of the p21(WAF1/Cip1)gene. The HDACs that regulate p21(WAF1/Cip1) are not fully identified. Using small interfering RNAs, we found that HDAC4 participates in the repression of p21(WAF1/Cip1) through Sp1/Sp3-, but not p53-binding sites. HDAC4 interacts with Sp1, binds and reduces histone H3 acetylation at the Sp1/Sp3 binding site-rich p21(WAF1/Cip1) proximal promoter, suggesting a key role for Sp1 in HDAC4-mediated repression of p21(WAF1/Cip1). Induction of p21(WAF1/Cip1) mediated by silencing of HDAC4 arrested cancer cell growth in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in an in vivo human glioblastoma model. Thus, HDAC4 could be a useful target for new anti-cancer therapies based on selective inhibition of specific HDACs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (22 ULg)
Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-Linked Glycoproteins (Siblings): Multifunctional Proteins in Cancer
Bellahcene, Akeila ; Castronovo, Vincenzo ; et al
in Nature Reviews. Cancer (2008), 8(3), 212-26
Numerous components and pathways are involved in the complex interplay between cancer cells and their environment. The family of glycophosphoproteins comprising osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, dentin ... [more ▼]
Numerous components and pathways are involved in the complex interplay between cancer cells and their environment. The family of glycophosphoproteins comprising osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, dentin sialophosphoprotein and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein - small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) - are emerging as important players in many stages of cancer progression. From their detection in various human cancers to the demonstration of their key functional roles during malignant transformation, invasion and metastasis, the SIBLINGs are proteins with potential as diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as new therapeutic targets. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (6 ULg)
Phenotypic Characterization of Osteoblasts from the Sclerotic Zones of Osteoarthritic Subchondral Bone
Sanchez, Christelle ; Deberg, Michelle ; Bellahcene, Akeila et al
in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2008), 58(2), 442-55
OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotype of osteoblasts from the sclerotic zones of human osteoarthritic (OA) subchondral bone. METHODS: Human osteoblasts were isolated from sclerotic or nonsclerotic areas ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotype of osteoblasts from the sclerotic zones of human osteoarthritic (OA) subchondral bone. METHODS: Human osteoblasts were isolated from sclerotic or nonsclerotic areas of subchondral bone and cultured for 14 days in monolayer. The expression of 14 genes was investigated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and transglutaminases (TGases) were quantified by enzymatic assays. C-terminal type I procollagen propeptide (CPI), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), osteocalcin (OC), and osteopontin (OPN) were assayed in the culture medium by immunoassay. RESULTS: Gene expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 13, COL1A1 and COL1A2, OPN, tissue-nonspecific AP, OC, vascular endothelial growth factor, ANKH, TGase 2, factor XIIIA, and dentin matrix protein 1 were significantly up-regulated in sclerotic osteoblasts compared with nonsclerotic osteoblasts. In contrast, parathyroid hormone receptor gene expression was depressed in sclerotic osteoblasts, but bone sialoprotein levels were unchanged. The activities of AP and TGases were increased in sclerotic osteoblasts, while matrix mineralization, revealed by alizarin red staining, was decreased. In parallel, protein synthesis of CPI, OC, OPN, IL-6, IL-8, and TGFbeta1 was significantly higher in sclerotic osteoblasts than in nonsclerotic osteoblasts, while IL-1beta production was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in subchondral bone sclerosis and identify osteoblasts with an altered phenotype as a potential target for future OA therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 104 (23 ULg)
Creb-1 and Ap-1 Transcription Factors Jund and Fra-2 Regulate Bone Sialoprotein Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Detry, Cédric ; Lamour, Virginie ; Castronovo, Vincenzo et al
in BONE (2008), 42(2), 422-31
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is detected in a variety of human osteotropic cancers. High expression of BSP in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is associated with progression and bone ... [more ▼]
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is detected in a variety of human osteotropic cancers. High expression of BSP in breast and prostate primary carcinomas is associated with progression and bone metastases development. In this study, we examined the transcriptional regulation of BSP gene expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells compared with Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells. BSP human promoter deletion analyses delineated a -56/-84 region, which comprises a cAMP response element (CRE) that was sufficient for maximal promoter activity in breast cancer cell lines. We found that the basic fibroblast growth factor response element (FRE) also located in the proximal promoter was a crucial regulator of human BSP promoter activity in Saos-2 but not in breast cancer cells. Promoter activity experiments in combination with DNA mobility shift assays demonstrated that BSP promoter activity is under the control of the CRE element, through CREB-1, JunD and Fra-2 binding, in MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and in Saos-2 cells. Forskolin, a protein kinase A pathway activator, failed to enhance BSP transcriptional activity suggesting that CRE site behaves as a constitutive rather than an inducible element in these cell lines. Over-expression of JunD and Fra-2 increased BSP promoter activity and upregulated endogenous BSP protein expression in MCF-7 and Saos-2 cells while siRNA-mediated inhibition of both factors expression significantly reduced BSP protein level in MDA-MB-231. Collectively, these data provide with new transcriptional mechanisms, implicating CREB and AP-1 factors, that control BSP gene expression in breast cancer cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (5 ULg)
Cell membrane proteomic analysis identifies proteins differentially expressed in osteotropic human breast cancer cells.
Kischel, Philippe ; ; Dumont, Bruno et al
in Neoplasia : An International Journal for Oncology Research (2008), 10(9), 1014-20
Metastatic breast cancer cells are characterized by their high propensity to colonize the skeleton and form bone metastases, causing major morbidity and mortality. Identifying key proteins involved in the ... [more ▼]
Metastatic breast cancer cells are characterized by their high propensity to colonize the skeleton and form bone metastases, causing major morbidity and mortality. Identifying key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of both new prognostic markers and new effective therapies. Cell surface proteins differentially expressed in cancer cells are preferred potential targets for antibody-based targeted therapies. In this study, using cell surface biotinylation and a mass spectrometric approach, we have compared the profile of accessible cell surface proteins between the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its highly osteotropic B02 subclone. This strategy allowed the identification of several proteins either up- or downregulated in the osteotropic cell line, and differential protein expressions were validated using antibody-based techniques. Class I HLAs were down-regulated in the bone metastatic variant, whereas alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, among others, were consistently up-regulated in this latter cell line. These results show that comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome of mother cancerous cell lines and derived organ-specific metastatic cell lines provides an effective approach for the identification of potential accessible marker proteins for both prognosis and antibody-based targeted therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (9 ULg)
A six-gene signature predicting breast cancer lung metastasis.
; ; Bellahcene, Akeila et al
in Cancer Research (2008), 68(15), 6092-9
The lungs are a frequent target of metastatic breast cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. All existing data were obtained either using statistical association between gene ... [more ▼]
The lungs are a frequent target of metastatic breast cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. All existing data were obtained either using statistical association between gene expression measurements found in primary tumors and clinical outcome, or using experimentally derived signatures from mouse tumor models. Here, we describe a distinct approach that consists of using tissue surgically resected from lung metastatic lesions and comparing their gene expression profiles with those from nonpulmonary sites, all coming from breast cancer patients. We show that the gene expression profiles of organ-specific metastatic lesions can be used to predict lung metastasis in breast cancer. We identified a set of 21 lung metastasis-associated genes. Using a cohort of 72 lymph node-negative breast cancer patients, we developed a 6-gene prognostic classifier that discriminated breast primary cancers with a significantly higher risk of lung metastasis. We then validated the predictive ability of the 6-gene signature in 3 independent cohorts of breast cancers consisting of a total of 721 patients. Finally, we show that the signature improves risk stratification independently of known standard clinical variables and a previously established lung metastasis signature based on an experimental breast cancer metastasis model. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (2 ULg)
Experimental anti-angiogenesis causes upregulation of genes associated with poor survival in glioblastoma.
; ; Bellahcene, Akeila et al
in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2008), 122(10), 2187-98
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors are the most promising anti-angiogenic agents used increasingly in the clinic. However, to be efficient, anti-VEGF agents need to be associated with ... [more ▼]
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors are the most promising anti-angiogenic agents used increasingly in the clinic. However, to be efficient, anti-VEGF agents need to be associated with classic chemotherapy. Exploring gene regulation in tumor cells during anti-angiogenesis might help to comprehend the molecular basis of response to treatment. To generate a defined anti-angiogenic condition in vivo, we transfected human glioma cells with short-interfering RNAs against VEGF-A and implanted them on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane. Gene regulation in avascular tumors was studied using human Affymetrixtrade mark GeneChips. Potentially important genes were further studied in glioma patients. Despite strong VEGF inhibition, we observed recurrent formation of small, avascular tumors. CHI3L2, IL1B, PI3/elafin and CHI3L1, which encodes for YKL-40, a putative prognosticator for various diseases, including cancer, were strongly up-regulated in avascular glioma. In glioblastoma patients, these genes showed coregulation and their expression differed significantly from low-grade glioma. Importantly, high levels of CHI3L1 (p = 0.036) and PI3/elafin mRNA (p = 0.0004) were significantly correlated with poor survival. Cox regression analysis further confirmed that PI3 and CHI3L1 levels are survival markers independent from patient age and sex. Elafin-positive tumor cells were only found in glioblastoma, where they were clustered around necrotic areas. PI3/elafin is strongly induced by serum deprivation and hypoxia in U87 glioma cells in vitro. Our results indicate that anti-angiogenesis in experimental glioma drives expression of critical genes which relate to disease aggressiveness in glioblastoma patients. In particular, CHI3L1 and PI3/elafin may be useful as new prognostic markers and new therapeutic targets. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (4 ULg)
Runx2-and histone deacetylase 3-mediated repression is relieved in differentiating human osteoblast cells to allow high bone sialoprotein expression
Lamour, Virginie ; Detry, Cédric ; Sanchez, Christelle et al
in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2007), 282(50), 36240-36249
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a bone matrix glycoprotein whose expression coincides with terminal osteoblastic differentiation and the onset of mineralization. In this study we show that BSP expression is ... [more ▼]
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a bone matrix glycoprotein whose expression coincides with terminal osteoblastic differentiation and the onset of mineralization. In this study we show that BSP expression is considerably increased in confluent Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and in differentiating normal human osteoblasts, concomitantly with the decrease of Runx2, a key transcription factor controlling bone formation. Therefore, we investigated the role of Runx2 in the regulation of BSP expression in Saos-2 cells. Using a mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that Runx2 binds to the BSP promoter only in preconfluent cells. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has been recently shown to act as a Runx2 co-repressor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that both Runx2 and HDAC3 are detectable at the BSP promoter in preconfluent Saos-2 cells but not when they are confluent and overexpress BSP. Consistently, nuclear Runx2 protein level is down-regulated, whereas Saos-2 cells became increasingly confluent. Finally, the suppression of HDAC3, Runx2, or both by RNA interference induced the expression of BSP at both mRNA and protein levels in Saos-2 cells. Our data demonstrate that Runx2 and HDAC3 repress BSP gene expression and that this repression is suspended upon osteoblastic cell differentiation. Both the nuclear disappearance of Runx2 and the non-recruitment of HDAC3 represent new means to relieve Runx2-mediated suppression of BSP expression, thus allowing the acquisition of a fully differentiated and mineralization-competent phenotype by osteoblast cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (5 ULg)
Histone deacetylase 7 silencing alters endothelial cell migration, a key step in angiogenesis
Mottet, Denis ; Bellahcene, Akeila ; Pirotte, Sophie et al
in Circulation Research (2007), 101(12), 1237-1246
Global inhibition of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) impairs angiogenesis. Herein, we have undertaken the identification of the specific HDAC(s) with activity that is necessary for the ... [more ▼]
Global inhibition of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs) impairs angiogenesis. Herein, we have undertaken the identification of the specific HDAC(s) with activity that is necessary for the development of blood vessels. Using small interfering RNAs, we observed that HDAC7 silencing in endothelial cells altered their morphology, their migration, and their capacity to form capillary tube-like structures in vitro but did not affect cell adhesion, proliferation, or apoptosis. Among several factors known to be involved in angiogenesis, platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) and its receptor (PDGFR-beta) were the most upregulated genes following HDAC7 silencing. We demonstrated that their increased expression induced by HDAC7 silencing was partially responsible for the inhibition of endothelial cell migration. In addition, we have also shown that treatment of endothelial cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate resulted in the exportation of HDAC7 out of the nucleus through a protein kinase C/protein kinase D activation pathway and induced, similarly to HDAC7 silencing, an increase in PDGF-B expression, as well as a partial inhibition of endothelial cell migration. Collectively, these data identified HDAC7 as a key modulator of endothelial cell migration and hence angiogenesis, at least in part, by regulating PDGF-B/PDGFR-beta gene expression. Because angiogenesis is required for tumor progression, HDAC7 may represent a rational target for therapeutic intervention against cancer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (16 ULg)
A cathepsin K inhibitor reduces breast cancer-induced osteolysis and skeletal tumor burden
; Bellahcene, Akeila ; et al
in Cancer Research (2007), 67(20), 9894-9902
Osteoclasts mediate bone destruction in breast cancer skeletal metastases. Cathepsin K is a proteinase that is secreted by osteoclasts and degrades bone. Here, immohistochemistry revealed that cathepsin K ... [more ▼]
Osteoclasts mediate bone destruction in breast cancer skeletal metastases. Cathepsin K is a proteinase that is secreted by osteoclasts and degrades bone. Here, immohistochemistry revealed that cathepsin K was expressed not only by osteoclasts but also by breast cancer cells that metastasize to bone. Following intratibial injection with cathepsin K-expressing human BT474 breast cancer cells, tumor-bearing mice treated with a clinical dosing regimen of cathepsin K inhibitor (CKI; 50 mg/kg, twice daily) had osteolytic lesions that were 79% smaller than those of tumor-bearing mice treated with the vehicle. The effect of CKI was also studied in a mouse model in which the i.v. inoculation of human B02 breast cancer cells expressing cathepsin K leads to bone metastasis formation. Drug administration was started before (preventive protocol) or after (treatment protocol) the occurrence of osteolytic lesions. In treatment protocols, CKI (50 mg/kg, twice daily) or a single clinical dose of 100 mu g/kg zoledronic acid (osteoclast inhibitor) reduced the progression of osteolytic lesions by 59% to 66%. CKI therapy also reduced skeletal tumor burden by 62% compared with vehicle, whereas zoledronic acid did not decrease the tumor burden. The efficacy of CKI at inhibiting skeletal tumor burden was similar in the treatment and preventive protocols. By contrast, CKI did not block the growth of s.c. B02 tumor xenografts in animals. Thus, CKI may render the bone a less favorable microenvironment for tumor growth by inhibiting bone resorption. These findings raise the possibility that cathepsin K could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of bone metastases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)