Clinical impact and perspectives of 18F-FDG PET in lymphoma
Jerusalem, Guy ; Beguin, Yves
in Clinical Lymphoma (2000), 1Detailed reference viewed: 7 (6 ULg)
Whole-body positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for posttreatment evaluation in Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has higher diagnostic and prognostic value than classical computed tomography scan imaging.
Jerusalem, Guy ; Beguin, Yves ; Fassotte, Marie-France et al
in Blood (1999), 94(2), 429-33
A residual mass after treatment of lymphoma is a clinical challenge, because it may represent vital tumor as well as tissue fibrosis. Metabolic imaging by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron ... [more ▼]
A residual mass after treatment of lymphoma is a clinical challenge, because it may represent vital tumor as well as tissue fibrosis. Metabolic imaging by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) offers the advantage of functional tissue characterization that is largely independent of morphologic criteria. We compared 18F-FDG PET to computed tomography (CT) in the posttreatment evaluation of 54 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or intermediate/high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Residual masses on CT were observed in 13 of 19 patients with HD and 11 of 35 patients with NHL. Five of 24 patients with residual masses on CT versus 1 of 30 patients without residual masses presented a positive 18F-FDG PET study. Relapse occurred in all 6 patients (100%) with a positive 18F-FDG PET, 5 of 19 patients (26%) with residual masses on CT but negative 18F-FDG PET, and 3 of 29 patients (10%) with negative CT scan and 18F-FDG PET studies (P </=.0001). We observed a higher relapse and death rate in patients with residual masses at CT compared with patients without residual masses at CT (progression-free survival at 1 year: 62 +/- 10 v 88 +/- 7%, P =. 0045; overall survival at 1 year: 77 +/- 5 v 95 +/- 5%, P =.0038). A positive 18F-FDG PET study was even more consistently associated with poorer survival: compared with patients with a negative 18F-FDG PET study, the 1-year progression-free survival was 0% versus 86% +/- 5% (P <.0001) and the 1-year overall survival was 50% +/- 20% versus 92% +/- 4% (P <.0001). The detection of vital tumor by 18F-FDG PET after the end of treatment has a higher predictive value for relapse than classical CT scan imaging (positive predictive value: 100% v 42%). This could help identify patients requiring intensification immediately after completion of chemotherapy. However, 18F-FDG PET mainly predicts for early progression but cannot exclude the presence of minimal residual disease, possibly leading to a later relapse. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
Peripheral blood progenitor cell collections in cancer patients: analysis of factors affecting the yields.
Sautois, Brieuc ; ; Baudoux, Etienne et al
in Haematologica (1999), 84(4), 342-9
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are now widely used to restore hematopoiesis following high dose chemotherapy in patients with malignancies. We sought to identify ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are now widely used to restore hematopoiesis following high dose chemotherapy in patients with malignancies. We sought to identify parameters that could predict the yield of PBPC after mobilization with chemotherapy (CT) with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in cancer patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients underwent 627 PBPC collections during the recovery phase following CT with (n = 469) or without (n = 142) G-CSF. Hemogram, CFC-assays and CD34+ cell count were performed on peripheral blood and leukaphereses products. After log transformation of the data, differences between groups were assessed with the unpaired t-test or one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Seventeen and two patients required 2 and 3 mobilization cycles respectively to reach our target of 15x10(4) CFU-GM/kg. In patients with lymphoma but not in those with leukemia, the yields of both CFU-GM and CD34+ cells/kg were dramatically increased when G-CSF was added to CT for mobilization. In collections primed with CT and G-CSF, better yields were obtained in patients with breast cancer or small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) as opposed to other solid tumors and leukemia. Among potential predictive factors of CT- and G-CSF-primed harvests, we found that the CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood (PB) was strongly correlated with both the CFU-GM and CD34+ cell yields. Except in leukemia patients, more than 1x10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were harvested when the CD34+ cell count in blood was above 20x10(6)/L. Similarly, better results were obtained in collections performed when the percentage of myeloid progenitors in blood on the day of apheresis was above 5 % or when the leukocyte count in blood was above 5x10(9)/L. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of breast cancer or SCLC, a leukocyte count in PB of more than 5x10(9)/L, more than 5% myeloid progenitors or more than 20x10(6) CD34+ cells/L in PB were associated with higher yields of PBPC in collections mobilized with CT+G-CSF. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (10 ULg)
La greffe de cellules souches hematopoietiques dans la drepanocytose.
; ; et al
in Archives de Pédiatrie (1999), 6 Suppl 2Detailed reference viewed: 49 (3 ULg)
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin on platelet counts is strongly modulated by the adequacy of iron supply.
; Beguin, Yves
in Blood (1999), 93(10), 3286-93
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet ... [more ▼]
The effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on megakaryopoiesis remains controversial. Treatment with rHuEpo in renal failure patients has been associated with a slight elevation of platelet counts. In animal studies, high doses of rHuEpo produced an increase of platelet counts followed by a gradual return to normal after 7 to 15 days or even a substantial degree of thrombocytopenia. However, because iron deficiency is also known to be associated with thrombocytosis, (functional) iron deficiency during rHuEpo could be contributing to these observations. We investigated the impact of iron supply on changes in platelet counts induced by rHuEpo. Rats were either fed normal food (normal rats) or received 1% carbonyl iron for 2 weeks or 3 months, as well as during the experiment, to achieve iron supplementation or overload, respectively. Rats of all three categories then received daily intravenous injections of rHuEpo (10, 50, or 150 U) or normal saline (0 U) for 20 days. With 0 to 10 U rHuEpo, platelets remained stable. In normal rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo, platelets increased to 120% to 140% of baseline at 4 to 12 days to level off at 120% at 16 to 20 days. This response was less sustained in splenectomized animals. Iron-supplemented rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also increased platelets initially, but the peak was at day 4, followed by a gradual return to baseline and even a moderate thrombocytopenia later on. Iron-overloaded rats receiving 50 to 150 U rHuEpo also had increased platelets at day 4, but the duration of platelet increase was shorter, and they experienced a more pronounced degree of thrombocytopenia in proportion to the dose of rHuEpo. Because the early elevation of platelets was of larger magnitude than hematocrit changes, it is unlikely that it could be accounted for by shrinkage of plasma volume. Because it was observed in all three iron conditions, there appears to be some direct positive effect of rHuEpo on platelet production. However, after this transient effect, expanded erythropoiesis appears to exert a negative impact upon platelet production. Secondary thrombocytopenia was not related to splenic pooling, and its very slow correction after cessation of rHuEpo therapy is not compatible with changes in platelet survival. Rather, it is consistent with stem cell competition between erythroid and megakaryocytic development. However, this secondary thrombocytopenia is masked by (functional) iron deficiency in rats not receiving an adequate iron supply from food or stores. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (0 ULg)
Erythropoietin and platelet production.
in Haematologica (1999), 84(6), 541-7
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (Epo) is the primary growth factor for the red cell lineage but treatment with recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) has been shown to increase platelet counts. In ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (Epo) is the primary growth factor for the red cell lineage but treatment with recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo) has been shown to increase platelet counts. In several animal species treatment with rHuEpo stimulated platelet production, but platelet counts tended to normalize after 1-2 weeks and large, chronic doses even caused thrombocytopenia. This paper aims to review the evidence about the effects of Epo on megakaryopoiesis. INFORMATION SOURCES: I examined the literature published in journals covered by Medline(R)a concerning the effects of Epo, hypoxia and iron deficiency on megakaryopoiesis and platelets. The reference list of each article was reviewed to try to identify further contributions. STATE OF THE ART: In vivo data have shown that moderate Epo stimulation, i.e. that produced by standard doses of rHuEpo, short-term hypoxia or moderate iron deficiency, causes a moderate elevation of platelet counts, whereas intense Epo stimulation, as produced by high doses of rHuEpo, prolonged hypoxia or severe iron deficiency, causes some degree of thrombocytopenia. In the latter case, there appears to be a diphasic response to Epo, the initial positive response (a stimulation of platelet production) being followed by thrombocytopenia. Contrarily to the thrombocytopenia due to increased platelet destruction induced by other growth factors, Epo-induced thrombocytopenia is the result of an inhibition of platelet production. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVE: Stem-cell competition between erythroid and platelet precursors appears to be the cause of these phenomena in situations of prolonged, intense stimulation by Epo. In vitro data support the existence of a common erythrocytic and megakaryocytic precursor. It remains to be determined whether these effects of rHuEpo are a result of the dose itself or of the magnitude of the erythropoietic effect of that dose. It is not known whether a lower dose given in a patient with decreased marrow function would bring about the same biological effects as those induced by high doses of rHuEpo in the presence of a normal marrow function. Caution should be exercised before using high doses of hematopoietic growth factors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
The belgian experience in unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation: identification of center experience as an important prognostic factor.
Dresse, Marie-Françoise ; ; et al
in Haematologica (1999), 84(7), 637-42
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We reviewed all unrelated donor bone marrow transplants (UDBMT) performed in Belgium up to December 1995 to identify prognostic factors for relapse, transplant-related mortality ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We reviewed all unrelated donor bone marrow transplants (UDBMT) performed in Belgium up to December 1995 to identify prognostic factors for relapse, transplant-related mortality and survival. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 163 UDBMT were performed in 92 males and 71 females aged 1-55 (median 26) years. Patients were transplanted for ALL (n=35), AML (n=34), CML (n=51), other myeloid malignancies (n=14), SAA (n=21) or miscellaneous other diseases (n=8). Most patients had advanced disease; a few patients were in CR1 (n=10) or early chronic phase (CP) of CML (n=5). RESULTS: Overall survival at 5 yrs was 17% (95% confidence interval: 8-32%), but survival was significantly better for patients with non-malignant disorders (55% at 4 yrs). The relapse rate +/-SE was projected to be 40 (28-54)% at 5 yrs, 36 (20-56)% for standard-risk and 68 (43-85)% for high-risk malignancies (p=0.0029). There was no relapse in CML patients transplanted in 1st CP compared to 68% at 4 yrs with more advanced CML (p=0.0033). Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred in 55% by day 100 and was strongly modulated by age, ranging from 41% in <20-yr-old to 80% in >40-yr-old patients (p=0. 0021). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was projected to be 72 (52-87)% at 5 yrs including 2 very late deaths from lung fibrosis and secondary cancer. Main causes of death were original disease in 27, secondary malignancy in 2, GVHD in 28, interstitial pneumonia in 21, other infections in 19, and miscellaneous toxic causes in 21 patients. In multivariate analysis, the relapse rate was strongly dependent on the disease status (p=0.0029), TRM being significantly worse with older age (p=0.0049), and overall survival being significantly worse in more advanced disease (p=0.0006), after a second transplant (p=0.0166), in centers of smaller size (p=0.0316) and in older patients (NS). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although results have improved somewhat in recent years, UDBMT remains a procedure with a high TRM. UDBMT should be performed in patients with less advanced diseases and in centers with more experience, particularly in the treatment of adult patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 83 (6 ULg)
Soluble transferrin receptor as a potential determinant of iron loading in congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis.
; Beguin, Yves ; et al
in British Journal of Haematology (1999), 106(3), 752-5
Congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis may be associated with excessive iron absorption and progressive iron loading. We investigated whether the soluble transferrin receptor (TfR) level ... [more ▼]
Congenital anaemias due to ineffective erythropoiesis may be associated with excessive iron absorption and progressive iron loading. We investigated whether the soluble transferrin receptor (TfR) level was related to the degree of iron overload in 20 patients with thalassaemia intermedia, six patients with congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type II (CDA II) and four patients with X-linked congenital sideroblastic anaemia (XLSA). All but two patients had increased serum ferritin levels (median 601 microgram/l, range 105-2855 microgram/l). Multiple regression analysis showed that 62% (P < 0.0001) of the variation in serum ferritin was explained by age and by changes in soluble TfR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Delayed massive immune hemolysis mediated by minor ABO incompatibility after allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation.
Salmon, Jean ; ; et al
in Transfusion (1999), 39(8), 824-7
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be followed by moderate delayed hemolysis of the recipient's red cells by donor-derived ABO antibodies. This reaction may be more ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be followed by moderate delayed hemolysis of the recipient's red cells by donor-derived ABO antibodies. This reaction may be more severe after transplantation of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs). CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old boy underwent an allogeneic PBPC transplant from his HLA-mismatched mother as treatment for acute myeloblastic leukemia that had proved resistant to induction chemotherapy. Transfusion of the unmanipulated PBPCs proceeded without any complication, despite the difference in ABO blood group (donor, O Rh-positive; recipient, A Rh-positive). On Day 7, a rapid drop in hemoglobin to 4 g per dL was observed, which was attributed to a massive hemolysis. All the recipient's group A red cells were destroyed within 36 hours. This delayed and rapidly progressive hemolytic anemia was not associated with the transfusion of the donor's plasma. Rather, the anti-A titer increased in parallel with marrow recovery, which suggested an active synthesis of these antibodies by immunocompetent cells from the donor against the recipient's red cells. The mother's anti-A titer was retrospectively found to be 2048. Her unusually high titer is probably due to prior sensitization during pregnancies. On Day 12, the patient developed grade IV graft-versus-host disease, which proved resistant to all treatments instituted and led to his death on Day 35. CONCLUSION: PBPC transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility may be associated with significant risk of massive delayed hemolysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 67 (4 ULg)
Factors determining the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells in hemodialysis patients.
Bovy, Christophe ; ; et al
in Kidney International (1999), 56(3), 1113-9
Factors determining the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells determines iron status in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND: Determination of the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (RBC; %HYPO ... [more ▼]
Factors determining the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells determines iron status in hemodialysis patients. BACKGROUND: Determination of the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (RBC; %HYPO) has been advocated as a sensitive index of functional iron deficiency during erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in hemodialyzed patients. METHODS: The significance of %HYPO in chronic renal failure was evaluated in 64 chronically hemodialyzed patients. The linear correlation was determined between %HYPO and 13 variables, including age, sex, weight, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, transferrin (Tf), Tf saturation, soluble Tf receptor (sTfR), serum iron (SI), urea, parathormone, dialysis dose (Kt/V), dose of EPO administered (EPO), and absolute reticulocyte count. Multiple regression analyses were then performed to select the parameters that jointly provide the best prediction of %HYPO. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed significant correlations between %HYPO and iron parameters (sTfR, Tf saturation, SI, and ferritin, in decreasing order), EPO, reticulocyte count, and CRP. Multivariate analysis yielded an equation showing that the variation of %HYPO is essentially associated with the combined changes in sTfR, CRP, and EPO dosage. CONCLUSIONS: %HYPO is a meaningful and inexpensive parameter that reflects the integrated effects of iron stores, inflammation, and erythropoietic stimulation on iron availability in hemodialyzed patients. Among iron exchange parameters, sTfR is the best predictor of %HYPO, followed by Tf saturation, SI, and ferritin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (4 ULg)
Influence of marrow erythropoietic activity on serum erythropoietin levels after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Beguin, Yves ; Baron, Frédéric ; Fillet, Georges
in Haematologica (1998), 83(12), 1076-81
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration depends primarily on the rate of renal production in response to hypoxia. However, sEpo levels increase inappropriately after ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration depends primarily on the rate of renal production in response to hypoxia. However, sEpo levels increase inappropriately after conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) before progressively returning to adequate levels. We investigated the possible influence of erythropoietic activity on these observations. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty patients undergoing an ASCT, 8 with bone marrow (BMT) and 32 with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC), were separated into 3 groups. Group 1 was formed of the 8 BMT patients (median time to 1% reticulocytes: 39 days), group 2 of 16 PBSC patients with relatively slow erythroid engraftment (> or = 15 days to 1% reticulocytes, median 19 days) and group 3 of 16 PBSC patients with prompt erythroid recovery (< 15 days to 1% reticulocytes, median 13 days). Marrow erythroid activity was assessed by serum transferrin receptor levels (sTfR). Serum Epo (sEpo) levels were expressed in relation to the degree of anemia as observed/predicted (O/P) ratios of (O/P) log (sEpo). RESULTS: Serum sTfR levels decreased by more than 50% in all 3 groups after conditioning, reaching their nadir on day 7. Nadir values doubled by day 28 in group 3, day 60 in group 2, but not within 100 days in group 1. O/P sEpo ratios increased inappropriately in all 3 groups after conditioning but then declined at very differing speeds in the 3 groups. In group 1, ratios remained above 1.10 through to day 28 and above 1.00 through to day 42, before leveling off at around 1.00 thereafter. In group 2, ratios remained above 1.00 through to day 14, than decreased to a minimum of 0.89 by day 42 before returning to 1.00 by day 100. In group 3, ratios decreased to 0.84 by day 21 and remained below 0.90 thereafter. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that sEpo levels are not only influenced by tissue oxygenation but also depend on the mass of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. This may be the main explanation for the observed changes in sEpo levels during ASCT. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Myasthenia gravis without chronic GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ; Sadzot, Bernard ; Wang, François-Charles et al
in Bone Marrow Transplantation (1998), 22(2), 197-200
A 20-year-old man with aplastic anemia developed myasthenia gravis (MG) 7 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA one locus-mismatched sister. Proximal muscle weakness (predominant in ... [more ▼]
A 20-year-old man with aplastic anemia developed myasthenia gravis (MG) 7 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA one locus-mismatched sister. Proximal muscle weakness (predominant in the lower limbs) and dysphagia occurred without any other sign of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 1 month after cessation of immunosuppression with cyclosporine. The diagnosis of MG was based on clinical symptoms and on neurophysiologic investigations showing a significant increase of the Jitter in single-fiber electromyography and a significant decremental response during repetitive stimulation at slow rates, but antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AchRab) were negative. All clinical and neurophysiological signs normalized within 1 month of treatment with low-dose prednisolone and pyridostigmine, and the patient is perfectly well 1 year after cessation of all therapy. All cases of BMT-associated MG previously published are reviewed in comparison with ours. The originality of this new observation is that this case is the only one not associated with chronic GVHD and negative for AchRab. Alternatively, MG may have been the sole manifestation of chronic GVHD in this patient. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 ULg)
Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia and ulcerative colitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ; ; et al
in Bone Marrow Transplantation (1998), 21(9), 951-4
A 37-year-old man with acute myeloblastic leukemia in first remission developed ulcerative colitis and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) 7 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT ... [more ▼]
A 37-year-old man with acute myeloblastic leukemia in first remission developed ulcerative colitis and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) 7 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-matched brother who suffered from severe Crohn's disease. BOOP occurred 20 days after idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, in the context of severe ulcerative colitis. Lung and colon biopsies showed no signs of CMV infection or GVHD. The patient was treated with oral methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day and his clinical status and chest X-ray improved slowly. Remarkably, the symptoms of colitis also resolved with prednisone therapy and he is now symptom-free. We hypothesize that ulcerative colitis may have been transmitted from donor to recipient (adoptive autoimmunity) and that it was complicated by BOOP. However, other factors such as CMV may have contributed to the occurrence of BOOP. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (2 ULg)
Epidermal Calprotectin Expression in Lymphocyte-Depleted Cutaneous Graft-versus-Host Reaction
Pierard, Gérald ; Nikkels, Nazli ; Nikkels, Arjen et al
in Archivos Argentinos de Dermatologia (1998), 48
One of the most important complications associated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) altering different organs. The immunosuppressive regimen frequently abates ... [more ▼]
One of the most important complications associated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) altering different organs. The immunosuppressive regimen frequently abates the severity of cutaneous lesions to a peculiar lymphocyto-depleted GVHR (LD-GVHR) with scant recognizable inflammatory cells and almost absence of epidermal injury. The recently revisited histological criteria for cutaneous GVHR are of little help in diagnosing such LD-GVHR. As calprotectin (L1-protein) has been reported to be expressed in several types of stressed epithelia, we assessed the epidermal calprotectin expression during LD-GVHR. Calprotectin expression was studied by immuno-histochemistry using the Mac 287 moAb in 50 cases of LD-GVHR and 40 cases of toxic reactions due to the conditioning regimens or to post-transplant drugs. Calprotectin was evidenced in normal looking keratinocytes of all cutaneous LD-GVHR cases and in the vast majority of cytotoxic drug-induced dermatitis. It is concluded that calprotectin immunoreactivity appears to be a diagnostic clue in LD-GVHR. The epidermal calprotectin expression occurs early in GVHD, irrespective of the histological grading. However, it cannot be used alone to distinguish early LD-GVHR from drug-induced dermatitis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 72 (27 ULg)
Anemia in children with cancer is associated with decreased erythropoietic activity and not with inadequate erythropoietin production.
; Beguin, Yves ; et al
in Blood (1998), 92(5), 1793-8
A defect in erythropoietin (EPO) production has been advocated as being the main cause of anemia presented at time of diagnosis or during treatment by adults with solid tumors. On the basis of this defect ... [more ▼]
A defect in erythropoietin (EPO) production has been advocated as being the main cause of anemia presented at time of diagnosis or during treatment by adults with solid tumors. On the basis of this defect, anemic cancer patients, both adults and children, have been treated with recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO). To further elucidate the pathophysiology of anemia in children with cancer, we measured serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), a quantitative marker of erythropoiesis, and serum EPO at time of diagnosis and during chemotherapy in children suffering from solid tumor or leukemia. We determined serum EPO in 111 children (55 leukemia, 56 solid tumors) at time of diagnosis. In the last 44 patients (23 leukemia and 21 solid tumors), sTfR levels were also measured. Serum EPO together with sTfR levels were also determined in 60 children receiving chemotherapy (29 leukemia, 31 solid tumors). These results were compared with those obtained from appropriate control groups. In all patients, we found a highly significant correlation between the logarithm of EPO (log[EPO]) and the hemoglobin (Hb) level. In all subsets of patients, sTfR levels were inappropriately low for the degree of anemia. Neither leukemic nor solid tumor groups showed a significant inverse relationship between log(sTfR) and the Hb level as would be expected in anemic patients with appropriate marrow response. Thus, in children with cancer, anemia is associated with a decreased total bone marrow erythropoietic activity which, in contrast to what has been reported in anemic cancer adults, is not related to defective EPO production. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULg)
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for sickle cell anaemia: the first 50 patients transplanted in Belgium.
; ; et al
in Bone Marrow Transplantation (1998), 22(1), 1-6
Fifty patients affected by sickle cell anaemia underwent transplantation of HLA-identical haematopoietic stem cells (bone marrow, 48; cord blood, 2). Two groups of patients were considered for ... [more ▼]
Fifty patients affected by sickle cell anaemia underwent transplantation of HLA-identical haematopoietic stem cells (bone marrow, 48; cord blood, 2). Two groups of patients were considered for transplantation. Group 1 included 36 permanent residents of a European country who, retrospectively, met the inclusion criteria accepted at a consensus conference held in Seattle in 1990, wherein children were selected because they already had evidence of a morbid course. Group 2 included 14 patients who were transplanted earlier, had not received more than three blood transfusions and were transplanted because they had decided to return to their country of origin. Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall survival, event-free survival and disease-free survival at 11 years of the whole grafted population are 93, 82 and 85%, respectively. In group 1, overall survival, EFS and DFS were 88, 76 and 80% and in group 2, 100, 93 and 93%, respectively. Clinical manifestations of the disease, as well as disease associated haemolytic anaemia, disappeared in all successfully treated patients. Recovery of spleen function was present in seven out of 10 evaluated patients. Adverse events (death, absence of engraftment, mixed chimerism and relapse) occurred more frequently in group 1 than in group 2 (25% vs 7%, P< 0.001). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was present in 20 patients (grade I or II, 19; grade III, 1), chronic GVHD in 10 (limited, 7; extensive, 3). One patient developed an acute myeloid leukaemia. Gonadal dysfunction was present in all patients (six boys and eight girls) transplanted close to or after puberty, although transient in one adolescent girl. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 789 (0 ULg)
Iron metabolism and erythropoiesis after surgery.
; ; et al
in British Journal of Surgery (1998), 85(1), 41-5
BACKGROUND: This was a prospective study comparing the effect of major and minor surgery on haematological variables concerning erythropoiesis, iron metabolism and acute-phase response proteins. METHODS ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: This was a prospective study comparing the effect of major and minor surgery on haematological variables concerning erythropoiesis, iron metabolism and acute-phase response proteins. METHODS: Thirty-one otherwise healthy patients, 15 having major orthopaedic surgery and 16 undergoing minor surgery, were studied. Blood samples were taken before surgery and 1, 4, 10 and 28 days after operation. RESULTS: Haemoglobin concentration was decreased for up to 4 weeks after surgery. Serum erythropoietin concentration and reticulocyte count were raised after major surgery only. Serum iron concentration dropped the day after major (to 23 per cent of its preoperative level) and minor (to 46 per cent of its preoperative level) surgery and remained lower for up to 28 days after major surgery. Serum transferrin concentration and transferrin saturation decreased after both types of surgery while ferritin concentration increased. Serum transferrin receptor concentration increased only 4 weeks after major surgery (P < 0.01). The interleukin 6 peak (day 1) was greater after major than minor surgery, as was the C-reactive protein peak (day 4). CONCLUSION: Both major and minor surgery induce a state of hypoferraemia in the presence of adequate iron stores. The degree of this transient form of 'anaemia of chronic disease' is related to the extent of surgery. Iron supplementation in the first weeks after surgery (if iron stores were normal before operation) is ineffective. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg)
Red blood cell precursor mass as an independent determinant of serum erythropoietin level.
; ; et al
in Blood (1998), 91(6), 2139-45
Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration is primarily related to the rate of renal production and, under the stimulus of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreases. Additional factors ... [more ▼]
Serum erythropoietin (sEpo) concentration is primarily related to the rate of renal production and, under the stimulus of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreases. Additional factors, however, appear to influence sEpo, and in this work, we performed studies to evaluate the role of the red blood cell precursor mass. We first compared the relationship of sEpo with Hb in patients with low versus high erythroid activity. The first group included 27 patients with erythroid aplasia or hypoplasia having serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels < 3 mg/L (erythroid activity < 0.6 times normal), while the second one included 28 patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia having sTfR levels > 10 mg/L (erythroid activity > 2 times normal). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to Hb (8.3 +/- 1.6 v 8.0 +/- 1.3 g/dL, P > .05), but sEpo levels were notably higher in patients with low erythroid activity (1,601 +/- 1,542 v 235 +/- 143 mU/mL, P < . 001). In fact, multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that, at any given Hb level, sEpo was higher in patients with low erythroid activity (P < .0001). Twenty patients undergoing allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were then investigated. A marked increase in sEpo was seen in all cases at the time of marrow aplasia, disproportionately high when compared with the small decrease in Hb level. Sequential studies were also performed in five patients with iron deficiency anemia undergoing intravenous (IV) iron therapy. Within 24 to 72 hours after starting iron treatment, marked decreases in sEpo (up to one log magnitude) were found before any change in Hb level. Similar observations were made in patients with megaloblastic anemia and in a case of pure red blood cell aplasia. These findings point to an inverse relationship between red blood cell precursor mass and sEpo: at any given Hb level, the higher the number of red blood cell precursors, the lower the sEpo concentration. The most likely explanation for this is that sEpo levels are regulated not only by the rate of renal production, but also by the rate of utilization by erythroid cells. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor plus erythropoietin: results from a randomized phase II study and long-term follow-up of 71 patients.
; ; Beguin, Yves et al
in Blood (1998), 92(1), 68-75
Treatment with erythropoietin (epo) may improve the anemia of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in approximately 20% of patients. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with the combination of ... [more ▼]
Treatment with erythropoietin (epo) may improve the anemia of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in approximately 20% of patients. Previous studies have suggested that treatment with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and epo may increase this response rate. In the present phase II study, patients with MDS and anemia were randomized to treatment with G-CSF + epo according to one of two alternatives; arm A starting with G-CSF for 4 weeks followed by the combination for 12 weeks, and arm B starting with epo for 8 weeks followed by the combination for 10 weeks. Fifty evaluable patients (10 refractory anemia [RA], 13 refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts [RARS], and 27 refractory anemia with excess blasts [RAEB]) were included in the study, three were evaluable only for epo as monotherapy and 47 for the combined treatment. The overall response rate to G-CSF + epo was 38%, which is identical to that in our previous study. The response rates for patients with RA, RARS, and RAEB were 20%, 46%, and 37%, respectively. Response rates were identical in the two treatment groups indicating that an initial treatment with G-CSF was not neccessary for a response to the combination. Nine patients in arm B showed a response to the combined treatment, but only three of these responded to epo alone. This suggests a synergistic effect in vivo by G-CSF + epo. A long-term follow-up was made on 71 evaluable patients from both the present and the preceding Scandinavian study on G-CSF + epo. Median survival was 26 months, and the overall risk of leukemic transformation during a median follow-up of 43 months was 28%. Twenty patients entered long-term maintenance treatment and showed a median duration of response of 24 months.The international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) was effective to predict survival, leukemic transformation, and to a lesser extent, duration of response, but had no impact on primary response rates. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 ULg)
Prediction of response to optimize outcome of treatment with erythropoietin.
in Seminars in Oncology (1998), 25(3 Suppl 7), 27-34
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO; epoetin) has been shown to be effective in improving anemia in a proportion of cancer patients. The response rate is approximately 60%, but varies considerably ... [more ▼]
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO; epoetin) has been shown to be effective in improving anemia in a proportion of cancer patients. The response rate is approximately 60%, but varies considerably according to baseline hematocrit and transfusion needs, as well as the response criteria used. Response is not greatly influenced by the type of tumor, except in situations of major marrow involvement and limited residual hematopoiesis, or in the presence of specific mechanisms of anemia, such as hemolysis, splenomegaly, bleeding, hemodilution, or ineffective erythropoiesis. Stem cell damage by previous therapy as well as marrow suppression by current intensive chemotherapy can impair response. Besides its intensity, the type of chemotherapy may not be critical, although patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy may respond faster than those receiving non-platinum regimens. Complications, such as infections, bleeding, or nutritional deficiencies, may have a major negative impact on outcome. An important response-limiting factor is functional iron deficiency (ie, an imbalance between iron needs in the erythropoietic marrow and iron supply), which depends on the level of iron stores and its rate of mobilization. Functional iron deficiency is best monitored by the percentage of hypochromic red blood cells, and oral or intravenous iron supplements should be given when this percentage increases above 10%. All these factors explain why the response rate to epoetin is only approximately 60%. Therefore, it would be interesting to develop models that could help predict response to epoetin to help select the most appropriate cancer patients for this therapy. Few baseline parameters have been shown to be highly predictive of response in patients with solid tumors, although most studies in patients with myeloma or lymphoma have indicated that patients with a low baseline serum EPO level will respond better. Early changes after 2 to 4 weeks of treatment are also of great interest. Among these early changes, increments of soluble transferrin receptor, reticulocytes, and hemoglobin, as well as the persistence of elevated ferritin or EPO levels, have all shown some predictive value. Combination of baseline serum EPO and the 2-week increment of soluble transferrin receptor or hemoglobin may provide the best prediction of response. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (0 ULg)