References of "Bastin, Christine"
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See detailSelf in Dementia
Antoine, Nicolas ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

in Mishara; Corlett, P.; Fletcher, P. (Eds.) et al Phenomenological Neuropsychiatry, How Patient Experience Bridges Clinic with Clinical Neuroscience (in press)

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See detailIncreasing the salience of fluency cues does not reduce the recognition memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease!
Simon, Jessica ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Neuropsychology (in press)

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is now well established that recollection is impaired from the beginning of the disease, whereas findings are less clear concerning familiarity. One of the most important ... [more ▼]

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), it is now well established that recollection is impaired from the beginning of the disease, whereas findings are less clear concerning familiarity. One of the most important mechanisms underlying familiarity is the sense of familiarity driven by processing fluency. In this study, we attempted to attenuate recognition memory deficits in AD by maximizing the salience of fluency cues in two conditions of a recognition memory task. In one condition, targets and foils have been created from the same pool of letters (Overlap condition). In a second condition, targets and foils have been derived from two separate pools of letters (No-Overlap condition), promoting the use of letter-driven visual and phonetic fluency. Targets and foils were low-frequency words. The memory tasks were performed by 15 patients with AD and 16 healthy controls. Both groups improved their memory performance in the No-Overlap condition compared to the Overlap condition. Patients with AD were able to use fluency cues during recognition memory as older adults did, but this did not allow to compensate for dysfunction of recognition memory processes. [less ▲]

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See detailRelating pessimistic memory predictions to Alzheimer’s disease brain structure
Genon, Sarah ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in Cortex : A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System & Behavior (in press)

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory ... [more ▼]

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory retrieval and investigated the neural correlates of pessimistic predictions for successfully retrieved memories in AD patients. AD patients and healthy older participants provided predictive judgements on their recognition performance before retrieval of famous (semantic) and recently learned (episodic) names. Correlations between grey matter volume (GMV) in T1 images and behavioural scores were examined with multivariate (PLS) and univariate (GLM) analyses in AD patients. AD patients showed a significant proportion of successful name recognition preceded by pessimistic prediction (Prediction_low_hits) in episodic memory. PLS revealed that behavioural pattern in AD patients was related with a mainly right lateralized pattern of GMV decrease including medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex, but also right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GLM further confirmed that pessimistic prediction negatively correlated with GMV in VLPFC. Thus, impaired monitoring processes (possibly influenced by inaccurate beliefs) allowing inferences about one’s own memory performance are primarily related to decrease GMV in VLPFC in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired familiarity in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Commentary on Schoemaker et al. (2016)
Bastin, Christine ULg; Besson, Gabriel ULg

in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring (2017), 6

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See detailImpact du nombre d’alternatives lors d’une tâche de reconnaissance à choix-forcé sur les processus de reconnaissance dans le vieillissement normal
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2016, September 19)

Les tâches de reconnaissance à choix forcé sont classiquement utilisées pour évaluer la mémoire de reconnaissance. Cependant, aucune étude n’a spécifiquement investigué l’impact du nombre d’alternatives ... [more ▼]

Les tâches de reconnaissance à choix forcé sont classiquement utilisées pour évaluer la mémoire de reconnaissance. Cependant, aucune étude n’a spécifiquement investigué l’impact du nombre d’alternatives sur les performances mnésiques des participants âgés. Nous voulons déterminer, d’une part, si le nombre d’alternatives proposées - deux ou trois – et d’autre part, si le degré de similarité entre la cible et ses leurres ont un impact sur les stratégies de récupération mises en place au cours de la tâche. Pour ce faire, nous avons recruté 20 participants jeunes et 20 participants âgés. Lors de la tâche de reconnaissance, nous leur avons demandé de choisir, parmi deux ou trois photographies de visages, celui qui a été présenté précédemment. Certains couples cibles-leurres étaient plus similaires que d’autres (partage de 60% de caractéristiques communes, contre 40%). Pour chaque item sélectionné, les participants devaient expliquer ce qui a guidé leur choix. Les premières analyses (ANOVA à mesures répétées 2 (groupes) x 2 (alternatives) x 2 (similarité) sur les deux dernières mesures, p<0,05) montrent que les performances entre les groupes sont équivalentes pour la tâche de reconnaissance à deux alternatives. A l’inverse, nous avons observé que les participants jeunes avaient significativement de meilleures performances que les âgés dans la tâche de reconnaissance à trois alternatives. Les profils mnésiques des participants seront étudiés à la lumière des modèles à deux processus de la reconnaissance. Nous faisons l’hypothèse d’un recours plus fréquent à la recollection chez les jeunes dans la tâche de reconnaissance à trois alternatives (vs deux alternatives), alors que le choix de l’item se ferait chez les âgés, en comparant directement les degrés de familiarité associés à chaque item et en sélectionnant le plus familier (Norman & O’Reilly, 2003). [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of aging on task- and stimulus-related cerebral attention networks
Kurth, Sophie ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2016), 44

Interactions between a dorsal attention (DAN) and a ventral attention cerebral network (VAN) have been reported in young participants during attention or short term memory (STM) tasks. Since it remains an ... [more ▼]

Interactions between a dorsal attention (DAN) and a ventral attention cerebral network (VAN) have been reported in young participants during attention or short term memory (STM) tasks. Since it remains an under-investigated question, age effects on DAN and VAN activity and their functional balance were explored during performance of a STM task. Older and young groups showed similar behavioral patterns of results. At the cerebral level, DAN activation increased as a function of increasing STM load in both groups, suggesting preserved activity in DAN during healthy aging. Age-related over-recruitment in regions of the DAN in the higher task load raised the question of compensation attempt versus less efficient use of neural resources in older adults. Lesser decrease of VAN activation with increasing load and decreased stimulus-driven activation in the VAN, especially in the higher load, in older participants suggested age-related reduced response in the VAN. However, functional connectivity measures showed that VAN was still functionally connected to the DAN in older participants. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection versus familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment: Impact of test format.
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, July 18)

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of test format on recollection and familiarity in normal aging and in MCI. Seventy young participants, 65 younger-old, 53 older-old, and 13 MCIs were ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of test format on recollection and familiarity in normal aging and in MCI. Seventy young participants, 65 younger-old, 53 older-old, and 13 MCIs were presented with forced-choice and yes/no visual recognition memory tasks with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The young people had better recognition performance than younger-old, who performed better than older-old and MCIs. Recollection and familiarity declined progressively in healthy aging. In MCI, recollection was more affected than familiarity, but patients demonstrated a more liberal use of familiarity. Finally, test format did not influence strongly the results. Young people used recollection more often in the forced-choice task compared to the yes/no task. [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupted interaction between self and memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

Conference (2016, July)

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship ... [more ▼]

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship can be disrupted. This was evidenced by impaired SRE and SRRE in AD for recognition of adjectives previously judged for self-relevance, as well as recall of names of people previously linked to the self. For both materials, a qualitative impairment of the recollective experience for the self-related items was also observed in AD. A neuroimaging approach suggested that reduced SRE is related to decreased grey matter volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC). Thus, retrieval of recent self-related memories is impaired in relation to altered high-order processes in lPFC in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailSubstrats neuronaux de l'encodage non réussi dans le vieillissement
François, Sarah ULg; Angel, Lucie; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2016, May 27)

Objectifs En utilisant l'IRM fonctionnelle, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'effet de l'âge sur les substrats neuronaux de l'encodage non réussi – l'activation à l'encodage pour les items oubliés par la ... [more ▼]

Objectifs En utilisant l'IRM fonctionnelle, nous nous sommes intéressés à l'effet de l'âge sur les substrats neuronaux de l'encodage non réussi – l'activation à l'encodage pour les items oubliés par la suite. Méthodologie Dans un scanner IRM, nous avons soumis des volontaires (20 jeunes et 19 âgés) à une tâche de mémoire épisodique avec consignes d'encodage incident. Durant celle-ci, des dessins d'objets en noir et blanc leur étaient présentés. Il leur était demandé d'effectuer un jugement de taille sur ces objets. Ensuite, toujours dans le scanner, les objets de la phase d'encodage ainsi que de nouveaux objets leurs étaient présentés afin d'évaluer leur reconnaissance de ceux-ci. Pour ce faire, les volontaires effectuaient un jugement de Recollection/Familiarité/Nouveauté. Résultats Les résultats comportementaux montrent une recollection altérée mais une familiarité préservée chez nos volontaires âgés. L'analyse des résultats IRM a été effectuée selon un design évènementiel (SPM8), dans lequel nous avons comparé les aires cérébrales activées à l'encodage pour les items qui n'ont pas été reconnus ultérieurement et pour ceux qui ont donné lieu à un jugement de recollection (p<.001 non-corrigé). Dans les deux groupes, un pattern d'activation correspondant au réseau du mode par défaut (RMD). Chez les volontaires âgés, les résultats ont également mis en évidence une activation supplémentaire du réseau attentionnel fronto-pariétal. Ensuite, le contraste entre les activations pour les items qui n'ont pas été reconnus ultérieurement et ceux qui ont donné lieu à un jugement de familiarité a aussi mis en évidence des régions du RMD, mais dans une moindre mesure. En effet, les activités communes aux deux groupes d'âge n'ont montré qu'une activation du précuneus. Discussion Comparé à la recollection, l'oubli d'informations semble associé, à l'encodage, à un recrutement accru du RMD qui pourrait refléter une incapacité à mettre en place des processus d'encodage efficaces, à la fois chez les jeunes adultes et les adultes plus âgés. De plus, l'activation supplémentaire du réseau fronto-pariétal chez ces derniers pourrait indiquer un fonctionnement moins différencié des réseaux cérébraux associés à l'encodage en mémoire. Lorsque l'on compare l'oubli d'informations à la familiarité, l'activation moindre du RMD pourrait suggérer qu'un certain niveau d'activation du RMD (et donc la présence de pensées étrangères à la tâche) n'empêche pas forcément toute reconnaissance sur base d'un sentiment de familiarité. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection and Familiarity in Normal Aging
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Conference (2016, May 11)

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See detailEpisodic memory and aging: The effect of perceptual processing fluency on recognition memory processes
Bastin, Christine ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2016, April 03)

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory ... [more ▼]

Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory. The study tested two hypotheses: (1) can the reliance on familiarity during recognition memory be promoted by increasing the difference in perceptual processing fluency between old and new items; (2) can this manipulation reduce age-related difficulties in episodic memory? Twenty-four young and 24 older adults performed two verbal recognition memory tasks. In the No-Overlap task, target words and new words did not share any letter. Prior exposition to the target words thus induced increased processing fluency of the words and letters, so that fluency difference was a salient and reliable cue to discriminate between old and new words. In the Overlap task, target and new words had letters in common, so fluency cues were less useful. Recollection and familiarity was assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. The results showed an age effect on recollection but intact familiarity. Moreover, (1) memory performance was better in the No Overlap than the Overlap task, with a greater hit rate and a smaller false alarm rate associated with familiarity. And, (2) age-related differences in recognition accuracy (hits – false alarms) were significantly attenuated in the No Overlap task compared to the Overlap task. These findings suggest that minimizing the perceptual similarity between targets and distractors, and thus increasing processing fluency differences, allowed to reduce the effect of age on recognition memory performance by facilitating the use of familiarity. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection versus familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment: Impact of test format
Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 18)

Objectives. Memory retrieval typically involves a combination of recollection and familiarity. However, test format can promote one or the other process (Norman & O’Reilly, 2003). The aim of this study ... [more ▼]

Objectives. Memory retrieval typically involves a combination of recollection and familiarity. However, test format can promote one or the other process (Norman & O’Reilly, 2003). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of test format on recollection and familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods. Seventy young participants (18-30 years), 65 “younger-old” (55- 69 years), 53 “older-old” (70-85 years), and 13 MCIs (55-82 years) were enrolled. In the “forced-choice” task, they had to recognize which picture, among three, was presented during the encoding stage. In the “yes/no” task, they had to judge whether each item, successively presented, was previously seen or not. In each task, they had to give a “Remember/Know/Guess” judgment. Results. Group × Format repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that young people had better recognition performance (d’) than “younger-old”, which were better than “older-old” and MCIs. Moreover, young people used familiarity more accurately than both groups of old participants and MCIs, with MCIs being equivalent to “younger-old” and “older-old”. However, MCIs displayed a high rate of familiarity-based false alarms. The resort to recollection decreased with age and in MCIs. Finally, Group × Format interaction revealed that young people (but not the other groups) could use recollection more often in the “forcedchoice” task compared to the “yes/no” task. Conclusions. Recollection and familiarity decline progressively in healthy aging. In MCI, recollection is more affected than familiarity, but patients demonstrated a more liberal use of familiarity. Finally, test format did not influence strongly the results. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural bases of subsequent forgetting in young and older adults
François, Sarah ULg; Angel, Lucie; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, March 17)

Objectives Using functional MRI, we looked into the age-related difference in the neural underpinnings of subsequent forgetting - cerebral activation at encoding for items that are later forgotten ... [more ▼]

Objectives Using functional MRI, we looked into the age-related difference in the neural underpinnings of subsequent forgetting - cerebral activation at encoding for items that are later forgotten. Methods In an MRI scanner, during an incidental encoding phase, participants (20 young and 19 older adults) were presented with black-and-white drawings of objects. They were instructed to perform a size judgement on the depicted objects. Then, still in the scanner, the volunteers' memory for the objects was tested by showing them pictures shown previously along with new ones and asking them to make a Remember/Know/New judgement. Results Behaviourally, older participants showed decreased recollection, but intact familiarity at recognition. In an event-related design (SPM8), we compared cerebral areas activated at encoding for items subsequently forgotten compared to those leading to recollection (p<.001 uncorrected). In both groups, a pattern of activation consistent with the default-mode network (DMN) was found. Furthermore, results pointed out to additional activations in the frontoparietal control network in older adults. Also, contrasting activations for items subsequently forgotten with those leading to familiarity revealed activations in DMN areas. In young adults, these activations were limited to the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions The forgetting of information appears to be associated with a higher recruitment of the DMN, which might reflect disengagement from encoding-supportive processes, both in young and older participants. Moreover, the additional fronto-parietal activity found in the older group could indicate that their failure to recollect the pictures was related to inefficient encoding mechanisms, in addition to disengagement from the task. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing the salience of perceptual fluency improves familiarity-based recognition memory in aging
Bastin, Christine ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2016, March 17)

Objective. Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences ... [more ▼]

Objective. Normal aging is characterized by decreased recollection, but better preserved familiarity. Memory tasks that facilitate the use of familiarity should allow attenuating age-related differences in memory. The study tested two hypotheses: (1) can the reliance on familiarity during recognition memory be promoted by increasing the difference in perceptual processing fluency between old and new items; (2) can this manipulation reduce age-related difficulties in episodic memory? Methods. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults performed two verbal recognition memory tasks. In the No-Overlap task, target words and new words did not share any letter. Prior exposition to the target words thus induced increased processing fluency of the words and letters, so that fluency difference was a salient and reliable cue to discriminate between old and new words. In the Overlap task, target and new words had letters in common, so fluency cues were less useful. Recollection and familiarity was assessed with the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm. Results. There was an age effect on recollection but intact familiarity. Moreover, (1) memory performance was better in the No Overlap than the Overlap task, with a greater hit rate and a smaller false alarm rate associated with familiarity. (2) Age-related differences in recognition accuracy (hits – false alarms) were significantly attenuated in the No Overlap task compared to the Overlap task. Conclusion. These findings suggest that minimizing the perceptual similarity between targets and distractors, and thus increasing processing fluency differences, allowed to reduce the effect of age on recognition memory performance by facilitating the use of familiarity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of cognitive reserve on recognition memory performance is dependent of the task format in healthy aging
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2016, March 17)

Objective: According to the cognitive reserve hypothesis (Stern, 2009), individuals who have developed a high level of reserve should resist better to the effects of aging than individuals with lower ... [more ▼]

Objective: According to the cognitive reserve hypothesis (Stern, 2009), individuals who have developed a high level of reserve should resist better to the effects of aging than individuals with lower cognitive reserve. In this study, we identified the factors of cognitive reserve that impact most memory performance in aging. Methods: 118 healthy older participants performed one yes/no recognition task and one 3-alternative forced-choice recognition task. For each recognized item, participants provided a Remember/Know/Guess judgment. Furthermore, participants completed a questionnaire assessing different aspects of cognitive reserve (level of education, occupation, physical, social, cultural and intellectual activities). We determined the moderators of cognitive reserve that explain a significant proportion of variance for each memory index through stepwise regression analyzes (p<0.05). Results: In the forced-choice test, the level of education explained positively the use of recollection and negatively the level of false alarms associated with familiarity. In the yes/no recognition task, the precision of recognition was explained positively by the physical activities. Recollection was positively explained by the physical activities and the level of education. Finally, the level of false alarms associated with familiarity was explained negatively by the level of education although the precision of the use of the familiarity is explained positively by physical activities. Conclusion: The more older adults were educated and/or were practicing physical activities, the better their recollection was. The impact of the moderators of the cognitive reserve is dependent on the format of the recognition task. [less ▲]

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See detailSuccessful episodic memory encoding in ageing: an fMRI study
François, Sarah ULg; Angel, Lucie; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, January 25)

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See detailThe ultimate role of the perirhinal cortex in familiarity: a novel hypothesis
Besson, Gabriel ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Memory (2016)

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