References of "Balthazart, Jacques"
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See detailThe roles of testosterone and singing in the regulation of seasonal neuroplasticity in songbirds
Sartor, Jennifer J.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Riters, L. V. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 121

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See detailAssessment of olfactory function in male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice
Pierman, S.; Douhard, Quentin ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 99

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See detailAromatase activity modulates conditioned cloacal sphincter movements, an appetitive sexual behavior, in Japanese quail
Holloway, K. S.; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Taziaux, Mélanie ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 92

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See detailActivational effects of estradiol on the arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive system in the forebrain of male mice
Allieri, F.; Sica, M.; Bakker, Julie ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 84

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See detailSocial modulation of testosterone-induced singing in canaries
Boseret, Géraldine ULg; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 108

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See detailSeasonal development of song control nuclei HVC and RA preceeds peaks in plasma testosterone and singing activity in male Corsican blue tits
Caro, S.; Lambrechts, M. M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 108

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See detailRestoration of male sexual behavior by adult exogenous estrogens in male aromatase knockout mice
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S.; Harada, N. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004), 46(1), 1-10

We previously found that male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice that carry a targeted mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the CYP 19 gene and as a result cannot aromatize androgen to estrogen show impaired sexual ... [more ▼]

We previously found that male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice that carry a targeted mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the CYP 19 gene and as a result cannot aromatize androgen to estrogen show impaired sexual behavior in adulthood. To determine whether this impairment was due to a lack of activation of sexual behavior by estradiol, we studied here male coital behavior as well as olfactory investigation of sexually relevant odors in male ArKO mice following adult treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP). Again, we found that gonadally intact ArKO males show pronounced behavioral deficits affecting their male coital behavior as well as their olfactory investigation of volatile body odors but not that of soiled bedding. Deficits in male coital behavior were largely corrected following adult treatment with EB and the androgen DHTP, suggesting that estradiol has prominent activational effects on this behavior. By contrast, adult treatment with EB to either castrated or gonadally intact ArKO males did not stimulate olfactory investigation of volatile body odors, suggesting that this impairment may result from a lack of proper organization of this behavior during ontogeny due to the chronic lack of estrogens. In conclusion, the present studies suggest that the behavioral deficits in sexual behavior in male ArKO mice result predominantly from a lack of activation of the behavior by estrogens. This is in contrast with earlier pharmacological studies performed on rats and ferrets that have suggested strong organizational effects of estradiol on male sexual behavior. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid regulation of brain aromatase activity by afferent inputs: Behavioral implications
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Cornil, Charlotte ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 127

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See detailRapid and correlated changes in brain aromatase activity and aggressive behavior are socially-mediated in Lythrypnus dalli
Black, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 107-108

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See detailEstrogen-deficient female but not male aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice exhibit "depressive-like" symptoms
Bakker, Julie ULg; Dalla, C.; Antoniou, K. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 127

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See detailRelationships between aromatase activity in the brain and gonads and behavioural deficits in homozygous and heterozygous aromatase knockout mice
Bakker, Julie ULg; Baillien, M.; Honda, S. et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2004), 16(5), 483-490

The present study was carried out to determine whether aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are completely devoid of aromatase activity in their brain and gonads and to compare aromatase activity in wild-type ... [more ▼]

The present study was carried out to determine whether aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are completely devoid of aromatase activity in their brain and gonads and to compare aromatase activity in wild-type and ArKO mice, as well as in heterozygous (HET) mice of both sexes that were previously shown to display a variety of reproductive behaviours; at levels intermediate between wild-type and ArKO mice. Aromatase activity was extremely low, and undetectable by the tritiated water assay, in homogenates of the preoptic area-hypothalamus of adult wild-type mice, but was induced following a 12-day treatment with testosterone. The induction of aromatase activity by testosterone was significantly larger in males than in females. Even after 12 days exposure to testosterone, no aromatase activity was detected in the brain of ArKO mice of either sex whereas HET mice showed intermediate levels of activity between ArKO and wild-type. Aromatase activity was also undetectable in the ovary of adult ArKO females but was very high in the wildtype ovary and intermediate in the HET ovary. In wild-type mice, a high level of aromatase activity was detected on the day of birth even without pretreatment with testosterone. This neonatal activity was higher in males than in females, but females nevertheless appear to display a substantial level of oestrogen production in their brain. Aromatase activity was undetectable in the brain of newborn ArKO males and females and was intermediate between wild-type and ArKO in HET mice. In conclusion, the present study confirms that ArKO mice are unable to synthesize any oestrogens, thereby validating the ArKO mouse as a valuable tool in the study of the physiological roles of oestradiol. In addition, it demonstrates that the intermediate behaviour of HET mice presumably reflects the effect of gene dosage on aromatase expression and activity, that aromatase activity is sexually differentiated in mice during the neonatal period as well as in adulthood and, finally, that the neonatal female brain produces substantial amounts of oestrogens that could play a significant role in the sexual differentiation of the female brain early in life. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunocytochemical localization of aromatase in sensory and integrating nuclei of the hindbrain in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Evrard, H. C.; Harada, N.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (2004), 473(2), 194-212

The distribution of the estrogen synthesizing enzyme (aromatase) in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon and mesencephalon) of male adult quail was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Aromatase-immunoreactive ... [more ▼]

The distribution of the estrogen synthesizing enzyme (aromatase) in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon and mesencephalon) of male adult quail was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Aromatase-immunoreactive neuronal structures (perikarya and fibers bearing punctate structures) were observed in sensory (trigeminal, solitary tract, vestibular, optic tectum) and integrating (parabrachial, periaqueductal, cerulean, raphe) nuclei. Besides the expression of aromatase in these well-delineated nuclei, dense to scattered networks of immunoreactive fibers were found dispersed throughout the hindbrain and, in particular, in its rostral and dorsal parts. To a lesser extent, they were also present throughout the premotor nuclei of the reticular formation and in various fiber tracts. In contrast, no immunoreactive signal was found in motor nuclei, and in most of the statoacoustic (cerebellum, cochlear, olive, pontine, part of vestibular) nuclei. The expression of aromatase in perikarya and fibers in areas of the adult hindbrain where estrogen receptors have been identified previously suggests a role for estrogens locally produced in the regulation of sensory and integrating functions, contrary to the widespread assumption that these functions are regulated exclusively by steroids produced in the gonads. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailTerritorial aggression, circulating levels of testosterone, and brain aromatase activity in free-living pied flycatchers
Silverin, B.; Baillien, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004), 45(4), 225-234

Testosterone (T) is a critical endocrine factor for the activation of many aspects of reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Castration completely eliminates the display of aggressive and sexual behaviors ... [more ▼]

Testosterone (T) is a critical endocrine factor for the activation of many aspects of reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Castration completely eliminates the display of aggressive and sexual behaviors that are restored to intact level by a treatment with exogenous T. There is usually a tight correlation between the temporal changes in plasma T and the frequency of reproductive behaviors during the annual cycle. In contrast, individual levels of behavioral activity are often not related to plasma T concentration at the peak of the reproductive season suggesting that T is available in quantities larger than necessary to activate behavior and that other factors limit the expression of behavior. There is some indication from work in rodents that individual levels of brain aromatase activity (AA) may be a key factor that limits the expression of aggressive behavior, and in agreement with this idea, many studies indicate that estrogens produced in the brain by the aromatization of T may contribute to the activation of reproductive behavior, including aggression. We investigated here in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) the relationships among territorial aggression, plasma T, and brain AA at the peak of the reproductive season. In a first experiment, blood samples were collected from impaired males holding a primary territory and, I or 2 days later, their aggressive behavior was quantified during standardized simulated territorial intrusions. No relationship was found between individual differences in aggressive behavior and plasma T or dihydrotestosterone levels but a significant negative correlation was observed between number of attacks and plasma corticosterone. In a second experiment, aggressive behavior was measured during a simulated territorial intrusion in 22 impaired males holding primary territories. They were then immediately captured and AA was measured in their anterior and posterior diencephalon and in the entire telencephalon. Five males that had attracted a female (who had started egg-laying) were also studied. The paired males were less aggressive and correlatively had a lower AA in the anterior diencephalon but not in the posterior diencephalon and telencephalon than the 22 birds holding a territory before arrival of a female. In these 22 birds, a significant correlation was observed between number of attacks/min displayed during the simulated territorial intrusion and AA in the anterior diencephalon but no correlation was found between these variables in the two other brain areas. Taken together, these data indicate that the level of aggression displayed by males defending their primary territory may be limited by the activity of the preoptic aromatase, but plasma T is not playing an important role in establishing individual differences in aggression. Alternatively, it is also possible that brain AA is rapidly affected by agonistic interactions and additional work should be carried out to determine whether the correlation observed between brain AA and aggressive behavior is the result of an effect of the enzyme on behavior or vice versa. In any case, the present data show that preoptic AA can change quite rapidly during the reproductive cycle (within a few days after arrival of the female) indicating that this enzymatic activity is able to regulate rapid behavioral transitions during the reproductive cycle in this species. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatization of androgens into estrogens reduces response latency to a noxious thermal stimulus in male quail
Evrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004), 45(3), 181-189

We recently demonstrated the presence of estrogen synthase (aromatase) and of estrogen receptors in the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord in male and female ... [more ▼]

We recently demonstrated the presence of estrogen synthase (aromatase) and of estrogen receptors in the dorsal horn (laminae I-II) throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the spinal cord in male and female Japanese quail. The spinal laminae I-II receive and process abundant sensory information elicited, among others, by acute noxious stimulation of the skin and resulting in rapid, reflex-like withdrawal behavior. In the present study, we demonstrate that systemic treatment with estradiol or testosterone markedly decreases the latency of the foot withdrawal in the hot water test. A simultaneous treatment with an aromatase inhibitor blocks the effects of testosterone demonstrating, hence, that they are mediated by a conversion of testosterone into an estrogen by aromatase. Furthermore, the testosterone- or estradiol-induced decrease in foot withdrawal latency is blocked by a treatment with the estradiol receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, indicating that the effects are largely mediated by the interaction of estradiol with estrogen receptors. Together, these data suggest that sex steroids modulate sensitivity to noxious stimuli possibly by a direct action at the level of the dorsal hom of the spinal cord. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential effects of testosterone on neuronal populations and their connections in a sensorimotor brain nucleus controlling song production in songbirds: a manganese enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging study
Van Meir, V.; Verhoye, M.; Absil, Philippe ULg et al

in Neuroimage (2004), 21(3), 914-923

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two ... [more ▼]

Nucleus HVC (formerly called high vocal center) of songbirds contains two types of projecting neurons connecting HVC respectively to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, RA, or to area X. These two neuron classes exhibit multiple neurochemical differences and are differentially replaced by new neurons during adult life: high rates of neuronal replacement are observed in RA-projecting neurons only. The activity of these two types of neurons may also be modulated differentially by steroids. We analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging the effect of testosterone on the volume of RA and area X and on the dynamics of Mn2+ accumulation in RA and area X of female starlings that had been injected with MnCl2 through a permanent cannula implanted in HVC. Repeated visualization 6 weeks apart (before and after testosterone treatment) identified a volume increase of both nuclei in testosterone-treated birds associated with a concomitant decrease in controls. Following testosterone treatment, the total amount of Mn2+ transported to RA and area X increased but the dynamics of accumulation, reflecting in part the activity of HVC neurons, was specifically altered in area X but not in RA. These data indicate that testosterone differentially affects the RA- and area X-projecting neurons in HVC. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (ME-MRI) thus provides repeated measures of connected brain areas and demonstrates testosterone-dependent regionally specific changes in brain activity and functional connectivity. The slow time scales investigated by this technique (compared to functional MRI) appear ideally suited for characterizing slow processes such as those involved in brain plasticity and learning. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of central administration of Naloxone on the extinction of appetitive sexual responses
Holloway, Kevin; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2004), 153(2), 567-572

Several studies indicate that opioids are involved in the control of consummatory sexual behavior in male Japanese quail. Naloxone has been reported to increase copulatory responses. In the current study ... [more ▼]

Several studies indicate that opioids are involved in the control of consummatory sexual behavior in male Japanese quail. Naloxone has been reported to increase copulatory responses. In the current study, the effect of naloxone on appetitive sexual behaviors was assessed during extinction test trials. Naloxone was found to substantially reduce appetitive responding, suggesting that opioids differentially affect anticipatory and contact components of sexual behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal plasticity in the song control system - Multiple brain sites of steroid hormone action and the importance of variation in song behavior
Ball, Gregory F.; Auger, Catherine J.; Bernard, Daniel J. et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2004), 1016

Birdsong, in non-tropical species, is generally more common in spring and summer when males sing to attract mates and/or defend territories. Changes in the volumes of song control nuclei, such as HVC and ... [more ▼]

Birdsong, in non-tropical species, is generally more common in spring and summer when males sing to attract mates and/or defend territories. Changes in the volumes of song control nuclei, such as HVC and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), are observed seasonally. Long photoperiods in spring stimulate the recrudescence of the testes and the release of testosterone. Androgen receptors, and at times estrogen receptors, are present in HVC and RA as are co-factors that facilitate the transcriptional activity of these receptors. Thus testosterone can act directly to induce changes in nucleus volume. However, dissociations have been identified at times among long photoperiods, maximal concentrations of testosterone, large song control nuclei, and high rates of song. One explanation of these dissociations is that song behavior itself can influence neural plasticity in the song system. Testosterone can act via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is also released in HVC as a result of song activity. Testosterone could enhance song nucleus volume indirectly by acting in the preoptic area, a region regulating sexual behaviors, including song, that connects to the song system through catecholaminergic cells. Seasonal neuroplasticity in the song system involves an interplay among seasonal state, testosterone action, and behavioral activity. [less ▲]

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See detailGene knock down via antisense oligonucleotides to the steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 modulates testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior and neural gene expression
Charlier, Thierry ULg; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2004), 46

Studies of eukaryotic genome expression demonstrate the importance of steroid receptor coactivators in mediating efficient gene transcription. Little is know about the physiological role of these ... [more ▼]

Studies of eukaryotic genome expression demonstrate the importance of steroid receptor coactivators in mediating efficient gene transcription. Little is know about the physiological role of these coactivators in vivo. We recently showed that the Steroid Receptor Coactivator SRC-1 is densely expressed in steroid-sensitive brain areas in birds and its expression is steroid-dependent and sexually differentiated. We tested the role of SRC-1 in the activation by testosterone of male sexual behavior in quail. Daily injections of LNA antisense oligonucleotides in the third ventricle (AS group) significantly reduced the expression of male copulatory behavior in response to exogenous testosterone compared to control animals (Ctrl group) receiving the vehicle alone or scrambled LNA. Sexual behavior was restored and even enhanced within 48 hours after interruption of LNA injection (ASSC group). Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease of SRC-1 expression in AS animals and suggested an over-expression of the coactivator in ASSC animals. The effect of SRC-1 knock down on behavior was correlated with a reduced volume of the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) defined by Nissl-staining and aromatase immunohistochemistry. In addition, the amount of aromatase-immunoreactive material in POM, defined as the relative optical density of the aromatase immunoreactivity multiplied by the percentage of surface covered within the nucleus and by the total POM volume of the POM, was decreased in the AS compared to the Ctrl group, suggesting a blockade of aromatase transcription. Together, these data indicate that SRC-1 functions as a critical regulatory molecule in the brain that modulates steroid-dependent gene transcription and behavior. [less ▲]

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