Seasonal and hormonal modulation of neurotransmitter systems in the song control circuit.
; Balthazart, Jacques
in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2010), 39(2), 82-95
In the years following the discovery of the song system, it was realized that this specialized circuit controlling learned vocalizations in songbirds (a) constitutes a specific target for sex steroid ... [more ▼]
In the years following the discovery of the song system, it was realized that this specialized circuit controlling learned vocalizations in songbirds (a) constitutes a specific target for sex steroid hormone action and expresses androgen and (for some nuclei) estrogen receptors, (b) exhibits a chemical neuroanatomical pattern consisting in a differential expression of various neuropeptides and neurotransmitters receptors as compared to surrounding structures and (c) shows pronounced seasonal variations in volume and physiology based, at least in the case of HVC, on a seasonal change in neuron recruitment and survival. During the past 30 years numerous studies have investigated how seasonal changes, transduced largely but not exclusively through changes in sex steroid concentrations, affect singing frequency and quality by modulating the structure and activity of the song control circuit. These studies showed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, control seasonal variation in singing quality by a direct action on song control nuclei. These studies also gave rise to the hypothesis that the probability of song production in response to a given stimulus (i.e. its motivation) is controlled through effects on the medial preoptic area and on catecholaminergic cell groups that project to song control nuclei. Selective pharmacological manipulations confirmed that the noradrenergic system indeed plays a role in the control of singing behavior. More experimental work is, however, needed to identify specific genes related to neurotransmission that are regulated by steroids in functionally defined brain areas to enhance different aspects of song behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
Introduction to the chemical neuroanatomy of birdsong.
; Balthazart, Jacques
in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2010), 39(2), 67-71Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Behavioral effects of brain-derived estrogens in birds.
Balthazart, Jacques ; Taziaux, Mélanie ; et al
in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2009), 1163
In birds as in other vertebrates, estrogens produced in the brain by aromatization of testosterone have widespread effects on behavior. Research conducted with male Japanese quail demonstrates that ... [more ▼]
In birds as in other vertebrates, estrogens produced in the brain by aromatization of testosterone have widespread effects on behavior. Research conducted with male Japanese quail demonstrates that effects of brain estrogens on all aspects of sexual behavior, including appetitive and consummatory components as well as learned aspects, can be divided into two main classes based on their time course. First, estrogens via binding to estrogen receptors regulate the transcription of a variety of genes involved primarily in neurotransmission. These neurochemical effects ultimately result in the activation of male copulatory behavior after a latency of a few days. Correlatively, testosterone and its aromatized metabolites increase the transcription of the aromatase mRNA, resulting in an increased concentration and activity of the enzyme that actually precedes behavioral activation. Second, recent studies with quail demonstrate that brain aromatase activity can also be modulated within minutes by phosphorylation processes regulated by changes in intracellular calcium concentration, such as those associated with glutamatergic neurotransmission. The rapid upregulations or downregulations of brain estrogen concentration (presumably resulting from these changes in aromatase activity) affect, by nongenomic mechanisms with relatively short latencies (frequency increases or decreases respectively within 10-15 min), the expression of male sexual behavior in quail and also in rodents. Brain estrogens thus affect behavior on different time scales by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms similar to those of a hormone or a neurotransmitter. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
Estradiol, a key endocrine signal in the sexual differentiation and activation of reproductive behavior in quail.
Balthazart, Jacques ; Cornil, Charlotte ; Charlier, Thierry et al
in Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology (2009), 311(5), 323-45
In Japanese quail, estrogen's effects on sexual behavior can be divided into three classes based on the underlying mechanisms and time-course of action and release. During embryonic life, the embryonic ... [more ▼]
In Japanese quail, estrogen's effects on sexual behavior can be divided into three classes based on the underlying mechanisms and time-course of action and release. During embryonic life, the embryonic ovary secretes large amounts of estrogens. In contrast to what is observed in mammals where sexual differentiation essentially proceeds via masculinization of the males, in quail, females are demasculinized by their endogenous ovarian estrogens, an effect that can be blocked by injection of an aromatase inhibitor and mimicked in male embryos by an injection of estradiol. In adulthood, testosterone secreted by the testes is converted into estrogens by the preoptic aromatase. Locally produced estrogens activate male sexual behavior largely through the activation of estrogen receptors resulting in the transcription of a variety of genes, including brain aromatase (genomic effect). Both changes in estrogen production and action are observed within latencies ranging from a few hours to a few days, and are completely reversible. Additionally, brain aromatase activity can be modulated within minutes by calcium-dependent phosphorylations, triggered by variations in glutamatergic neurotransmission. These rapid changes in aromatase activity affect with relatively short latencies (10-15 min) the expression of male sexual behavior in quail and also in mice. Overall, the effects of estrogens on sexual behavior can thus be categorized into three classes: organizational (irreversible genomic action during ontogeny), activational (reversible genomic action during adulthood) and rapid nongenomic effects. Rapid and slower changes in brain aromatase activity match well with the two modes of estrogen action on behavior and provide temporal variations in the estrogens' bioavailability that should be able to support the entire range of established effects for this steroid. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (9 ULg)
Presence of aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha in the inner ear of zebra finches.
Noirot, Isabelle ; ; Cornil, Charlotte et al
in Hearing Research (2009)
Sex differences in song behavior and in the neural system controlling song in songbirds are well documented but relatively little is known about sex differences in hearing. We recently demonstrated the ... [more ▼]
Sex differences in song behavior and in the neural system controlling song in songbirds are well documented but relatively little is known about sex differences in hearing. We recently demonstrated the existence of sex differences in auditory brainstem responses in a songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Many sex differences are regulated by sex steroid hormone action either during ontogeny or in adulthood. As a first step to test the possible implication of sex steroids in the control of sex differences in the zebra finch auditory system, we evaluated via immunocytochemistry whether estrogens are produced and act in the zebra finch inner ear. Specifically we examined the distribution of aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into an estrogen, and of estrogen receptors of the alpha subtype (ERalpha) in adult zebra finch inner ears. The anatomy of the basilar papillae was visualized by fluorescein-phalloidin, which delineated the actin structure of hair cells and supporting cells at their apical surface. Whole mount preparations of basilar papillae stained by immunocytochemistry revealed in both males and females an abundant aromatase distribution in the cytoplasm of hair cells, while ERalpha was identified in the nuclei of hair cells and of underlying supporting cells. Double labeled preparations confirmed the extensive co-localization of aromatase and ERalpha in the vast majority of the hair cells. These results are consistent with studies on non-avian species, suggesting a role for estrogens in auditory function. These findings are also consistent with the notion that estrogens may contribute to a sex difference in hearing. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the presence of aromatase and of the co-localization of aromatase and ERalpha in the sensory epithelium of the inner ear in any animal model. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 73 (10 ULg)
Are rapid changes in gonadal testosterone release involved in the fast modulation of brain estrogen effects?
Cornil, Charlotte ; ;
in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2009)
Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in ... [more ▼]
Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in the preoptic area by aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into estradiol. Alternatively, aromatase activity may remain constant but fluctuations of local estradiol production could arise from rapid changes in the concentration of the enzymatic substrate, namely testosterone. Rapid increases of circulating testosterone levels have been observed in males of various species following social encounters. Surprisingly, in quail, the interaction with a female seems to result in a decrease in circulating testosterone levels. However, in that study conducted in quail, the samples were collected at intervals longer than the recently observed rapid effects of estradiol on sexual behavior. In the present study we investigated whether plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuate on a shorter time-frame. Eleven male were tested 5 min before and 5, 15 or 30 min after being allowed to have visual access to a female or to copulate with a female for 5 min. Both types of interactions resulted in a significant decline in circulating testosterone levels at latencies as short as 5 min. These data demonstrate that the decrease in testosterone levels is initiated shortly after sexual encounters. Because visual interactions with a female did not result in a rapid increase in testosterone concentrations, these findings rule out the possibility that a rapid rise in circulating testosterone levels participates in the rapid increase in brain estrogen synthesis and its facilitatory effects on copulatory behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (12 ULg)
D1-like dopamine receptor density in nuclei involved in social behavior correlates with song in a context-dependent fashion in male European starlings.
; Cornil, Charlotte ; et al
in Neuroscience (2009), 159(3), 962-73
Research in songbirds shows that singing behavior is regulated by both brain areas involved in vocal behavior as well as those involved in social behavior. Interestingly, the precise role of these regions ... [more ▼]
Research in songbirds shows that singing behavior is regulated by both brain areas involved in vocal behavior as well as those involved in social behavior. Interestingly, the precise role of these regions in song can vary as a function of the social, environmental and breeding context. To date, little is known about the neurotransmitters underlying such context-dependent regulation of song. Dopamine (DA) modulates highly motivated, goal-directed behaviors (including sexually motivated song) and emerging data implicate DA in the context-dependent regulation of singing behavior. This study was performed to begin to examine whether differences in DA receptors may underlie, in part, context-dependent differences in song production. We used autoradiographic procedures to label D1-like and D2-like DA receptors to examine the relationship between DA receptor density and singing behavior in multiple contexts in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Within a breeding context (when testosterone (T) was high), D1-like receptor density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and midbrain central gray (GCt) negatively correlated with song used to attract a female. Additionally in this context, D1-like receptor density in POM, GCt, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), and lateral septum (LS) negatively correlated with song likely used to defend a nest box. In contrast, in a non-breeding context (when T was low), D1-like receptor density in POM and LS positively correlated with song used to maintain social flocks. No relationships were identified between song in any context and D2-like receptor densities. Differences in the brain regions and directional relationships between D1-like receptor binding and song suggest that dopaminergic systems play a region and context-specific role in song. These data also suggest that individual variation in singing behavior may, in part, be explained by individual differences in D1-like receptor density in brain regions implicated in social behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULg)
The fast regulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylations is species and tissue-independent.
Charlier, Thierry ; ; et al
Poster (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Species and tissue-independent rapid regulation of aromatase activity by phosphorylations.
Charlier, Thierry ; ; et al
in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2009)
Aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly inhibited in male quail brains, following expression of sexual behavior, activation of glutamatergic receptors or exposure to phosphorylating conditions. Questions ... [more ▼]
Aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly inhibited in male quail brains, following expression of sexual behavior, activation of glutamatergic receptors or exposure to phosphorylating conditions. Questions remain as to whether direct aromatase phosphorylation is the common key regulatory mechanism and whether these inhibitions are specific to quail hypothalamus. We now showed that AA is rapidly downregulated in quail ovary homogenates incubated in phosphorylating conditions, similarly to what is observed in hypothalamic homogenates. To understand the processes underlying this control, we expressed human aromatase in the human cell line HEK293 and 1) researched whether human aromatase can also be rapidly modulated by phosphorylations and 2) investigated more precisely the processes involved in this rapid control of activity. AA in HEK293 was rapidly inhibited following depolarization of intact cells with 100 mM KCl or in cell lysates exposed to phosphorylating conditions. Thus inhibition of AA in phosphorylating conditions is not unique to the quail hypothalamus neural environment but seems to be a general process. We are now defining the contribution of single residues of the aromatase protein to this enzymatic control. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
Site-specific effects of anosmia and cloacal gland anesthesia on Fos expression induced in male quail brain by sexual behavior.
Taziaux, Mélanie ; ; et al
in Behavioural Brain Research (2008), 194(1), 52-65
In rats, expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos observed in the brain following male copulatory behavior relates mostly to the detection of olfactory information originating from the female and to ... [more ▼]
In rats, expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos observed in the brain following male copulatory behavior relates mostly to the detection of olfactory information originating from the female and to somatosensory feedback from the penis. However, quail, like most birds, are generally considered to have a relatively poorly developed sense of smell. Furthermore, quail have no intromittent organ (e.g., penis). It is therefore intriguing that expression of male copulatory behavior induces in quail and rats a similar pattern of c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) and parts of the amygdala. We analyzed here by immunocytochemistry Fos expression in the mPOA/BSTM/amygdala of male quail that had been allowed to copulate with a female during standardized tests. Before these tests, some of the males had either their nostrils plugged, or their cloacal area anesthetized, or both. A control group was not exposed to females. These manipulations did not affect frequencies of male sexual behavior and all birds exposed to a female copulated normally. In the mPOA, the increased Fos expression induced by copulation was not affected by the cloacal gland anesthesia but was markedly reduced in subjects deprived of olfactory input. Both manipulations affected copulation-induced Fos expression in the BSTM. No change in Fos expression was observed in the amygdala. Thus immediate early gene expression in the mPOA and BSTM of quail is modulated at least in part by olfactory cues and/or somatosensory stimuli originating from the cloacal gland. Future work should specify the nature of these stimuli and their function in the expression of avian male sexual behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULg)
Dopamine binds to alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors in the song control system of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).
Cornil, Charlotte ; ;
in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2008), 35(2), 202-15
A commonly held view is that dopamine exerts its effects via binding to D1- and D2-dopaminergic receptors. However, recent data have emerged supporting the existence of a direct interaction of dopamine ... [more ▼]
A commonly held view is that dopamine exerts its effects via binding to D1- and D2-dopaminergic receptors. However, recent data have emerged supporting the existence of a direct interaction of dopamine with adrenergic but this interaction has been poorly investigated. In this study, the pharmacological basis of possible in vivo interactions between dopamine and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors was investigated in zebra finches. A binding competition study showed that dopamine displaces the binding of the alpha(2)-adrenergic ligand, [(3)H]RX821002, in the brain. The affinity of dopamine for the adrenergic sites does not differ between the sexes and is 10- to 28-fold lower than that for norepinephrine. To assess the anatomical distribution of this interaction, binding competitions were performed on brain slices incubated in 5nM [(3)H]RX821002 in the absence of any competitor or in the presence of norepinephrine [0.1microM] or dopamine [1microM]. Both norepinephrine and dopamine displaced the binding of the radioligand though to a different extent in most of the regions studied (e.g., area X, the lateral part of the magnocellular nucleus of anterior nidopallium, HVC, arcopallium dorsale, ventral tegmental area and substantia grisea centralis) but not in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium. Together these data provide evidence for a direct interaction between dopamine and adrenergic receptors in songbird brains albeit with regional variation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (3 ULg)
Interplay among catecholamine systems: dopamine binds to alpha2-adrenergic receptors in birds and mammals.
Cornil, Charlotte ;
in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (2008), 511(5), 610-27
Dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors considered to be different based on their pharmacology and signaling pathways. Some receptor subtypes that are members of one family ... [more ▼]
Dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors considered to be different based on their pharmacology and signaling pathways. Some receptor subtypes that are members of one family are actually closer in phylogenetic terms to some subtypes belonging to the other family, suggesting that the pharmacological specificity among these receptors from different families is not perfect. Indeed, evidence is accumulating that one amine can cross-talk with receptors belonging to the other system. However, most of these observations were collected in vitro using artificial cell models transfected with cloned receptors, so that the occurrence of this phenomenon in vivo as well as its distribution in the central nervous system is not known. In this study the pharmacological basis of possible in vivo interactions between dopamine and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors was investigated in quail, zebra finches, and rats. Binding competitions showed that dopamine displaces the binding of the selective alpha(2)-adrenergic ligand, [(3)H]RX821002, in the brain of the three species with an affinity approximately 10-28-fold lower than that of norepinephrine. Dopamine also displaces with an affinity 3-fold lower than norepinephrine the binding of [(3)H]RX821002 to human alpha(h2A)-adrenergic receptors expressed in Sf9 cells. The anatomical distribution of this interaction was assessed in brain slices of quail and rat based on autoradiographic methods. Both norepinephrine and dopamine significantly displace [(3)H]RX821002 binding in all brain nuclei considered. Together, these data provide evidence for an interaction between the dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the vertebrate brain, albeit with species variations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg)
How useful is the appetitive and consummatory distinction for our understanding of the neuroendocrine control of sexual behavior?
; Balthazart, Jacques
in Hormones and Behavior (2008), 53(2), 307-11315-8Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Individual variation and the endocrine regulation of behaviour and physiology in birds: a cellular/molecular perspective.
; Balthazart, Jacques
in Philosophical Transactions : Biological Sciences (2008), 363(1497), 1699-710
Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiology and behaviour have generally avoided attempts to explain individual differences. The goal has rather been to discover general ... [more ▼]
Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiology and behaviour have generally avoided attempts to explain individual differences. The goal has rather been to discover general processes. However, understanding the causes of individual variation in many phenomena of interest to avian eco-physiologists will require a consideration of such mechanisms. For example, in birds, changes in plasma concentrations of steroid hormones are important in the activation of social behaviours related to reproduction and aggression. Attempts to explain individual variation in these behaviours as a function of variation in plasma hormone concentrations have generally failed. Cellular variables related to the effectiveness of steroid hormone have been useful in some cases. Steroid hormone target sensitivity can be affected by variables such as metabolizing enzyme activity, hormone receptor expression as well as receptor cofactor expression. At present, no general theory has emerged that might provide a clear guidance when trying to explain individual variability in birds or in any other group of vertebrates. One strategy is to learn from studies of large units of intraspecific variation such as population or sex differences to provide ideas about variables that might be important in explaining individual variation. This approach along with the use of newly developed molecular genetic tools represents a promising avenue for avian eco-physiologists to pursue. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg)
Rapid action on neuroplasticity precedes behavioral activation by testosterone.
Charlier, Thierry ; ; Balthazart, Jacques
in Hormones & Behavior (2008), 54(4), 488-95
Testosterone has been shown to increase the volume of steroid-sensitive brain nuclei in adulthood in several vertebrate species. In male Japanese quail the volume of the male-biased sexually dimorphic ... [more ▼]
Testosterone has been shown to increase the volume of steroid-sensitive brain nuclei in adulthood in several vertebrate species. In male Japanese quail the volume of the male-biased sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM), a key brain area for the control of male sexual behavior, is markedly increased by testosterone. Previous studies assessed this effect after a period of 8-14 days but the exact time course of these effects is unknown. We asked here whether testosterone-dependent POM plasticity could be observed at shorter latencies. Brains from castrated male quail were collected after 1, 2, 7 and 14 days of T treatment (CX+T) and compared to brains of untreated castrates (CX) collected after 1 or 14 days. POM volumes defined either by Nissl staining or by aromatase immunohistochemistry increased in a time-dependent fashion in CX+T subjects and almost doubled after 14 days of treatment with testosterone while no change was observed in CX birds. A significant increase in the average POM volume was detected after only one day of testosterone treatment. The optical density of Nissl and aromatase staining was also increased after one or two days of testosterone treatment. Activation of male copulatory behavior followed these morphological changes with a latency of approximately one day. This rapid neurochemical and neuroanatomical plasticity observed in the quail POM thus seems to limit the activation of male sexual behavior and offers an excellent model to analyze features of steroid-regulated brain structure and function that determine behavior expression. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg)
Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors
Balthazart, Jacques ;
in Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2007), 28(4), 161-178
Several studies have suggested dissociations between neural circuits underlying the expression of appetitive (e.g., courtship behavior) and consummatory components (i.e., copulatory behavior) of ... [more ▼]
Several studies have suggested dissociations between neural circuits underlying the expression of appetitive (e.g., courtship behavior) and consummatory components (i.e., copulatory behavior) of vertebrate male sexual behavior. The medial preoptic area (mPOA) clearly controls the expression of male copulation but, according to a number of experiments, is not necessarily implicated in the expression of appetitive sexual behavior. In rats for example, lesions to the mPOA eliminate male-typical copulatory behavior but have more subtle or no obvious effects on measures of sexual motivation. Rats with such lesions still pursue and attempt to mount females. They also acquire and perform learned instrumental responses to gain access to females. However, recent lesions studies and measures of the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos demonstrate that, in quail, sub-regions of the mPOA, in particular of its sexually dimorphic component the medial preoptic nucleus, can be specifically linked with either the expression of appetitive or consummatory sexual behavior. In particular more rostral regions can be linked to appetitive components while more caudal regions are involved in consummatory behavior. This functional sub-region variation is associated with neurochemical and hodological specializations (i.e., differences in chemical phenotype of the cells or in their connectivity), especially those related to the actions of androgens in relation to the activation of male sexual behavior, that are also present in rodents and other species. It could thus reflect general principles about POA organization and function in the vertebrate brain. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULg)
Down-regulation of the coactivator SRC-1 reveals different thresholds for testosterone-dependent regulation of male sexual behavior and brain aromatase
Charlier, Thierry ; ; Balthazart, Jacques
Poster (2006)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Steroid specificity and control by steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) of male sexual behavior
Balthazart, Jacques ; Charlier, Thierry ;
Conference (2006)Detailed reference viewed: 3 (1 ULg)
Targeting steroid receptor coactivator-1 expression with locked nucleic acids antisense reveals different thresholds for the hormonal regulation of male sexual behavior in relation to aromatase activity and protein expression.
Charlier, Thierry ; ; et al
in Behavioural Brain Research (2006), 172(2), 333-43
Steroid receptors such as the androgen and estrogen receptors require the presence of several proteins, known as coactivators, to enhance the transcription of target genes. The first goal of the present ... [more ▼]
Steroid receptors such as the androgen and estrogen receptors require the presence of several proteins, known as coactivators, to enhance the transcription of target genes. The first goal of the present study was to define the role of SRC-1 on the steroid-dependent expression of the aromatase protein and its activity in male Japanese quail. The second goal was to analyze the rapid plasticity of the POM following antisense treatment interruption. We confirm here that the inhibition of SRC-1 expression by daily intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides in the third ventricle at the level of the preoptic area-hypothalamus (HPOA) significantly reduces testosterone-dependent male sexual behavior. In the first experiment, aromatase protein expression in HPOA was inhibited in SRC-1-depleted males but the enzymatic activity remained at the level measured in controls. We observed in the second experiment a recovery of the behavioral response to testosterone treatment after interruption of the antisense injection. However, several morphological characteristics of the POM were not different between the control group, the antisense-treated birds and antisense-treated birds in which treatment had been discontinued 3 days earlier. Antisense was also less effective in knocking-down SRC-1 in the present experiments as compared to our previous study. An analysis of this variation in the degree of knock-down of SRC-1 expression suggests dissociation among different aspects of steroid action on brain and behavior presumably resulting from the differential sensitivity of behavioral and neurochemical responses to the activation by testosterone and/or its estrogenic metabolites. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (8 ULg)