References of "Aubinet, Marc"
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See detailCarbon balance of an intensively grazed grassland in southern Belgium
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; Jérôme, Elisabeth; Mamadou, Ossénatou ULg et al

Poster (2016)

Grasslands are an important component of the global carbon balance but their carbon storage potential is still highly uncertain. Especially, the impact of weather variability and management practices on ... [more ▼]

Grasslands are an important component of the global carbon balance but their carbon storage potential is still highly uncertain. Especially, the impact of weather variability and management practices on grassland carbon budgets need to be assessed. This study investigates the carbon balance of an intensively managed permanent grassland in southern Belgium and its uncertainties by combining 5-years of eddy covariance measurements and other organic carbon exchanges estimates. The specificities of this study lie in: (i) the age of the pasture, which has probably been established since more than one century; (ii) the intensive character of the management with a mean grazing pressure larger than 2 livestock unit ha-1 and stocking cycle including stocking and rest periods, (iii) the livestock production system, typical of Wallonia, farming intensively Belgian Blue breed of cattle in order to produce meat. The results showed that, despite the high stocking rate and the old age of the pasture and the high stocking rate, the site acted as a relatively stable carbon sink from year to year with a 5-year average Net Biome Productivity of ‒173 [‒128 ‒203] g C m-2 yr-1. The carbon sink behavior of the pasture was directly increased by management practices through food complementation and organic fertilization and indirectly by mineral fertilization. The relatively low carbon budget inter-annual variability could be explained both by: (i) grazing management of the farmer that regulated Growth Primary Productivity by adapting the stocking rate to the Leaf Area Index which itself depends on weather conditions, (ii) carbon imports through food complements only when grass regrowth was not sufficient to feed the cattle. An exception occurred when low temperatures at the beginning of the year and a prolonged snow period provoked a delay in grass growth and therefore Growth Primary Productivity that could not be completely offset during the rest of the year. The results suggest that management practices that tend to optimize forage availability for meat production could contribute to maintaining a carbon sink. [less ▲]

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See detailMesure des flux de CO2 et séquestration de carbone dans les écosystèmes terrestres ouest-africains (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20(1), 1-15

In West Africa, as elsewhere in other parts of the world, preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy for greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide. A ... [more ▼]

In West Africa, as elsewhere in other parts of the world, preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy for greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide. A meaningful assessment of the contribution of a given region to the global carbon cycle implies the need to think in terms of balance, taking into account the totality of the carbon export and import within the ecosystems [less ▲]

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See detailPhénologie des hêtres dans une forêt ardennaise: comparaison de méthodes de suivi et relations avec les flux de CO2
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; Vincke, Caroline; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 18)

Bien caractériser la phénologie des essences forestières dans un contexte climatique changeant est indispensable. Dans cette optique, confronter les différentes sources d’informations phénologiques ... [more ▼]

Bien caractériser la phénologie des essences forestières dans un contexte climatique changeant est indispensable. Dans cette optique, confronter les différentes sources d’informations phénologiques (relevé de terrain, modélisation, capteurs de rayonnement, caméra phénologique, satellite, eddy covariance…) est une démarche essentielle. Les différences et la complémentarité de ces sources d’informations ont été mises en évidence en utilisant les données provenant d’une forêt mixte de l’Est de la Belgique, principalement composée de hêtres. Par ailleurs, ces informations ont été utilisées pour étudier l’influence de la phénologie des hêtres sur les échanges annuels de CO2 de ces derniers. [less ▲]

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See detailComment l'agriculture peut-elle contribuer à limiter les changements climatiques? Contribution de la recherche.
Heinesch, Bernard ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2015)

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See detailSetting up an eddy covariance system to measure N2O fluxes exchanged by a production crop - First steps
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; SALERNO, Giovanni ULg; Debacq, Alain ULg et al

Poster (2015, October 20)

In order to study N2O exchanges by a Belgian production crop, we installed an eddy covariance system at the Terrestrial Observatory of Lonzée (Belgium), using a H2O and N2O quantum cascade laser analyzer ... [more ▼]

In order to study N2O exchanges by a Belgian production crop, we installed an eddy covariance system at the Terrestrial Observatory of Lonzée (Belgium), using a H2O and N2O quantum cascade laser analyzer and a sonic anemometer. We obtained three days of measurements and were able to investigate data preprocessing and flux calculation. We observed a drifting time-lag between the analyzer and the anemometers time series, presumably caused by an internal clock drift. Time-lag determination (using the covariance function maximum method) was more difficult for N2O than H2O, suggesting that this routine should be adapted to gas characterized by low fluxes. We investigated high frequency loss and found a system cut-off frequency of 0.5Hz for H2O, comparing its cospectrum to sensible heat cospectrum. We were not able to retrieve a neat cospectrum for N2O because of low fluxes during turbulent conditions. Further work and more data will be needed in order to bring answers to pending questions. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon dioxide fluxes from a degraded Woodland in West Arica and their responses to main environmental factors
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi et al

in Carbon Balance and Management (2015), 10

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See detailCritical periods and critical values explaining fluxes inter-annual variability in a temperate mixed forest
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; Vincke, Caroline; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 04)

In order to explain inter-annual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange (NEE) above a mixed temperate forest, two approaches were followed: •Detection of critical periods using the R-squared of the ... [more ▼]

In order to explain inter-annual variability of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange (NEE) above a mixed temperate forest, two approaches were followed: •Detection of critical periods using the R-squared of the regression between annual NEE and cumulated NEE on a mobile window. •Identification of critical values of a threshold used to decompose annual and seasonal NEE in two components. [less ▲]

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See detailDiurnal and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes over a degraded Woodland under a Sudanian climate in Northern Benin (West Africa)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Serça, Dominique; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17

Turbulent CO2 exchanges over a degraded woodland were measured during 17 months (from November 2005 to March 2007) by an eddy-covariance system at Nangatchori in the northern part of Benin, West Africa ... [more ▼]

Turbulent CO2 exchanges over a degraded woodland were measured during 17 months (from November 2005 to March 2007) by an eddy-covariance system at Nangatchori in the northern part of Benin, West Africa. The site (Lat 9.65°N, Long 1.74°E, Alt: 432 m), under a Sudanian climate, is one of the sites that were equipped in the framework of the international AMMA-CATH program. The site was highly disturbed during preceding years by illegal tree logging, agricultural activities, cattle pasture, and bushfire. The footprint area is mainly formed by herbs and crops with some sparse shrubs and trees. Fluxes data were completed during the same period by meteorological measurements made at the Nalohou site located approximately 20 km from Nangatchori, and by an inventory of dominating species on 1km2 area around the tower during the wet season. Fluxes response to climatic variables was analyzed. The annual drought and moisture cycle was found to be the main controlling factor of the ecosystem dynamics. A very clear response of CO2 fluxes to PPFD appears, but is different according to seasons. During wet season, CO2 uptake increases with increasing PPFD following a typical curvilinear function and saturates for high PPFD (PPFD > 1000 µmol m-2 s-1), while during dry season, a very weak linear response of CO2 fluxes was observed. No clear dependency of the total ecosystem respiration on temperature was observed. At an annual scale (from November 1st 2005 to October 31st 2006), net carbon sequestered by the ecosystem was 18 +- 5 g C m-2. Finally, with respect to the water use the ecosystem appeared to be more efficient during morning and wet season than during afternoon and dry period. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CROSTVOC project – an integrated approach to study the effect of stress on BVOC exchange between agricultural crops and grassland ecosystems and the atmosphere
Amelynck, Crist; Heinesch, Bernard ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17

Global changes in atmospheric composition and climate are expected to affect BVOC exchange between terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere through changes in the drivers of constitutive BVOC emissions ... [more ▼]

Global changes in atmospheric composition and climate are expected to affect BVOC exchange between terrestrial vegetation and the atmosphere through changes in the drivers of constitutive BVOC emissions and by increases in frequency and intensity of biotic or abiotic stress episodes. Indeed, several studies indicate changes in the emission patterns of constitutive BVOCs and emission of stress-induced BVOCs following heat, drought and oxidative stress, amongst others. Relating changes in BVOC emissions to the occurrence of one or multiple stressors in natural environmental conditions is not straightforward and only few field studies have dealt with it, especially for agricultural crop and grassland ecosystems. The CROSTVOC project aims to contribute in filling this knowledge gap in three ways. Firstly, it aims at performing long-term BVOC emission field measurements from maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), two important crop species on the global scale, and from grassland. This should lead to a better characterization of (mainly oxygenated) BVOC emissions from these understudied ecosystems, allowing a better representation of those emissions in air quality and atmospheric chemistry and transport models. BVOC fluxes are obtained by the Disjunct Eddy Covariance by mass scanning (DEC-MS) technique, using a hs-PTR-MS instrument for BVOC analysis. Secondly, the eddy covariance BVOC flux measurements (especially at the grassland site) will be accompanied by ozone flux, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and soil moisture measurements, amongst others, to allow linking alterations in BVOC emissions to stress episodes. Simultaneously, automated dynamic enclosures will be deployed in order to detect specific abiotic and biotic stress markers by PTR-MS and identify them unambiguously by GC-MS. Thirdly, the field measurements will be accompanied by laboratory BVOC flux measurements in an environmental chamber in order to better disentangle the responses of the BVOC emissions to driving factors that co-occur in field conditions and to determine the influence of single abiotic stressors on BVOC emissions. Next to a general presentation, some preliminary results of the project will be shown. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring and modelling the intra-day variability of the CO2 & CO2 vertical soil profile production in a Scots pine forest
Longdoz, Bernard; Goffin, Stéphanie; Parent, Florian et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17

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See detailBiogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition?
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2015, April), 17(EGU2015-2110-1),

In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton-Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation phenomenon in real environmental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrous oxide flux measurement with a closed chamber system : data treatment
Regaert, Donat ULg; Moureaux, Christine ULg; Heinesch, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2015, January 30)

Nitrous oxide flux estimation from concentration measurements with a closed chamber system. Statistical data treatment to sort between relevant/irrelevant fluxes.

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See detailCarbon balance of a grazed pasture and its response to grazing management
Jerome, Elisabeth ULg; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; Beckers, Yves et al

Poster (2014, September 24)

The C balance of a grazed pasture situated in Condroz (Wallonia) and its dependence on climatic conditions and grazing management were investigated on the basis of eddy covariance measurements and ... [more ▼]

The C balance of a grazed pasture situated in Condroz (Wallonia) and its dependence on climatic conditions and grazing management were investigated on the basis of eddy covariance measurements and horizontal C flow estimates. In average on three years, NEE was +43±24 gCm-2yr-1 and NBP was +7±26 gCm-2yr-1, suggesting that that the site is C neutral. Management by the farmer (organic fertilization), but also climate conditions influencing management (feed supplements), were the main factors impacting the C balance inter-annual variability. At a daily and seasonal scale, grazing impact on CO2 fluxes did not appear explicitly, being blurred by flux response to climate drivers. It was highlighted by specific investigations. The indirect grazing impact (photosynthesizing biomass consumption, excretions, soil compaction) was deduced from an analysis of the flux to PPFD response evolution during grazing period; the direct impact (livestock respiration) was investigated through confinement experiments. Result showed that saturation GPP changes were negatively correlated to grazing intensity (product of the stocking rate and grazing duration). On the contrary, no significant change in TER was observed. The direct impact of grazing due to cattle respiration was estimated to 2.59±0.58 kgCLU-1day-1, i.e. 8% of the TER. [less ▲]

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See detailAre agricultural ecosystems important BVOC « exchangers »? Evidences from 2 measurement years on croplands at Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

Poster (2014, September 23)

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile ... [more ▼]

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) emission from terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, those compounds which are mostly emitted by plants play a great role in the atmospheric chemistry, thereby influencing the Earth surface radiative budget and the tropospheric air quality. However, so far, very few is known about BVOC exchange by crops, implying that huge uncertainties remain about qualifying, quantifying and determining sources/sinks and driving mechanisms of BVOC exchanges between croplands ecosystems and the atmosphere. We present here the first long term BVOC fluxes measurement study conducted on maize (2012) and winter wheat (2013), respectively the second and first most important worldwide crops (FAOSTAT). BVOC exchange was measured using the disjunct by mass scanning eddy covariance technique (+ PTR-MS, Ionicon) at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (ICOS site) in Belgium. Main results are: (i) crops emit mainly methanol; (ii) BVOC emission from studied crops is lower than in literature, suggesting that agricultural ecosystems are poor BVOC exchangers; (iii) soil is a significant BVOC source. [less ▲]

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See detailIRGA GAS SAMPLING SYSTEM DIMENSIONING: LABORATORY AND FIELD EXPERIMENTS
De Ligne, Anne ULg; Joly, Lilian; Cousin, Julien et al

Poster (2014, September 23)

The gas sampling system (GSS), which carries air from the sampling point to the IRGA, is an essential component of the eddy covariance system. It has to meet several constraints, among which minimizing ... [more ▼]

The gas sampling system (GSS), which carries air from the sampling point to the IRGA, is an essential component of the eddy covariance system. It has to meet several constraints, among which minimizing high frequency attenuation of concentration measurement and keeping pressure drop in the measurement cell in an acceptable range. Rain cup, filters, tubes and pumps are key elements of this system and need proper dimensioning. The elaboration of the ICOS protocol for IRGA required such dimensioning and optimization. Laboratory and field measurements were carried out with this aim. In the laboratory, a dynamic calibration bench was developed to investigate experimentally the pressure drop and the concentration fluctuation attenuation caused by different filters. In the field, three LI-7200 equipped with different GSS were installed and run at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (ICOS-Belgium). Main experiment conclusions were that: • The shape and size of the rain cup has a critical impact on cut off frequencies • The filter porosity and size has a critical impact on pressure drop • Filter heating is necessary in order to avoid condensation and filter blocking These experiments led to the definition of the GSS functioning range that is finally proposed in the ICOS IRGA protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailAre agricultural ecosystems important BVOC « exchangers »? Evidences from 2 measurement years on croplands at Lonzée (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

Poster (2014, July 01)

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile ... [more ▼]

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) emission from terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, those compounds which are mostly emitted by plants play a great role in the atmospheric chemistry, thereby influencing the Earth surface radiative budget and the tropospheric air quality. However, so far, very few is known about BVOC exchange by crops, implying that huge uncertainties remain about qualifying, quantifying and determining sources/sinks and driving mechanisms of BVOC exchanges between croplands ecosystems and the atmosphere. We present here the first long term BVOC fluxes measurement study conducted on maize (2012) and winter wheat (2013), respectively the second and first most important worldwide crops (FAOSTAT). BVOC exchange was measured using the disjunct by mass scanning eddy covariance technique (+ PTR-MS, Ionicon) at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (ICOS site) in Belgium. Main results are: (i) crops emit mainly methanol; (ii) BVOC fluxes from studied crops is lower than in literature, suggesting that agricultural ecosystems are poor BVOC exchangers; (iii) soil is a significant BVOC source. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (15 ULg)