References of "Art, Tatiana"
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See detailWork of Breathing in Exercising Ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Research in Veterinary Science (1989), 46(1), 49-53

This paper attempts to evaluate the changes in the mechanical work of breathing induced by the increase of ventilation in ponies exercising on a treadmill. Airflow, tidal volume (VT) and oesophageal ... [more ▼]

This paper attempts to evaluate the changes in the mechanical work of breathing induced by the increase of ventilation in ponies exercising on a treadmill. Airflow, tidal volume (VT) and oesophageal pressure were simultaneously recorded in eight ponies (four to six years old and weighing 258 +/- 11 kg) before, during and after standardised exercise. Respiratory frequency, VT and minute volume (Ve) for each phase of the experimental protocol were calculated from the collected data. The pressure-volume diagrams were traced and the work per cycle (Wrm) was estimated by measuring the area enclosed in the loop. The work per minute (Wrm) and the work per litre of ventilation (Wrm litre-1) were also calculated. From rest to fast trot Wrm litre-1, Wrm and Wrm had increased 8.1, 13.0 and 55.6 times, respectively. The relationships between Ve and Wrm litre-1 was linear and that between Ve and Wrm curvilinear. Results suggested that the mechanical cost of the work of breathing could be a limiting or at least a constraining factor of the increase of ventilation during strenuous exercise in ponies [less ▲]

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See detailEffets physiologiques de différents types de stress chez le chien avant et après blocage de stress chez le chien avant et après blocage beta-adrénergique par le carzolol
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1989), 133

The purpose of this experiment was to study (1) some cardio-vascular and metabolic effects of two different stress and (2) the modifications of these stress responses induced by a preventive ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this experiment was to study (1) some cardio-vascular and metabolic effects of two different stress and (2) the modifications of these stress responses induced by a preventive administration of carazolol. Five healthy beagle dogs were used. Firstly, a pharmacological stress was induced by an intravenous (IV) administration of epinephrine tartrate (1 ug/kg). The (3 adrenergic blockade was realised by an administration of carazolol (10ug/kg, IV). The changes in heart rate (HR), haematocrit, glycemia and blood gases were studied (1) to assess the stress-induced adjustements, (2) to study the effect of a R-adrenergic blockade on quiet resting dogs and (3) to estimate the efficiency of this blockade on the stress responses. Secondly, the dogs performed a standardized treadmill exercise, in order to produce a physiological stress. The adjustements to exercise on the one hand and the changes in these adjustements induced by a preventive administration of carazolol (10 ug/kg, I.M.) on the other hand were measured by the recording of the HR before, during and after the exercise. Epinephrine tartrate induced significant changes of HR, haematocrit and glycemia. The Beta-blockade reduced significantly these changes (P < 0,01). The exercise-induced increase of HR was also significantly reduced by the (beta-blockade (P < 0,01). On the oher hand, this blockade has no effects on the resting measured parameters. This study suggests that Beta-blockade by the carazolol has no indesirable effects on resting dogs and that it prevents the cardio-vascular and metabolic effects of stress. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of a decreased gas density on the machanics of breathing in running ponies
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Proceedings of the Seventh Veterinary Respiratory Symposium (1988, November 12)

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See detailRespiratory Airflow Patterns in Ponies at Rest and During Exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (1988), 52(3), 299-303

The exercise-induced changes in the equine breathing pattern were studied by analyzing tidal breathing flow-volume loops recorded in ten ponies both at rest and during a standardized exercise. Airflow ... [more ▼]

The exercise-induced changes in the equine breathing pattern were studied by analyzing tidal breathing flow-volume loops recorded in ten ponies both at rest and during a standardized exercise. Airflow, tidal volume, esophageal pressure and mask pressure were simultaneously recorded before, during and after a treadmill exercise. From the collected data, respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance were calculated, tidal breathing flow-volume loops were retraced using a computerized method and loop indices were measured for each period of the experimental protocol. For each pony, results of three consecutive daily measurements were averaged. The exercise loop indices were compared with the corresponding resting values using a one-way analysis of variance. The significantly changed indices were correlated with respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance. Several types of respiratory patterns were observed at rest as well as during exercise, although each pony was relatively constant in its own pattern of breathing. Most resting inspiratory and expiratory airflow curves were found to be biphasic. When ponies started running, the airflow developed an increasingly rectangular pattern. During strenuous exercise, both inspiratory and expiratory airflow curves showed a substantial increase of the volume acceleration and tended to a plateau. The loop indices relating the expiratory to the inspiratory airflow were significantly increased compared with their rest values. Correlations of these indices with respiratory frequency and total pulmonary resistance were weak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Exercise on the Partitioning of Equine Respiratory Resistance
Art, Tatiana ULg; Serteyn, Didier ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1988), 20(4), 268-273

Pleural, tracheal, pharyngeal and mask pressures as well as airflow and tidal volume of five ponies on a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) were recorded simultaneously while resting, walking, trotting ... [more ▼]

Pleural, tracheal, pharyngeal and mask pressures as well as airflow and tidal volume of five ponies on a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) were recorded simultaneously while resting, walking, trotting slowly, trotting fast, after standing for 30 secs and 5 mins after the end of the exercise. The curves obtained were used to calculate total pulmonary resistance (RL), lower airway resistance (RLA) and upper airway resistance (RUA). The latter was also divided into nasal resistance (Rnas) and laryngeal plus extrathoracic tracheal resistance (Retr + lar). Furthermore, the inspiratory and expiratory components of each of these R values were estimated. Levels of RL, RLA and RUA were increased significantly during exercise but, during the recovery period, the values were significantly lower than those pre-exercise. RUA represented 82 per cent of RL at rest and this percentage did not change significantly during and after exercise. The nasal resistance to RUA ratio was always higher than 0.5. The fact that RL increased with exercise intensity was due to the increase of RUA during inspiration, and mainly a result of the increase of RLA during expiration. At fast trot, RLA represented 5 and 50 per cent of RL during inspiration and expiration respectively. It was concluded that heavy exercise induces in ponies an increase of RL, one reason for which could be the partial collapse of the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways during inspiration and expiration respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Inertance on Measurements of the Mechanical Properties of the Bovine Respiratory System
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Clercx, Cécile ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(1), 61-66

The observation that dynamic compliance (Cdyn) tended to rise with respiratory frequency (f) in adult cattle led us to reassess the importance of inertial pressures in measuring Cdyn in large animals ... [more ▼]

The observation that dynamic compliance (Cdyn) tended to rise with respiratory frequency (f) in adult cattle led us to reassess the importance of inertial pressures in measuring Cdyn in large animals. Five healthy Friesian cows were selected for their ability to show an increase of f without significant change in tidal volume (VT). Dynamic compliance was measured three times, both at the resting f (21 +/- 1 cpm), and at higher f (49 +/- 3 cpm), obtained by an artificial increase in the dead space of the breathing mask. Frequency-response characteristics of the measuring instruments were matched up to 12 Hz. The inertia of the lungs and gas stream (In) was calculated as the ratio of the accelerative pressure change to the simultaneous change in volume acceleration. Inertance was also estimated from the dimensions of the bovine airways and from the relative linear flow velocities reported by Rohrer (1915). Dynamic compliance measured during rapid breathing was significantly higher (p less than or equal to 0.01) than base-line values. Dynamic compliance was strongly correlated with f (r = +0.96). Measured and estimated In were 0.002 and 0.003 kPa.sec2.L-1 respectively. Dynamic compliance did not differ significantly from base-line values when it was corrected for the estimated inertance effect. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary Function Values and Growth in Belgian White and Blue Double-Muscled Cattle
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Bakima, M.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Research in Veterinary Science (1988), 45(3), 405-410

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an ... [more ▼]

Seventy-five double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed, two days to 50 months old and weighing 45 to 680 kg, were investigated. Transpulmonary pressure changes, measured with an oesophageal balloon, variations of air flow and volume at the mouth were obtained during spontaneous breathing to calculate pulmonary function data. Oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions in arterial blood were also recorded. Growth related changes of the pulmonary function values were similar to those observed in other bovine breeds. Total pulmonary resistance, specific total pulmonary resistance, viscous work, power of breathing, specific viscous work, respiratory frequency and peak-to-peak change in transpulmonary pressure were greater in Belgian white and blue cattle than in Friesian cattle. In the former, tidal volume, specific tidal volume, lowest transpulmonary pressure during expiration, transpulmonary pressure at the functional residual capacity level, dynamic lung compliance and oxygen tension in arterial blood were smaller. Airflow, minute volume and carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood were similar in the Belgian white and blue and Friesian cattle. These results were related to the great sensitivity of double-muscled cattle of the Belgian white and blue breed to laryngitis and bronchopneumonia. [less ▲]

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See detailTechniques d'investigation de la fonction cardiaque chez les animaux domestiques
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1988), 132

Une revue des techniques d'investigation du coeur a été réalisée d'un point de vue morphologique, électrique, fonctionnel et métabolique. Un accent particulier a été posé sur celles de ces techniques qui ... [more ▼]

Une revue des techniques d'investigation du coeur a été réalisée d'un point de vue morphologique, électrique, fonctionnel et métabolique. Un accent particulier a été posé sur celles de ces techniques qui ont connu, au cours des dernières années, une expansion importante en médecine vétérinaire [less ▲]

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See detailCould pulmonary inertance be a limiting factor of ventilation during exercise in the equine species ?
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 7th Comparative Respiratory Society Meeting (1988)

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See detailAssessment of respiratory muscle performance in non cooperative subjects : a preliminary study
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 7th Comparative Respiratory Society Meeting (1988)

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See detailInfluence of the intrapleural pressure on the variability of the pulmonary arterial pressures measurements in calves
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Gustin, Pascal ULg et al

in Proceedings of 7th comparative Respiratory Society Meeting, Chicago (USA) (1988)

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See detailEffects de l'entraînement sur la fonction cardio-respiratoire et sur la température rectale chez le poney
Amory, Hélène ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1988), 132

The influence of training on cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory adaptations to exercise was studied in 2 healthy race ponies (age : 3.5 and 5 years; weight : 270 and 295 kg). Respiratory airflow (V ... [more ▼]

The influence of training on cardiorespiratory and thermoregulatory adaptations to exercise was studied in 2 healthy race ponies (age : 3.5 and 5 years; weight : 270 and 295 kg). Respiratory airflow (V), tidal volume (VT), electrocardiogram and rectal temperature were simultaneously recorded before, during and alter a standardized exercise which consisted of 3 min walking (1.5 m.sec -1), 3 min slow trotting (3.0 m.sec-1) and 3 min fast trotting (3.5 m.sec-1). These parameters were recorded 4 times, i.e. before (test 1), during (test 2 and 3) and 2 weeks alter (test 4) a 4 week-period of training. Respiratory frequency (f), VT, peak inspiratory and expiratory V, minute volume (Ve), heart rate (H.R.) and rectal temperature changes were calculated on the basis of the collected data. For a given workload, Ve was increased and H.R. decreased during test 2 and 3. These adaptations to training persisted alter the 2 week-period of detraining. Neither Ve nor H.R. recoveries were changed during the whole experimental period. On the other hand, f measured both during exercise and recovery was subject to great variations, obviously independent of the state of training. Lastly, the exercise-induced hyperthermia was reduced alter the training period. This thermoregulatory changes was reversed alter detraining. The results of this preliminary study must be taken with cautions because of the small number of animals used. Nevertheless, they suggested that (1) f is a poor indication of the ventilation, (2) measurements of Ve and HR during a standardized exercise may give a good estimation of the fitness of a horse, (3) on the opposite both parameters measured during recovery seemed to be poorly correlated with the state of training. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary Mechanics During Treadmill Exercise in Race Ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(2-3), 245-258

Exercise-induced variations in their ventilatory mechanics were studied in 8 healthy ponies 4.2 +/- 1.4 years old and weighing 282 +/- 11 kg. Airflow (V), tidal volume (VT), esophageal pressure, mask ... [more ▼]

Exercise-induced variations in their ventilatory mechanics were studied in 8 healthy ponies 4.2 +/- 1.4 years old and weighing 282 +/- 11 kg. Airflow (V), tidal volume (VT), esophageal pressure, mask pressure and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded before, during and after a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) exercise which consisted of 2 min walking (1.5 m.sec-1), 3 min slow trotting (3.0 m.sec-1) and 3 min fast trotting (3.5 m.sec-1). The results of three consecutive daily measurements were averaged for each pony. Heart rate, minute volume (Ve), respiratory frequency (f) and peak inspiratory and expiratory V, mean inspiratory and expiratory V, and peak to peak changes in transpulmonary pressure (maxdPtp) increased linearly and significantly with increasing velocity (v) (R2 = 0.99). Tidal volume and the inspiratory time to total breathing time ratio showed a curvilinar relation with v (R2 = 0.99). Minute volume, maxdPtp, total pulmonary resistance (RL) and VT increased from rest to fast trot 6.7, 5.7, 1.5 and 1.6 times respectively. When the ponies stopped all these values decreased significantly. After 5 min recovery, the Ve was approximately doubled, VT and max dPtp unchanged and RL 30% smaller than their respective resting values. The exercise-induced increase in Ve was achieved by an increase in f at both low and high intensity of work. [less ▲]

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See detailA Critical Assessment of Pulmonary Function Testing in Exercising Ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(1), 25-39

Pulmonary function measurements during exercise were tested for accuracy and reproducibility in 5 saddle ponies weighing 267 +/- 9 Kg. Airflow (V) and tidal volume (VT) were measured with a Fleisch ... [more ▼]

Pulmonary function measurements during exercise were tested for accuracy and reproducibility in 5 saddle ponies weighing 267 +/- 9 Kg. Airflow (V) and tidal volume (VT) were measured with a Fleisch pneumotachograph mounted on a face mask. The linearity of the response and the symmetry of this device were carefully checked. Pleural pressure changes were measured by pleural puncture (Ppl) and with an esophageal balloon catheter (Pes). The elastance of the esophageal wall and the effect of the position of the esophageal catheter tip on Pes were also investigated. Airflow, VT, Ppl, Pes, mask pressure, an electrocardiogram and limb movements were simultaneously recorded before, during and after exercise. These recordings were used to assess the validity of some pulmonary function measurements and to evaluate the influence of the breathing apparatus on the respiratory pattern. Maximal intrathoracic pressure changes and total pulmonary resistance values did not differ significantly when calculated on the basis of the Ppl and the Pes curves respectively. Although the absolute Ppl values were significantly different from the absolute Pes values, both pressures recorded at different workloads were closely correlated (R = 0.99). The mean specific elastance of the esophagus was 1.56 +/- 0.24 kPa.cm.ml.-1. Changes in the position of the esophageal catheter tip induced significant differences in the recorded Pes values. The pressure/flow relationship of the pneumotachograph pressure transducer system was linear within the range of the V measured during exercise. The mask had a significant influence on respiratory frequency and maximum difference in Pes, but did not modify the exercise-induced changes in these parameters. It was concluded that the technique and methods used in this study can allow accurate pulmonary function measurements in exercising ponies. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Environmental Temperature and Relative Humidity on Breathing Pattern and Heart Rate in Ponies During and after Standardised Exercise
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1988), 123(11), 295-299

A preliminary study attempted to assess the influence of atmospheric conditions on the breathing pattern of ponies. The respiratory airflow, tidal volume, breathing frequency, minute volume, total ... [more ▼]

A preliminary study attempted to assess the influence of atmospheric conditions on the breathing pattern of ponies. The respiratory airflow, tidal volume, breathing frequency, minute volume, total pulmonary resistance and heart rate of five ponies (257 +/- 9 kg and three to five years old) were measured by a standardised procedure. Data were collected at rest, during a nine minute period of treadmill exercise and during a five minute recovery period. The ambient temperature (degrees C) and relative humidity (%) were recorded at the time of each investigation and the respiratory parameters were divided into two groups according to whether the sum of these measurements was less than 85, ie, the conditions were cold and dry or greater than 85, ie, the conditions were relatively hot and humid. Data for each pony in both conditions were compared. The ambient temperature and relative humidity did not significantly modify the breathing pattern of the ponies either at rest or during exercise. On the other hand the frequency of breathing was significantly higher and the tidal volume and total pulmonary resistance were significantly lower during recovery in hot and humid conditions than in cold and dry conditions, while the minute volume remained unchanged. It was concluded that, during recovery, environmental conditions may modify the breathing pattern of horses. This suggests that in hot and humid weather conditions the respiratory rate may be an unreliable measure of the fitness of a horse and, consequently, that a more complete pulmonary investigation should be undertaken for an assessment of fitness. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanical work of breathing during treadmill exercise in ponies
Art, Tatiana ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1988), 96(5), 42

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See detailEffect of Enrofloxacin Therapy on Shipping Fever Pneumonia in Feedlot Cattle
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1988), 123(8), 205-207

The effect of enrofloxacin therapy was investigated in 110 male double-muscled cattle weighing 275 +/- 3 kg, during a spontaneous outbreak of shipping fever occurring 11 +/- 2 days after they arrived in ... [more ▼]

The effect of enrofloxacin therapy was investigated in 110 male double-muscled cattle weighing 275 +/- 3 kg, during a spontaneous outbreak of shipping fever occurring 11 +/- 2 days after they arrived in the feedlot. Forty-six diseased animals were divided randomly into three groups A, B and C, containing 17, 19 and 10 animals, respectively; the animals in group A were injected intramuscularly once daily for three consecutive days with 2.5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin, those in group B with 5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin and those in group C with 10 mg/kg of oxytetracycline. Clinical, serological, production and respiratory functional observations were recorded. The animals were clinically cured after the three day treatment except for three in group A and two in group C. These five animals made a clinical recovery after a three day booster treatment with a dose of 5 mg/kg enrofloxacin. The changes in respiratory gas exchange values induced by shipping fever were completely reversed 15 days later, suggesting that there had been no irreversible lung damage. The daily weight gains and the arterial blood gas values of the three groups of treated cattle were not significantly different. The high efficacy of the low dosage of enrofloxacin in this clinical syndrome may be explained by its antibacterial activity against Pasteurella species and Mycoplasma species. This field trial supports the in vitro studies which suggested than enrofloxacin is an appropriate therapy in cases of shipping fever. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of common bovine respiratory diseases on tidal breathing flow-volume loops
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg; Amory, Hélène ULg

in Veterinary Research Communications (1988), 12(6), 463-473

In order to better understand the bovine breathing pattern, tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) were analyzed in 24 healthy cattle of different body weights (range: 37-660 kg) (Group A) and in 28 ... [more ▼]

In order to better understand the bovine breathing pattern, tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) were analyzed in 24 healthy cattle of different body weights (range: 37-660 kg) (Group A) and in 28 cattle suffering from the common respiratory diseases: verminous bronchitis (Group B); shipping fever (Group C); acute respiratory distress syndrome (Group D); respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia (Group E); organophosphate poisoning (Group F); and necrotic laryngitis (Group G). Respiratory airflow and tidal volume were measured with a breathing mask-Fleisch pneumotachograph assembly. TBFVL were traced from these values using a computerized method. All the loop indices proposed by Amis and Kurpershoek (1986a) were calculated from 5 representative breathing cycles for each of the 52 animals. The TBFVL shapes and indices were relatively constant in most healthy cattle and were not correlated with the body size. When compared to normal values, animals with moderate respiratory syndromes (Groups B and C) had a more flattened shape to their TBFVL. On the other hand, in most cattle with severe respiratory pathologies (Groups D, F and G expiration tended to be biphasic with the peak expiratory flow (PEF) occurring significantly later than in healthy animals. Both PEF and peak inspiratory flow were increased in all the pathological conditions. The TBFVL indices were more frequently and more severely changed during expiration than during inspiration. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the airflow patterns in healthy and diseased cattle
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Proceedings of the Sixth Veterinary Respiratory Symposium (1987, November)

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