References of "Antoine, Nadine"
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See detailImmunohistochemical investigation of cells expressing CD21, membrane IgM, CD32, and a follicular dendritic cell marker in the lymphoid tissues of neonatal calves
Chattha, K. S.; Hodgins, D. C.; DeLay, J. et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2010), 137

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2010)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and histological studies of sheep’s brain
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Engelen, Virginie; Jacqmot, Olivier ULg et al

Poster (2010)

Introduction: The study of normal structures of the sheep’s brain is very important to understand pathological changes caused by the bluetongue virus in the fetus’s brain at various stages of the ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The study of normal structures of the sheep’s brain is very important to understand pathological changes caused by the bluetongue virus in the fetus’s brain at various stages of the gestation. Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The serotype 8 is responsible for outbreaks in Northern Europe in 2006. This virus causes lesions in the brain of fetuses as hydrancephaly and porencephaly. The aim of this work is to improve knowledge of anatomy and histology of the central nervous system of the sheep. Methods: Seven heads of adult sheep and one from a fetus aged 4,5 months were used. All heads were first opened in the frontal area using bone’s saw and immerged in a formalin solution for 10 days. After a good fixation, the brains were extracted and sectioned. Transversal, frontal and sagittal sections were realized. The sections of two brains were stained with Berlin-blue and treated to be embedded in methylmetacrylate for gross morphology. The different parts of the 6 resting brains were then embedded in paraffin, cut and the histological sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin, cresyl violet or by use of silver impregnation. Results: Gross morphological examination of the brains embedded in methylmetacrylate showed the detailed anatomy of the different parts. The staining with haematoxylin/eosin permitted to differentiate the grey matter, the different nucleus and the layers of cerebral and cerebellum cortex. The cresyl violet technique permitted to visualize the Nissl bodies and the silver impregnation revealed nerve fibers. In the fetus brain, blood vessels were very numerous in the brainstem, the cerebellum and the cerebrum. The grey matter was less organized and looser. Conclusion: This work establishes an anatomical and histological approach allowing future studies in ovine fetuses with and without brain lesions potentially caused by the bluetongue virus. [less ▲]

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See detailSpreading of prions from the immune to the peripheral nervous system: a potential implication of dendritic cells.
Dorban, Gauthier; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (2010), 133(5), 493-504

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See detailMouse vaccination with dendritic cells loaded with prion protein peptides overcomes tolerance and delays scrapie.
Bachy, Veronique; Ballerini, Clara; Gourdain, Pauline et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2010), 91(Pt 3), 809-20

Prion diseases are presumed to be caused by the accumulation in the brain of a pathological protein called prion protein (PrP) scrapie which results from the transconformation of cellular PrP, a ... [more ▼]

Prion diseases are presumed to be caused by the accumulation in the brain of a pathological protein called prion protein (PrP) scrapie which results from the transconformation of cellular PrP, a ubiquitous glycoprotein expressed in all mammals. Since all isoforms of PrP are perceived as self by the host immune system, a major problem in designing efficient immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy is to overcome tolerance. The present study was aimed at investigating whether bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with peptides previously shown to be immunogenic in PrP-deficient mice, can overcome tolerance in PrP-proficient wild-type mice and protect them against scrapie. Results show that, in such mice, peptide-loaded DCs elicit both lymphokine release by T cells and antibody secretion against native cellular PrP. Repeated recalls with peptide-loaded DCs reduces the attack rate of 139A scrapie inoculated intraperitoneally and retards disease duration by 40 days. Most interestingly, survival time in individual mice appears to be correlated with the level of circulating antibody against native cellular PrP. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Papillomavirus Virus-Like particles and NK cell interactions:role of CD16
Renoux, Virginie ULg; Langers Inge; Clémenceau Béatrice et al

in International Immunology (2010), 22(suppl Pt 5), 17

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See detailHistologie générale des animaux domestiques
Antoine, Nadine ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailHistologie spéciale des animaux domestiques (tome I et II)
Antoine, Nadine ULg

Learning material (2009)

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See detailGerminal centre innervation of bovine and human tonsils related to prion diseases.
Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Dorban, Gauthier; Antoine, Nadine ULg et al

in Brain, Behavior & Immunity (2009), 23(1), 10

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See detailVascularisation of the equine menisci
De Busscher, V.; Maitre, D.; Busoni, Valeria ULg et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailIn vitro modelisation of prions neuroinvasion mediated by dendritic cells
Dorban, G.; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

Poster (2008, October)

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See detail. Do innervation of germinal centre and contacts between FDC and nerve fibers be keys to understand the susceptibility difference between bovines and humans to the BSE agent?
Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Dorban, G.; Antoine, Nadine ULg et al

Poster (2008, October)

Background: In regard to BSE and vCJD, the agent tropism for lymphoid tissues is completely different even if the infectious strain responsible and the way of inoculation are identical. During vCJD, the ... [more ▼]

Background: In regard to BSE and vCJD, the agent tropism for lymphoid tissues is completely different even if the infectious strain responsible and the way of inoculation are identical. During vCJD, the infectious agent crosses the digestive barrier and multiplies in lymphoid organs, before progressively reaching the brain. Indeed, in vCJD, it accumulates in the ileum, tonsils, spleen and appendix of infected individuals. In contrast, in cattle, the BSE agent has a low affinity for lymphoid tissues and mainly accumulates in the nervous system. During preclinical stages, infectivity, other than that in the peripheral nervous system or central nervous system, is confined in the distal ileum of orally infected cattle. So, it appears that, at least in the case of BSE and vCJD, host properties can influence the accumulation of the infectious agent in lymphoid organs. Objectives and methods: In this study, we analysed by confocale microscopy the mucosal innervation and the interface between nerve fibres and FDC in bovine and human tonsils using a panel of antibodies. Since differences in the innervation of lymphoid organs depending on species and on age have been reported, we analysed two categories of bovines (calves less than 12 months old and bovines older than 24 months) and two categories of humans (patients less than 5 years old and patients older than 25 years). Results: In both species, ways of innervation by-passing germinal centres could be postulated: nerve fibres are widely distributed in antigen/cell traffic area: the lamina propria, the interfollicular zone and the lymphoepithelial area. We pointed out that, only in tonsils of bovines older than 24 months, nerve fibres are observed to be in contact with FDC. In contrast, in human tonsils, no nerve fibres established contacts with FDC, whatever the age. Discussion: Innervation of germinal centres can be said to be an age-dependent dynamic process in bovines. The weak innervation of the secondary lymphoid organs could thus be a rate-limiting step to neuroinvasion in humans. This species difference could influence the way of neuroinvasion and thus, the susceptibility of bovines and humans to the BSE agent. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction between dendritic cells and nerve fibres in lymphoid organs after oral scrapie exposure
Dorban, Gauthier ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Demonceau, Christine ULg et al

in Virchows Archiv (2007), 451(6), 1057-1065

In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the infectious agent, called PrPsc, an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein, accumulates and replicates in lymphoid organs before affecting ... [more ▼]

In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), the infectious agent, called PrPsc, an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein, accumulates and replicates in lymphoid organs before affecting the nervous system. To clarify the cellular requirements for the neuro-invasion of the scrapie agent from the lymphoid organs to the central nervous system, we have studied, by confocal microscopy, the innervations within Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and the spleen of mice in physiological conditions and after oral exposure to prion. Contacts between nerve fibres and PrPsc-associated cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), were evaluated in preclinical prion-infected mice. Using a double immunolabelling strategy, we demonstrated the lack of innervation of PrPsc-accumulating cells (FDCs). Contacts between nerve fibers and PrPsc-propagating cells (DCs) were detected in T-cell zones and cell-trafficking areas. This supports, for the first time, the possible implication of dendritic cells in the prion neuroinvasion process. [less ▲]

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See detailDo tonsilar FDCs express PrPc in sheep?
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret,J; Minne,M et al

Poster (2007, October)

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See detailOral scrapie infection modifies the homeostasis of Peyer's patches' dendritic cells
Dorban, Gauthier ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Levavasseur, Etienne et al

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (2007), 128(3), 243-251

In transmitted prion diseases the immune system supports the replication and the propagation of the pathogenic agent (PrPSc). DCs, which are mobile cells present in large numbers within lymph organs, are ... [more ▼]

In transmitted prion diseases the immune system supports the replication and the propagation of the pathogenic agent (PrPSc). DCs, which are mobile cells present in large numbers within lymph organs, are suspected to carry prions through the lymphoid system and to transfer them towards the peripheral nervous system. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were orally inoculated with PrPSc (scrapie strain 139A) and sacrificed at the preclinical stages of the disease. Immunolabelled cryosections of Peyer's patches were analysed by confocal microscopy. Membrane prion protein expression was studied by flow cytometry. In Peyer's patches (PP), dissected at day one and day 105 after oral exposure to scrapie, we observed an increased population of DCs localised in the follicular-associated epithelium. On day 105, PrPSc was found in the follicles inside the PP of prion-infected mice. A subset of Peyer's patches DCs, which did not express cellular prion protein on their surface in non-infected mice conditions, was prion-positive in scrapie conditions. Within Peyer's patches oral scrapie exposure thus induced modifications of the homeostasis of DCs at the preclinical stages of the disease. These results give new arguments in favour of the implication of DCs in prion diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroimmune connections in jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches at various bovine ages: potential sites for prion neuroinvasion
Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Dorban, Gauthier ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2007), 329(1), 35-44

During preclinical stages of cattle orally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the responsible agent is confined to ileal Peyer's patches (IPP), namely in nerve fibers and in lymph ... [more ▼]

During preclinical stages of cattle orally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the responsible agent is confined to ileal Peyer's patches (IPP), namely in nerve fibers and in lymph follicles, before reaching the peripheral and central nervous systems. No infectivity has been reported in other bovine lymphoid organs, including jejunal Peyer's patches (JPP). To determine the potential sites for prion neuroinvasion in IPP, we analyzed the mucosal innervation and the interface between nerve fibers and follicular dendritic cells (FDC), two dramatic influences on neuroinvasion. Bovine IPP were studied at three ages, viz., newborn calves, calves less than 12 months old, and bovines older than 24 months, and the parameters obtained were compared with those of JPP. No differences in innervation patterns between IPP and JPP were found. The major difference observed was that, in calves of less than 12 months, IPP were the major mucosal-associated lymphoid organ that possessed a large number of follicles with extended FDC networks. Using a panel of antibodies, we showed that PP in 24-month-old bovines were highly innervated at various strategic sites assumed to be involved in the invasion and replication of the BSE pathogen: the suprafollicular dome, T cell area, and germinal centers. In PP in calves of less than 12 months old, no nerve fibers positive for the neurofilament markers NF-L (70 kDa) and NF-H (200 kDa) were observed in contact with FDC. Thus, in view of the proportion of these protein subunits present in neurofilaments, the innervation of the germinal centers can be said to be an age-dependent dynamic process. This variation in innervation might influence the path of neuroinvasion and, thus, the susceptibility of bovines to the BSE agent. [less ▲]

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