References of "Anselme, Patrick"
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See detailAbnormal patterns of displacement activities: a review and reinterpretation
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2008), 79(1), 48-58

A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-70 about displacement activities — those ‘out-of-context’ actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing ... [more ▼]

A series of important theoretical contributions flourished in the years 1950-70 about displacement activities — those ‘out-of-context’ actions expressed by organisms in stressful situations. Nothing really new has appeared thereafter. Although the models address different issues, such as causal factors of displacement, it appears obvious that they do not provide a unified (coherent) approach; they often explain the same phenomena using very different means and turn out to be contradictory on several points. In addition, some problems currently remain unsolved, especially concerning the fact that displacement activities exhibit ‘abnormalities’ of expression in comparison with the same activities performed in usual context. Each model is here described and criticized in order to evaluate its explanatory power and allow the identification of specific limits. A new, integrative model — the Anticipatory Dynamics Model (or ADM) — then attempts to overcome the failures of previous models. The ADM suggests that abnormal patterns of displacement activities result from attentional interference caused by a thwarting experience or conflicting motivations. At least one theoretical prediction of the ADM can be differentiated from that of any other model. [less ▲]

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See detailSome conceptual problems with the classical theory of behaviour
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2007), 75(3), 259-275

Behaviour is usually assumed to depend on the reach of a critical intensity-termed reactivity threshold-by its motivation. This view represents a simple, predictive theoretical framework in ethology and ... [more ▼]

Behaviour is usually assumed to depend on the reach of a critical intensity-termed reactivity threshold-by its motivation. This view represents a simple, predictive theoretical framework in ethology and animal psychology. However, it is here argued that only the influence of an isolated motivation on behaviour can be explained that way; that such a view fails to account for behaviour when several motivations are jointly activated. Upon analysis, the classical theory of behaviour (CTB) proves to be under-specified and thus leads to three conceptual problems that make it logically inconsistent for the study of multiple motivations. A revision of the CTB, called anticipatory dynamics model (ADM), is then developed in order to bring a theoretical solution to these conceptual problems. The ADM hypothesizes that an organism's motivational interactions are due to the limitation of the organism's attentional resources. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunistic behaviour in animals and robots
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Journal of Experimental & theoretical Artificial Intelligence (2006), 18(1), 1-15

An agent (animal or robot) is said to exhibit opportunistic behaviours, when it can identify favourable circumstances for its actions, even when the environment is non-optimal (i.e. when the stimuli ... [more ▼]

An agent (animal or robot) is said to exhibit opportunistic behaviours, when it can identify favourable circumstances for its actions, even when the environment is non-optimal (i.e. when the stimuli encountered are a priori weakly incentive). In animals, there is evidence that the stronger their motivation for a task, the more they tend to accept as relevant those stimuli to which they previously paid no attention. It is shown how motivations and their reactivity threshold bring about perceptual generalizations that might help animals to recognize more opportunities to act. This process is likely to be useful in uncertain environments, such as the real world. Designers interested in autonomous mobile robots construct machines with flexible goal achievements. In particular, these robots are provided with specific motivational states that determine when to carry out a given task. However, it is argued here that these motivational states do not allow robots to recognize opportunities to act because, contrary to the case with animals, artificial motivational systems are not designed to deal with non-optimality of the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailThe frame problem in cognitive modeling
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Cognitive Science Quarterly (2003), 3(3), 329-350

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See detailDissociations between categorization and similarity judgements as a result of learning feature distributions
Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Dupont, Myriam; Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Memory & Cognition (2002), 30(4), 647-656

A dissociation between categorization and similarity was found by Rips (1989). In one experiment, Rips found that a stimulus halfway between a pizza and a quarter was categorized as a pizza but was rated ... [more ▼]

A dissociation between categorization and similarity was found by Rips (1989). In one experiment, Rips found that a stimulus halfway between a pizza and a quarter was categorized as a pizza but was rated as more similar to a quarter. Smith and Sloman (1994) discussed these results in terms of the role of necessary and characteristic features. In two experiments, participants had to learn to categorize novel artificial shapes composed of a nonsalient necessary feature combined with a salient characteristic feature. Participants categorized stimuli on the basis of a necessary feature, whereas their similarity judgments relied on characteristic features. The role of deep (essential) features in dissociations is considered. Results are discussed in terms of the differences between requirements of categorization and similarity judgments. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractively converging on context-sensitive representations: a solution to the frame problem
French, Robert M; Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Revue Internationale de Philosophie (1999), 209(3), 365-385

While we agree that the frame problem, as initially stated by McCarthy and Hayes (1969), is a problem that arises because of the use of representations, we do not accept the anti-representationalist ... [more ▼]

While we agree that the frame problem, as initially stated by McCarthy and Hayes (1969), is a problem that arises because of the use of representations, we do not accept the anti-representationalist position that the way around the problem is to eliminate representations. We believe that internal representations of the external world are a necessary, perhaps even a defining feature, of higher cognition. We explore the notion of dynamically created context-dependent representations that emerge from a continual interaction between working memory, external input, and long-term memory. We claim that only this kind of representation, necessary for higher cognitive abilities such as counterfactualization, will allow the combinatorial explosion inherent in the frame problem to be avoided. Introduction You live in a tidy little suburb of America. You call up a friend and invite him to have a drink. He agrees to meet you at seven. But then, just before you hang up, he adds, 'Unless my wife has scheduled something else for this evening.' You think: that's reasonable. Then he adds, 'Unless the bar doesn't exist anymore.' You think: that's a bit strange since the bar was there three months before. Then he adds, 'Unless I'm killed on the way there.' You begin to wonder if you really want to have a drink with him. And finally, he adds, 'Unless a meteorite destroys the earth' and you suddenly remember a prior engagement. But what, exactly, makes some of these conditions perfectly reasonable, others crazy? The philosophical problem is that we cannot exclude any of them a priori because contexts do exist in which they would be perfectly appropriate remarks. For example, if the bar in question was a theme bar devoted to punk rock music, or if the conversation had occurred in London in 1942 or in Sarajevo fifty years later, or if on that day the earth happened to be passing through a dense band of meteorites the size of Madagascar.... [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of habitat dessication in an African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis: captivity experimentation
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Hannosset, S.; Bernaerts, P. et al

Poster (1997)

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