References of "Andre, Philippe"
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See detailDéveloppement de la trigénération dans les bâtiments du secteur tertiaire
Andre, Philippe ULg

Report (2003)

Rapport final du projet "TRI", financé par la Région Wallonne, entre 2000 et 2003

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See detailWP7: Construction of a prototype environmental chamber, final report
Andre, Philippe ULg

Report (2003)

Rapport du WP7 du projet européen "Improvement of Transport Safety by control of fog production in a chamber", qui s'est déroulé entre 2000 et 2003, financé par l'Union Européenne

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See detailImprovement of Transport Safety by control of fog production in a chamber
Andre, Philippe ULg

Report (2003)

Rapport final du projet "Improvement of Transport Safety by control of fog production in a chamber", qui s'est déroulé entre 2000 et 2003, finance par l'Union Européenne, dans le cadre du programme ... [more ▼]

Rapport final du projet "Improvement of Transport Safety by control of fog production in a chamber", qui s'est déroulé entre 2000 et 2003, finance par l'Union Européenne, dans le cadre du programme "Growth" [less ▲]

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See detailIce storage system (ISS) : phase change modelling (TRNSYS 15). Simulation of a typical HVAC primary plant equipped with an ice sotrage unit.
Adam, Ch.; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of SSB'2002 congress (2002, December)

An ice storage can be an interesting option in a HVAC plant. It reduces the electricity costs and increases the HVAC plant capabilities. ISS reduces the on-peak power and shifts the cooling demand from ... [more ▼]

An ice storage can be an interesting option in a HVAC plant. It reduces the electricity costs and increases the HVAC plant capabilities. ISS reduces the on-peak power and shifts the cooling demand from the on-peak hours to the off-peak hours. ISS increases the available HVAC plant power, and then, the internal comfort. To store cold energy requires the selection of operating strategies. The objective of these strategies is to meet the global cooling demand of the building. Each strategy offers different technical and economical characteristics. The typical questions the manager of an HVAC plant has to solve are: Which is optimal ice storage tank in my case? Which cooling power? Which cooling capacity? How to run the HVAC plant to minimize the cost? To compare objectively the strategies, the manager needs to reproduce the ISS performances for the same conditions (building, cooling and electrical demands, climate conditions,...). He needs also informations to chose the appropriate plant configuration or operating strategy to meet the global cooling demand taking into account the characteristics of the tank, of the demand curve,... at each moment. A simulation model of an entire HVAC primary plant should provide this information. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a non conventional HVAC plant in an experimental building devoted to artificial fog production.
Andre, Philippe ULg; Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Lacôte, P. et al

in Proceedings of SSB'2002 Congress (2002, December)

In the frame of a european project dealing with the issue of transport safety improvement in fog conditions, a new experimental building is being constructed on the FUL campus, in the southern part of ... [more ▼]

In the frame of a european project dealing with the issue of transport safety improvement in fog conditions, a new experimental building is being constructed on the FUL campus, in the southern part of Belgium. This building hosts a climatic chamber in which a given indoor climate is to be maintained (temperature and relative humidity) whatever the external climate. Control of the internal climate will be performed by means of a specific HVAC plant. The general environmental context of the project led to the selection of non conventional solutions for the plant: solar collectors (both thermal and photovoltaic) are associated with a reversible heat pump in order to either heat or cool the building. In some circumstances, simultaneous heating and cooling of different rooms of the building will be necessary and possible. Energy distribution within the building will be made possible by different systems: - floor heating and/or cooling - cooling or heating ceiling - ventilation and Air handling Unit The paper reports on the use of building and HVAC system simulation in order to support the design of the plant. Simulation is carried out in the TRNSYS environment and gathers the following components: building, reversible heat pump, thermal solar collectors, photovoltaic solar collectors, floor heating, cooling ceiling, Air Handling Unit, storage tanks. Parameters identification for the different components will be developed. The paper will focus on specific problems connected to the simultaneous control of both temperature and relative humidity in situation close to the saturation state. The whole design methodology will be situated in the general context of the building life cycle and will make use of some ideas presented in the IEA Annex 30 research project. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of simulation in the commissioning of an office building
Andre, Philippe ULg; Lacôte, P.; Adam, Ch. et al

in Proceedings of SSB'2002 congress (2002, December)

In the frame of two successive IEA-ECBCS annexes, the « CA-MET » building in Namur was the object of commissioning and re-commissioning activities. First, during the construction of the building and ... [more ▼]

In the frame of two successive IEA-ECBCS annexes, the « CA-MET » building in Namur was the object of commissioning and re-commissioning activities. First, during the construction of the building and installation of the HVAC plant, a systematic survey of the work was carried out in the frame of IEA Annex 34 (“Fault Detection”). Therefore, attention was paid to a specific part of the plant (a typical Air handling Unit) and a number of testing and verifications were performed, as a complement to the normal and ongoing commissioning activities: - testing and balancing of air and water networks - air flowrate measurements - water flowrate measurements - control system analysis The most important faults identified in this part of the project were classified according to the IEA 34 template and, for each of these faults, the possibility of developing an automatic fault detection method was analysed. The paper will report on the most relevant problems and present the automatic fault detection method proposed. In a second step, which occurred during in the early stages of the operational phase of the building, a further verification of specific subsystems was carried out, as part of a re-commissioning activity. This work is being realized in the frame of IEA Annex 40 and ends up with a proposal of systematic verification procedure to be applied, as a first example, to a VAV system. This procedure follows a hierarchical approach (bottom-up), starting with the local VAV loop, going through the AHU and ending with the chilled water production equipment. The paper reports on the application of the procedure to the selected building and will be based upon experimental results obtained during target monitoring campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-commissioning of an air handling unit
Cuevas, C.; Lebrun, Jean ULg; Lacôte, P. et al

in Proceedings ABT'2002 Congress (2002, November)

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See detailApplying the electronic nose in the environment : requirements for the sensors
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Szuber, Jacek (Ed.) Papers from the 3rd international seminar on semiconductor gas sensors-SGS 2002, Ustron, Poland, 19-22 september 2002 (2002, September)

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the ... [more ▼]

For few years, the department "Environmental monitoring" at FUL applies the principle of the electronic nose equipped with tin oxide sensors to recognise and to monitor real life malodours in the environment and directly in the field. <br />For such emissions, the gas mixtures are very complex and only their odour should be of interest, and not their chemical composition. <br />Moreover, working in the field implies various constraints. <br />The obstacles of the monitoring of real life environmental odours with an electronic nose can be classified into three main areas : the final goal of the study (measuring an odorous annoyance), the analysed sample itself (influenced by the evolution of the process and of ambient parameters) and the operating conditions (necessity to transport the reference gas and the batteries in the field, influence of air humidity). <br />The paper describes the approach of FUL to the problem with various tests conducted in the field with home-made electronic noses based on tin oxide sensors and with very simple configurations. The conclusions, which can be extrapolated to any other sensor types, are promising, but the sensor performances (sensibility, reproducibility, electrical consumption, drift, etc.) should still be improved before reaching the final goal. [less ▲]

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See detailThree years experiment with the same tin oxide sensor arrays for the identification of malodorous sources in the environment
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2002), (84), 271-277

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either ... [more ▼]

The paper discusses the ability of recognition models to classify malodours in the environment 3 years after their calibration, with the same sources releasing odours. Two methodologies applicable either in the lab or in the field are used. The effect of the long term drift of the sensors is highlighted on the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and of discriminant function analysis (DFA). The paper examines also the applicability of some drift counteraction methods proposed in the literature. Handled with some care, a correction based on the drift direction in the principal components subspace should be applicable to the classification of real odorous sources in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building.
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Solar Energy (2001), 69(6), 103-116

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem: its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building
Kummert, M.; Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Proceedings EuroSun'2000 Congress (2000, June)

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem : its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement requirements for environmental monitoring : application of the electronic nose principle.
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg

Conference (2000)

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great ... [more ▼]

As regards environment, the information to be provided to the decision maker or to the manager must be clear, accurate, unambiguous, and ideally it should be the result of the aggregation of a great number of data or parameters. For example, the person in charge of the security of a municipality must have at his disposal an information of the type "all or nothing" to be able to decide if the population must be evacuated in the event of a severe pollution. However, that very simple information should be the result of a calculation based on several time series of pollutant concentration values and of meteorological data. Even the farmer who wants to know if it is the right time to spread manure without affecting too much the environment must have a single information which should be the aggregation of some complex variables. The lecture presents the concept of some "integrated index", already used to assess the quality of the environment. For example, Organic Pollution Index combines 4 laboratory measurement values of pollutants in water to make a single index characterising the global pollution in a river. Some apparatus are able to compute the integrated index "on line" and to supply directly to the user the value of the medium quality. For example, the PMV index estimates globally the thermal comfort in a building from the on line measurement of 5 parameters. FUL has designed some "smart sensors" or "smart instrument" aiming at supplying such index. Two applications are presented. The first one concerns the measurement of soil quality by means of a porous sensor combining in a single index the measurement of temperature, salinity and water contents. But the lecture develops particularly a second application which exploits the principle of the "electronic nose" to assess, in a single "signature", the quality or the intensity of an environmental odour. Such instrument, equipped with an array of "non specific" gas sensors, should be able, after a suitable learning phase, to recognise the odour source and to monitor it continuously in the field. The instrument response is thus a "pattern", similar to an integrated index, directly related to the annoyance, as felt by neighbouring people. It gives thus an information which can be handled by a manager, and which is more rich than individual pollutant concentration values. FUL has tested such instrument in the environment. The results are promising : a first design of electronic nose was able to recognise 5 odorous sources in the environment, and a portable instrument has been used to monitor the odour around a landfill site. The same concept is now tested to appraise as a whole the indoor air quality in different buildings. [less ▲]

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See detailChoice of a suitable E-nose output variable for the continuous monitoring of an odour in the environment
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Monticelli, D. et al

in Gardner, J.; Persaud, K. (Eds.) Electronic noses and olfaction 2000. Proceedings of abstracts ISOEN 2000. (2000)

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of ... [more ▼]

An array of tin-oxide sensors is used to continuously monitor different odour emissions in the environment. The paper presents some issues aiming at improving the portability and the user-friendliness of the instrument as well as testing what kind of signal may be used to monitor the odour "intensity". Main results are the following. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms pointed out that the use of pure reference air could be avoided, as long as the sensors are allowed to periodically regenerate in the presence of ambient air. Sensor array in static contact with ambient air could be sufficient for the on-line monitoring, but the use of a controlled gas flow system to transfer the odour from the source is better to avoid the influence of air movement on the heated sensors. The control of the temperature and the humidity of the gas and the thermo-regulation of the sensor chamber don't seem essential, even for outdoor operation. When trying to build a regression model linking the odour intensity to the sensor signals, Partial Least Square (PLS) model gives better results with respect to Multi Linear Regression or Principal Component regression models. For an application around a landfill area, where sensor signals are compared to the personal feeling of the operator in the field, PLS gives a percentage of 71% correct intensity prediction. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a simple tin oxide sensor array to identify five malodours collected in the field
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 62(1), 73-79

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in ... [more ▼]

A laboratory-made malodour sensing system including 12 commercial tin oxide gas sensors (Figaro Engineering) is used to identify five typical sources of olfactive annoyance: printing houses, paint shop in a coachbuilding, wastewater treatment plant, urban waste composting facilities and rendering plant. In this work, all the samples are collected in the field from real malodours in uncontrollable conditions. The ability of the system to predict the origin of unknowns odoriferous samples is investigated. The test of various pre-processing data algorithms shows that the best classification results are obtained with a parameter free of the sensor base-line. The differences in sensor responses among the five odours are shown by icon plots and confirmed by principal component analysis, which highlights four representative clusters. Classification models calibrated by discriminant analysis and artificial neural network are validated on unknowns samples. Chemical relationships between the sensors and the classification results proves that the recognition is not fortuitous. In spite of the influence of environmental parameters, results demonstrate the ability of a simple system to detect and identify typical olfactive annoyances. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the classification model of an electronic nose to assign unknown malodours to environmental sources and to monitor them continuously
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

in Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical (2000), 69(3), 366-371

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water ... [more ▼]

The paper provides some considerations resulting from measurements with electronic noses around real sources of malodour in the environment: compost facilities, printing houses, paint shops, waste water treatment plants, rendering plants, settling ponds of sugar factories. The study aims at supplying the concrete information requested by the final user in the field: either a warning signal when the malodour level exceeds some given threshold value, the identification of the source of an odour detected on site, or on-line identification and monitoring of an odour in the field. Very simple instruments are used, either in the laboratory or directly in the field, with a home-made portable e-nose, based on tin oxide sensors. Even with such simple operating conditions, the classification results with DA and PCA are fairly good. The classification functions calibrated with the statistical procedure, on the basis of the learning phase, are used to recognise and to monitor a given malodour. This odour is sometimes mixed with other odorous interferences in the field. The observations reveal some features useful in the frame of the development of a field detector. [less ▲]

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See detailBringing simulation to application. Some guidelines and practical recommandations issued from IEA-BCS Annex 30
Andre, Philippe ULg; Lebrun, Jean ULg; Ternoveanu, A.

in Proceedings "Building simulation 99" (1999, September)

Simulation tools are not yet used as much and as well as they should all along building life cycle ( BLC ). Most important decisions are still taken almost without using these tools. The work done in the ... [more ▼]

Simulation tools are not yet used as much and as well as they should all along building life cycle ( BLC ). Most important decisions are still taken almost without using these tools. The work done in the frame of IEABCS Annex 30 consisted in identifying and eliminating as much as possible the main bottle necks encountered in the use of simulation tools. [less ▲]

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See detailUtilisation élémentaire d'un réseau de capteurs "SnO2" pour la reconnaissance d'odeurs environnementales
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, Véronique et al

(1999, June)

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le ... [more ▼]

Pouvoir identifier les mauvaises odeurs et les suivre en continu directement sur le terrain constituerait sans conteste un atout non négligeable pour un bon nombre d'études environnementales. Sur le principe, un tel objectif semble correspondre parfaitement aux possibilités et à la souplesse d'un nez électronique. Cependant, si l'environnement est fréquemment cité parmi les applications possibles des nez électroniques, il faut reconnaître que les études visant la mesure des mauvaises odeurs sur le terrain restent très rares. La généralisation du concept du nez électronique au monitoring d'odeurs environnementales doit passer par la résolution d'un certain nombre de problèmes. La communication propose de mettre en évidence ces différentes limitations et problèmes. L'étude présentée pour illustrer ce propos est relative aux odeurs provenant de 5 sources typiques de l'environnement. Elle montre qu'un appareillage simple, utilisé sans grande précaution et sans trop se soucier de la reproductibilité des conditions d'échantillonnage parvient à identifier correctement l'origine des odeurs qu'on lui propose. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and test of modern control techniques applied to solar buildings”
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULg

Report (1999)

Contribution au rapport final du projet européen "Development and test of modern control techniques applied to solar buildings”. Chapitre 5 sur le contrôle prédictif

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See detailFirst trends towards a field odour detector for environmental applications
Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Romain, Anne-Claude ULg; Wiertz, V. et al

in Weimar, Udo (Ed.) Proceedings of ISOEN 99 (1999)

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See detailModelling the propagation pathway of street-traffic noise : practical comparison of German guidelines and real-world measurements
Wetzel, Edgar; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg et al

in Applied Acoustics (1999), 57(2), 97-107

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line ... [more ▼]

In Germany, several guidelines were developed to model the noise propagation pathway. The study compares the guidelines DIN 18005, RLS-90 and VDI 2714, all of which provide some kind of sound object line source suited to model street traffic noise. Differences between those guidelines are explained, and their effect on practical calculations is shown in a real-world situation, National Road N4, in Arlon, Belgium. Calculated results are compared to measurements made on critical points along the road. The paper emphasises the understanding of the inner workings of models. In order to avoid differences in calculated results due to software design methods applied, all calculations are made using one single commercially available simulation program. Additionally, this allows for a test of guideline sensitivity to changes in input parameters. [less ▲]

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