References of "Alexandre, Michaël"
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See detailExfoliation of clays in poly(dimethylsiloxane) rubber using an unexpected couple: a silicone surfactant and water
Labruyère, Céline ULg; Monteverde, Fabien; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (2009), 9(4), 2731-2738

Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/montmorillonite (MMT) composites have been prepared using a newly synthesized ω-ammonium functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) compatibilizer coupled with a dispersion ... [more ▼]

Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/montmorillonite (MMT) composites have been prepared using a newly synthesized ω-ammonium functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) compatibilizer coupled with a dispersion technique in water. The organoclay containing the new siloxane surfactant was characterized by TGA and XRD. For the first time, a nanoscopic dispersion of MMT nanoplatelets in the PDMS composite cured by hydrosilylation and a good compatibility between clay layers and matrix were obtained. The beneficial effect of both the surfactant and the water onto clay nanoplatelet dispersion was evaluated by different microscopy techniques and by measuring different properties such as the viscosity of the uncured PDMS/MMT nanodispersions, and the swelling rate and Young's modulus of the cured PDMS/MMT nanocomposites. [less ▲]

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See detailSupercritical CO2 as an efficient medium for layered silicate organomodification: preparation of thermally stable organoclays and dispersion in polyamide 6
Naveau, Elodie ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Polymer (2009), 50(6), 1438-1446

In this study, the preparation of organoclays via a new process using supercritical carbon dioxide is described. This method turns out to be very efficient with various surfactants, in particular nonwater ... [more ▼]

In this study, the preparation of organoclays via a new process using supercritical carbon dioxide is described. This method turns out to be very efficient with various surfactants, in particular nonwater-soluble alkylphosphonium salts. The influence of the surfactant as well as of the clay nature on the thermal stability of the organoclay is evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. Phosphonium-based montmorillonites are up to 90 °C more stable than ammonium-based montmorillonites. Moreover, the use of hectorite adds another 40 °C of thermal stability to the phosphonium-modified clays. These organomodified clays have been melt-blended with polyamide 6 and morphology as well as fire properties of the nanocomposites are discussed, in terms of influence of the stability of organoclays. For the first time, comparison of nanocomposites based on clay organomodified by ammonium and phosphonium salts of the very same structure is reported. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of polylactide/clay nanocomposites by in situ intercalative polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Ngoundjo, Fred; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2009), 45(3), 643-648

Polylactide (PLA)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ ring-opening polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. Depending on the type of organoclay used, polylactide chains can be grafted ... [more ▼]

Polylactide (PLA)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared by in situ ring-opening polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide. Depending on the type of organoclay used, polylactide chains can be grafted onto the clay surface, leading to an exfoliated morphology. Nanocomposites with high clay contents (30–50 wt.%), called masterbatches, have also been successfully prepared and were recovered as fine powders thanks to the unique properties of the supercritical fluid. Dilution of these masterbatches into commercial l-polylactide by melt blending has led to essentially exfoliated nanocomposites containing 3 wt.% of clay. The mechanical properties of these materials have been assessed by flexion and impact tests. Significant improvements of stiffness and toughness have been observed for the PLA/clay nanocomposites compared to the pure matrix, together with improved impact resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailNew prospects in flame retardant polymer materials: From fundamentals to nanocomposites
Laoutid, Fouad; Bonnaud, Leïla; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : R (2009), 63(3), 100-125

The objective of this review is to make the field of “flame retardants for polymer materials” more accessible to the materials science community, i.e. chemists, physicists and engineers. We present the ... [more ▼]

The objective of this review is to make the field of “flame retardants for polymer materials” more accessible to the materials science community, i.e. chemists, physicists and engineers. We present the fundamentals of polymer combustion theory, the main flame retardant properties and tests used to describe fire behavior, together with the nature and modes of action of the most representative flame retardants and the synergistic effects that can be achieved by combining them. We particularly focus on polymer nanocomposites, i.e. polymer matrices filled with specific, finely dispersed nanofillers, which will undoubtedly pave the way for future materials combining physicochemical and thermo-mechanical performances with enhanced flame retardant behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailPatenting activity in manufacturing organoclays for nanocomposite applications
Naveau, Elodie ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Recent Patents on Materials Science (2009), 2(1), 43-49

For the last two decades, intensive research has been focused on developing reinforced polymers with incorporation of nanometric fillers. Amongst the different types of nanofillers, those based on layered ... [more ▼]

For the last two decades, intensive research has been focused on developing reinforced polymers with incorporation of nanometric fillers. Amongst the different types of nanofillers, those based on layered silicates (commonly known as clays), have been most widely investigated. Dispersing clay sheets on a nanoscopic scale (so-called exfoliation) indeed allows materials with enhanced thermal, mechanical, rheological, flame retardancy and barrier properties to be produced. However, the nanocomposite performances are strongly dependent upon the extent of clay exfoliation. In order to enhance the compatibility between the pristine clay, hydrophilic, and the polymer, hydrophobic, and to achieve a good delamination of the nanolayers, an organo-modification of the clay is most usually necessary. This mini-review will provide an outline of patenting activity in the field of manufacturing organoclays through ionic exchange. The variety of organic modifiers and the diverse processing techniques will be detailed, aiming to extract the most relevant organoclays for successful nanocomposite formation at industrial scale. [less ▲]

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See detailNew strategies to prepare melt processable polymer-grafted gold nanoparticles
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Abetz, Volker; Boschetti-de-Fierro, A. et al

Poster (2008, November 28)

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See detailAbout the use of PCL/clay nanohybrid masterbatches
Benali, Samira; Brocorens, Patrick; Olivier, Aurore et al

Poster (2008, September 09)

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See detailAbout the use of PCL/clay nanohybrid masterbatches
Benali, Samira; Brocorens, P.; Olivier, A. et al

Conference (2008, September 09)

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See detailSynthesis of PCL/clay masterbatches in supercritical carbon dioxide
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Stassin, Fabrice et al

in Polymer (2008), 49(18), 3979-3986

Pre-exfoliated nanoclays were prepared through a masterbatch process using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as organic matrix. In situ polymerization of epsilon ... [more ▼]

Pre-exfoliated nanoclays were prepared through a masterbatch process using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as organic matrix. In situ polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone in the presence of large amount of clay was conducted to obtain these easily dispersible nanoclays, collected as a dry and fine powder after reaction. Dispersion of these pre-exfoliated nanoclays in chlorinated polyethylene was also investigated. All the results confirm the specific advantages of supercritical CO2 towards conventional solvents for filler modification. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(caprolactone)/clay masterbatches prepared in supercritical CO2 as efficient clay delamination promoters in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)
Urbanczyk, Laetitia ULg; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Benali, Samira et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry (2008), 18(39), 4623-4630

Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)/clay nanocomposites with a high degree of clay exfoliation were prepared upon melt blending of pre-exfoliated poly(-caprolactone) (PCL)/organoclay masterbatches in a ... [more ▼]

Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN)/clay nanocomposites with a high degree of clay exfoliation were prepared upon melt blending of pre-exfoliated poly(-caprolactone) (PCL)/organoclay masterbatches in a Brabender-type internal mixer. These highly filled masterbatches were synthesized by a one-pot process using supercritical carbon dioxide as a polymerization medium. During their dispersion into SAN, PCL is expected to act as a compatibilizer at the polymer–clay interface as it is miscible with the host matrix under these conditions. Reference nanocomposites based on direct melt mixing of the commercial organoclay were also prepared for the sake of comparison. The superiority of the masterbatch route in term of clay delamination efficiency has been evidenced by XRD analysis, visual and TEM observations. The effect of the nanocomposite morphology on the polymer properties was then investigated. A substantial improvement of the fire behaviour and a decrease in gas permeability have been observed for the nanocomposite containing the highest level of clay exfoliation, accompanied with a higher brittleness as evidenced by traction and impact tests. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of filler content and size on transport properties of water vapour in PLA/calcium sulfate composites
Gorrasi, Giuliana; Vittoria, Vittoria; Murariu, Marius et al

in Biomacromolecules (2008), 9

Starting from calcium sulfate (gypsum) as fermentation byproduct of lactic acid production process, high performance composites have been produced by melt-blending polylactide (PLA) and -anhydrite II (AII ... [more ▼]

Starting from calcium sulfate (gypsum) as fermentation byproduct of lactic acid production process, high performance composites have been produced by melt-blending polylactide (PLA) and -anhydrite II (AII) filler, i.e., calcium sulfate hemihydrate previously dried at 500 °C. Characterized by attractive properties due to good filler dispersion throughout the polyester matrix and favorable interactions between components, these composites are interesting for potential use as biodegradable rigid packaging. The effect of filler content and mean particle diameter on the barrier properties such as sorption and diffusion to water vapor has been examined and compared to unfilled PLA. Even without additional treatments, the presence of the filler introduced constraints on molecular mobility in the permeable phase of amorphous PLA and the amount of solvent absorbed appears lower in the highly filled composites. Surprisingly, for PLA-30% AII compositions, by addition of filler characterized by high mean particle diameter (e.g., 43 μm) the thermodynamic diffusion parameter, D0, decreased up to 2 orders of magnitude. The dimension of filler particles and their percentage in the continuous polymeric phase seem to be the most important parameters that determine the barrier properties of the PLA-AII composites to water vapor. [less ▲]

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See detailPolylactide (PLA) designed with desired end-use properties: 1. PLA compositions with low molecular weight ester-like plasticizers and related performances
Murariu, Marius; Da Silva Ferreira, Amalia; Alexandre, Michaël ULg et al

in Polymers for Advanced Technologies (2008), 19(6), 636-646

Polylactide (PLA) is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is biodegradable and produced from annually renewable resources. Characterized by high tensile strength ... [more ▼]

Polylactide (PLA) is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is biodegradable and produced from annually renewable resources. Characterized by high tensile strength, unfortunately the brittleness and rigidity of PLA limit its applicability. For a great number of applications such as packaging, fibers, films, etc., it is of high interest to formulate new grades with improved flexibility and better impact properties. In this objective, a specific PLA grade (L/D isomer ratio of 96:4, high molecular weight) was melt-mixed with selected plasticizers: bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DOA), glyceryl triacetate (GTA), and tributyl O-acetylcitrate (TBAC). Their effect on the molecular, thermal, and mechanical properties of PLA was investigated for content up to 20wt% plasticizer and the results were correlated with a particular attention to the relationship between property and application. Using the solubility and interaction parameters, a tentative evaluation of the product that could act as the most effective plasticizer for PLA has been performed and the obtained results have been corroborated with the materials physical properties. Excellent mechanical performances were obtained using the plasticizer having the lowest molecular mass (GTA) and the best interaction parameter. In relation to plasticizer amount/nature, the glass transition temperature of PLA (62-C) is decreased by plasticizing by more than 30-C, whereas better impact properties and lower stiffness are measured. The optimal formulations targeted to the final applications are clearly characterized by specific end-use properties: improved crystallization rates (PLA-DOA); high elongation at break and tensile strength (PLA-GTA, PLA-TBAC), medium to high impact properties (PLA-DOA, PLA-GTA) compositions. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroscopic morphology of chlorinated polyethylene nanocomposites synthesized from poly(e-caprolactone)/clay masterbatches
Brocorens, Patrick; Benali, Samira; Broekaert, Cedric et al

in Langmuir (2008), 24

Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) nanocomposites were synthesized by melt blending clay-rich/poly( -caprolactone) (PCL) masterbatches to CPE matrices. The masterbatches were prepared following two synthetic ... [more ▼]

Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) nanocomposites were synthesized by melt blending clay-rich/poly( -caprolactone) (PCL) masterbatches to CPE matrices. The masterbatches were prepared following two synthetic routes: either PCL is melt-blended to the clay or it is grafted to the clay platelets by in situ polymerization. The microscopic morphology of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. When using free PCL, intercalated composites are formed, with clay aggregates that can have micrometric dimensions and a morphology similar to that of the talc particles used as fillers in commercial CPE. PCL crystallizes as long lamellae dispersed in the polymer matrix. When using grafted PCL, the nanocomposite is intercalated/exfoliated, and the clay stacks are small and homogeneously dispersed. PCL crystallizes as lamellae and smaller crystals, which are localized along the clay layers. Thanks to the grafting of PCL to the clay platelets, these crystalline domains are thought to form a network with the clay sheets, which is responsible for the large improvement of the mechanical properties of these materials. [less ▲]

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