References of "ANSSEAU, Marc"
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See detailCatecholamine and HPA axis dysfunction in depression : relationship with suicidal behavior
Pitchot, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2003), 47(3), 152-157

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to ... [more ▼]

A large body of evidence suggests a potential role for catecholaminergic function as a possible biological factor in the control of suicidal behavior. Recently, we have used a neuroendocrine strategy to study dopaminergic and noradrenergic activities in depressed suicide attempters. However, some problems are associated with the use of growth hormone (GH) response to catecholaminergic challenge, because GH release could be decreased by a direct effect of corticosteroids at the pituitary level. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess GH response to both apornorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, and clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, according to the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) status in a sample of 20 major depressed inpatients with a history of suicide attempt compared with nonattempters. Our results tended to show that hypercortisolemia as assessed by post-DST cortisol values did not inhibit GH response to apornorphine or clonidine, suggesting that hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity does not explain the impaired GH response to apornorphine in major depressed patients with a history of suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailToxicomanes: sevrage ultrarapide aux opiacés sous anesthésie générale au CHU de Liège
Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Fuchs, S. et al

in Agenda Psychiatrie (L') (2003), 28

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See detailEvent-related potentials to emotional and neutral stimuli in alcoholism.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Olin, Cecile; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2003), 48(2), 77-81

Several studies have demonstrated that the emotional value of stimuli affects P300 amplitude. In the present study, the influence of alcohol-related stimuli in alcoholic patients was investigated ... [more ▼]

Several studies have demonstrated that the emotional value of stimuli affects P300 amplitude. In the present study, the influence of alcohol-related stimuli in alcoholic patients was investigated. Subjects were 10 alcoholic inpatients (3 female) and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Eight alcohol-related and 8 neutral words served as stimuli in a visual oddball paradigm. Acohol-related words were targets (48 stimuli, 33%) and neutral words were standard stimuli (96 stimuli, 66%). Results showed that P300 amplitude for targets did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, P300 latency for targets as well as reaction time were significantly shorter in male alcoholic patients. In contrast, P300 latency was increased in female alcoholic patients but reaction time did not differ. These results suggest that male alcoholics process information linked to alcohol cues more rapidly than neutral cues, probably because a specific semantic network is activated in these patients. The decreased reaction time confirms the impulsive behavior frequently found in male alcoholism, as it has been described in type II alcoholism. Besides, the results imply that information processing was delayed in female alcoholic patients. Therefore this study demonstrates a gender-dependent impact of alcohol-related stimuli on information processing. [less ▲]

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See detailLipides, dépression et suicide
Colin, A.; Reggers, Jean ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Encéphale (L') (2003), 29(1, JAN-FEB), 49-58

Polyunsatured fatty acids are made out of a hydrocarbonated chain of variable length with several double bonds. The position of the first double bond (omega; omega) differentiates polyunsatured omega3 ... [more ▼]

Polyunsatured fatty acids are made out of a hydrocarbonated chain of variable length with several double bonds. The position of the first double bond (omega; omega) differentiates polyunsatured omega3 fatty acids (for example : alpha-linolenic acid or alpha-LNA) and polyunsatured omega6 fatty acids (for example : linoleic acid or LA). These two classes of fatty acids are said to be essential because they cannot be synthetised by the organism and have to be taken from alimentation. The omega3 are present in linseed oil, nuts, soya beans, wheat and cold water fish whereas omega6 are present in maize, sunflower and sesame oil. Fatty acids are part of phospholipids and, consequently, of all biological membranes. The membrane fluidity, of crucial importance for its functionning, depends on its lipidic components. Phospholipids composed of chains of polyunsatured fatty acids increase the membrane fluidity because, by bending some chains, double bonds prevent them from compacting themselves perfectly. Membrane fluidity is also determined by the phospholipids/free cholesterol ratio, as cholesterol increases membrane viscosity. A diet based on a high proportion of essential polyunsatured fatty acids (fluid) would allow a higher incorporation of cholesterol (rigid) in the membranes to balance their fluidity, which would contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels. Brain membranes have a very high content in essential polyunsatured fatty acids for which they depend on alimentation. Any dietary lack of essential polyunsatured fatty acids has consequences on cerebral development, modifying the activity of enzymes of the cerebral membranes and decreasing efficiency in learning tasks. Epidemiological data - The prevalence of depression seems to increase continuously since the beginning of the century. Though different factors most probably contribute to this evolution, it has been suggested that it could be related to an evolution of alimentary patterns in the Western world, in which polyunsatured omega fatty acids contained in fish, game and vegetables have been largely replaced by polyunsatured omega6 fatty acids of cereal oils. Some epidemiological data support the hypothesis of a relation between lower depression and/or suicide rates and a higher consumption of fish. These data do not however prove a relation of causality. Cholesterol and depression - Several cohort studies (on nondepressed subjects) have assessed the relationship between plasma cholesterol and depressive symptoms with contradictory results. Though some results found a significant relationship between a decrease of total cholesterol and high scores of depression, some other did not. Studies among patients suffering from major depression signalled more constantly an association between low cholesterol and major depression. Besides, some trials showed that clinical recovery maybe associated with a significant increase of total cholesterol. Cholesterol and suicidal behaviour - The hypothesis that a low cholesterol level may represent a suicidal risk factor was discovered accidentally following a series of epidemiological studies which revealed an increase of the suicidal risk among subjects with a low cholesterol level. Though some contradictory studies do exist, this relationship has been confirmed by several subsequent cohort studies. These findings have challenged the vast public health programs aimed at promoting the decrease of cholesterol, and even suggested to suspend the administration of lipid lowering drugs. Recent clinical studies on populations treated whith lipid lowering drugs showed nevertheless a lack of significant increase of mortality, either by suicide or accident. In addition, several controlled studies among psychiatric patients revealed a decrease of the concentrations of plasma cholesterol among patients who had attempted suicide in comparison with other patients. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression - In major depression, all studies revealed a significant decrease of the polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids and/or an increase of the omega6/omega3 ratio in plasma and/or in the membranes of the red cells. In addition, two studies found a higher severity of depression when the level of polyunsaturated omega fatty acids or the ratio omega3/omega6 was low. Parallel to these modifications, other biochemical perturbations have been reported in major depression, particularly an activation of the inflammatory response system, resulting in an increase of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins: IL-1beta, IL-6 and interferon gamma) and eicosanoids (among others, prostaglandin E2) in the blood and the CSF of depressed patients. These substances cause a peroxidation and, consequently a catabolism of membrane phospholipids, among others those containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The cytokines and eicosanoids derive from polyunsaturated fatty acids and have opposite physiological functions according to their omega or omega6 precursor. Arachidonic acid (omega6) is, among others, precursor of pro-inflammatoty prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), whereas polyunsaturated W fatty acids inhibit the formation of PGE2. It has been shown that a dietary increase of polyunsaturated W fatty acids reduced strongly the production of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha). In contrast, diets with a higher supply of linoleic acid (omega6) increased significantly the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like TNF-alpha. Therefore, polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids could be associated at different levels in the pathophysiology of major depression, on the one hand through their role in the membrane fluidity which influences diverse steps of neurotransmission and, on the other hand, through their function as precursor of pro-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids disturbing neurotransmission. In addition, antidepressants could exhibit an immunoregulating effect by reducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, by increasing the release of endogenous antagonists of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-10 and, finally, by acting like inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. Therapeutic use of fatty acids - Data available concerning the administration of supplements of DHA (docosahexanoic acid) or other polyunsaturated fatty acids omega3 are limited. In a double blind placebo-controlled study on 30 patients with bipolar disorder, the addition of polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was associated with a longer period of remission. Moreover, nearly all the other prognosis measures were better in the omega3 group. Very recently, a controlled trial showed the benefits of adding an omega3 fatty acid, eicosopentanoic acid, among depressed patients. After 4 weeks, six of the 10 patients receiving the fatty acid were considered as responders in comparison with only one of the ten patients receiving placebo. Conclusions Some epidemiological, experimental and clinical data favour the hypothesis that polyunsaturated fatty acids could play a role in the pathogenesis and/or the treatment of depression. More studies however are needed in order to better precise the actual implication of those biochemical factors among the various aspects of depressive illness. [less ▲]

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See detailVenlafaxine: the relationship between dose, plasma concentration and clinical response in depressive patients
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg et al

in Journal of Psychopharmacology (2002), 16(4), 369-372

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of ... [more ▼]

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of 22 depressed patients using the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression improvement scale. The results indicate a moderate correlation between daily doses and plasma concentrations, together with a higher relationship between improvement on the MADRS scale and concentration. Moreover, plasma concentrations (for venlafaxine and its predominant metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine) up to 400 microg/l can be considered as effective, as already suggested in a previous study. No case of venlafaxine discontinuation occurred during the longitudinal study, and the incidence of adverse event, as estimated by the Target Emergent Symptoms and Side-effects scale, was low, suggesting that the drug is well tolerated for such plasma concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailHormonal and temperature responses to the 5-HT1a receptor agonist flesinoxan in normal volunteers
Pitchot, William ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Adam, Martine ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2002), 164(1), 27-32

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) agonist and appears to be a potentially interesting neuroendocrine serotonergic probe. OBJECTIVES: We assessed hormonal (ACTH, cortisol ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) agonist and appears to be a potentially interesting neuroendocrine serotonergic probe. OBJECTIVES: We assessed hormonal (ACTH, cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone) and temperature responses to flesinoxan in normal volunteers. METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, single doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg were injected over 10 min into 12 healthy male volunteers at 1-week intervals. Temperature and hormonal responses were measured at times -30, 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. RESULTS: Flesinoxan induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and a decrease in body temperature. Tolerance to flesinoxan was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the role of 5-HT(1A) mechanisms in the PRL, ACTH, cortisol, GH, and temperature responses to flesinoxan. In the present study, flesinoxan appears a very promising serotonergic neuroendocrine probe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe transsexual : what about the future ?
Michel, Aude; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2002), 17(6), 353-362

Since the 1950's, sexual surgical reassignments have been frequently carried out. As this surgical therapeutic procedure is controversial, it seems important to explore the actual consequences of such an ... [more ▼]

Since the 1950's, sexual surgical reassignments have been frequently carried out. As this surgical therapeutic procedure is controversial, it seems important to explore the actual consequences of such an intervention and objectively evaluate its relevance. In this context, we have carried out a review of the literature. After looking at the methodological limitations of follow-up studies, the psychological, sexual, social and profesionnal futures of the individuals subject to a transsexual operation are presented. Finally, prognostic aspects are considered. In the literature, follow-up studies tend to show that surgical transformations have positive consequences for the subjects. In the majority of cases, transsexuals are very satisfied with their intervention and any difficulties experienced are often temporary and disappear within a year after the surgical transformation. Studies show that there is less than 1% of regrets and a little more than 1% of suicides among operated subjects. The empirical research does not confirm the opinion that suicide is strongly associated with surgical transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailComparisons of two groups of sex-change applicants based on the MMPI
Michel, Aude; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in Psychological Reports (2002), 91(1), 233-240

Out of 29 men asking for a sex-change, 16 reported clinical anamnesis criteria for transsexualism according to the DSM-III-R, a more restrictive diagnosis than the DSM-IV gender dysphoria diagnosis. In ... [more ▼]

Out of 29 men asking for a sex-change, 16 reported clinical anamnesis criteria for transsexualism according to the DSM-III-R, a more restrictive diagnosis than the DSM-IV gender dysphoria diagnosis. In addition, all the subjects had taken an MMPI which, of course, did not contribute to the transsexualism diagnosis but which served to describe their personalities. The 16 subjects diagnosed as transsexual and the 13 who did not qualify for this diagnosis were compared on the basis of personality variables measured by the MMPI. Certain differences became evident. The transsexuals systematically complied to cultural stereotypes of femininity without any uneasiness, whereas the nontranssexuals could be subdivided into two groups, those with a vague sense of ill-being linked to a pronounced feminine identity or those with only a slight feminine identity and who showed no particular difficulties. [less ▲]

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See detailTroubles anxieux et pathologies organiques: un diagnostic differentiel difficile
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Fuchs, Sonia; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 303-306

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting ... [more ▼]

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting atypical characteristics, and accompanied by symptoms of nervousness. The approach and the management of anxiety disorders are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther evidence on the relationship between dopamine and novelty seeking: a neuroendocrine study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2002), 33(6), 967-977

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively ... [more ▼]

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic. This study investigated the relationships between these major personality dimensions and growth hormone (GH) responses to both apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests in healthy subjects. GH responses to apomorphine were significantly correlated with NS when peak relative values were considered (r=0.47, P=0.03). HA and RD did not show any relationships with the endocrine responses. In contrast, no significant relationship existed between GH responses to clonidine and any of the three temperament dimensions. These results gave another support of the hypothesized link between NS and dopaminergic central neurotransmission. In contrast, the results did not confirm the association between RD and noradrenergic central neurotransmission, probably because RD is poorly validated. This partial confirmation might suggest that the link between personality traits and neurotransmission systems is probably indirect. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail5-HT1A dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychological Medicine (2002), 32(5), 935-41

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: A number of challenge studies have reported abnormalities of serotonergic function in borderline personality disorder (BPD). There are, however, problems with the pharmacological probes used in these studies since fenfluramine and m-CPP are not only serotonergic agents but also induce release of catecholamines, particularly dopamine. Therefore, we tested whether subjects with BPD showed a blunted prolactin (PRL) response to flesinoxan, a highly potent and selective 5-HT1A agonist. METHODS: Flesinoxan challenge test was carried out in 20 BPD in-patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender but not for age. Since 16 BPD in-patients exhibited major depressive co-morbidity, a group of 20 depressed in-patients matched for gender but not for age was also included. RESULTS: BPD in-patients exhibited blunted PRL responses as compared to controls, whereas depressed in-patients did not differ from controls. Moreover, PRL responses were lower among BPD in-patients than among depressed in-patients. Among the BPD in-patients, PRL responses to flesinoxan were lower in patients with past history of suicide attempts (N = 8) than in those with a negative history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show major involvement of serotonergic function in BPD and are consistent with previous studies linking lower serotonergic activity with impulsivity. More particularly, our data suggest that BPD is characterized by lower 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. Moreover, the data support the involvement of 5-HT1A activity in suicidal behaviour. However, this conclusion is limited because other hormonal responses such as ACTH and cortisol were not assessed, and because BPD was assessed by a self-report questionnaire and not a structured clinical interview. [less ▲]

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See detailSerotonin, personality and borderline personality disorder
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Acta Neuropsychiatrica (2002), 14(2), 66-70

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance ... [more ▼]

Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality Many psychobiological models of personality include,some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance dimension of the blosocial model developed by Cloninger is related to serotonergic activity Higher scores on the harm avoidance dimension should theoretically reflect increased serotonergic activity However, correlation studies related serotonin activity to harm avoidance dimension have not yielded consistent findings. These controversial results are probably related to the complexity of the neurotransmitter systems, and the different assessment techniques used in these studies. Finally, recent genetic studies have examined the association between personality dimensions and serotonergic receptor polymorphisms with mixed results. Serotonin is not only related to some dimensions of normal personality Several psychopathological disorders are associated with serotonergic dysfunction. More particularly, borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be defined by many of the symptoms associated with serotonergic dysregulation, including affective lability, suicidal behaviours, impulsivity and loss of impulse control. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake drugs in treating the depressive and impulsive symptoms of patients with BPD. Moreover, some challenge studies have reported a lower serotonergic activity in BPD. Because these challenges are not specific, we have assessed the serotonergic activity in BPD with the flesinoxan challenge. Preliminary results showed that the prolactine responses to flesinoxan were significantly lower in BPD patients compared to those observed in controls. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological distress of surgical patients after orthotopic heart transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Transplant International (2001), 14(6), 391-395

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about ... [more ▼]

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the psychological state of the patient and time after surgery. The present study involved 41 consecutive OHT patients that underwent transplantation from January 1991 to December 1992, with a retrospective review of pretransplant psychiatric evaluations to define a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn., revised (DSM III-R) Axis I diagnosis. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Spielberger's State Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) between 1 and 41 months after transplantation. For comparison, 29 presumably healthy volunteers were given the same questionnaires. The study confirms the occurrence of abnormal psychological scores in the OHT group as compared to the reference population. Psychological scores, however, do not appear to be related to the time they were recorded after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of dopamine in non-depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts
Pitchot, William ULg; Adam, Martine ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(7), 424-427

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the ... [more ▼]

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts in comparison to non-attempters. In the present study, in order to test this hypothesis, GH responses to intravenous apomorphine were measured in non-depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts. The study was performed in 17 non-depressed male patients with a score less than 12 on the 17-item HAMD. The patients were subgrouped into suicide attempters (N = 7) and non-attempters (N = 10). Mean GH peak responses to apomorphine differed significantly between suicide attempters and non-attempters: (mean +/- SD) for GH peak, 10.4 +/- 8.2 ng/mL vs 27.3 +/- 13.1 ng/ml, F = 9.0, P = 0.009. In conclusion, dopaminergic disturbances seem to play a role in the biology of inward-directed aggression in non-depressed patients. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced dopamine function in depressed patients is related to suicidal behavior but not its lethality
Pitchot, William ULg; Adam, Martine ULg; Gonzalez Moreno, A. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001), 26(7), 689-696

Several lines of evidence suggest a role for dopamine in the control of suicidal behaviour. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the biology of suicide by demonstrating a ... [more ▼]

Several lines of evidence suggest a role for dopamine in the control of suicidal behaviour. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the biology of suicide by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients who later died by suicide. The purpose of the present study was to assess GH response to apomorphine in major depressed in-patients with a history of highly lethal suicide attempt compared to depressed patients with a low lethal lifetime suicide attempt history and non-attempters. The study was performed in a sample of 26 male depressed in-patients with a history of suicide attempt compared to 26 male depressed non-attempters. We observed a significant difference between suicide attempters and non-attempters (for GH peak, 6.3+/-5.1 ng/ml vs 15.8+/-14.2 ng/ml, F=10.3, df=1, 50, P=0.002). Moreover, GH peak responses to apomorphine did not differ between depressed patients with a high lethal lifetime suicide attempt history and patients who made low lethal lifetime suicide attempt. In conclusion, the results of the present study support a role for dopamine in the biology of suicidal behaviour. More specifically, an impaired GH response to apomorphine could be a marker of suicide risk. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced dopaminergic activity in depressed suicides
PITCHOT, William ULg; Reggers, Jean ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2001), 26(3), 331-335

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the ... [more ▼]

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts in comparison to nonattempters. In the present study, the purpose was to analyze GH responses to apomorphine in depressive patients who later died by suicide. Our sample comprised eight male depressive inpatients who died by suicide within one year after hospitalisation. These patients were compared to 18 male major depressed inpatients who never attempted suicide. Mean GH peak responses to apomorphine differed significantly between suicide completers and controls (mean +/- SD): for GH peak, 7.6 +/- 4.1 ng/ml vs 18.9 +/- 14.2 ng/ml, U = 30, Z = -2.33, P = 0.02. Our results tend to confirm the role of dopamine in the biology of suicide in depression. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological Evolution and Assessment in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Heart Transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(3), 180-5

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychiatric evaluation of organ transplant candidates is now routinely proposed. This study purposed to assess the psychological evolution in patients having received psychological and/or psychiatric assistance before and during 1-6 postoperative months. METHODS: Twenty-two consecutive transplant candidates were psychically evaluated as part of the preoperative protocol. In the waiting period, 1 and 6 months after OHT, they were asked to fill out the following questionnaires: the General Health Questionnaire, the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Personal Reaction Inventory. RESULTS: A DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis was found in nine patients (41%); four patients (18%) presented with an Axis II diagnosis. One month after OHT, scores of depression, anxiety and general health significantly improved, while scores of social support, alexithymia and social desirability did not differ. In the sixth postoperative month, all psychological scores remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of preoperative psychopathology was reported in 22 candidates who received OHT. Surgical intervention obviously improved the quality of life after cardiac transplantation. If the impact of psychological and/or psychiatric aid remains difficult to appraise, these results emphasize the positive impact of surgery on psychological status and the appropriateness of the psychosomatician's social support intervention on patients facing the transplant process. [less ▲]

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See detailHpa Axis Dysfunction in Major Depression: Relationship to 5-Ht(1a) Receptor Activity
Pitchot, William ULg; Herrera, C.; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in Neuropsychobiology (2001), 44(2), 74-7

Major depression is associated with a dysfunction of the serotonergic activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Moreover, a reciprocal relationship between the serotonergic and HPA axis ... [more ▼]

Major depression is associated with a dysfunction of the serotonergic activity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Moreover, a reciprocal relationship between the serotonergic and HPA axis systems has been hypothesized. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between sensitivity of 5-HT(1A) receptors as measured by hormonal (ACTH, cortisol and PRL) and temperature responses to flesinoxan and HPA axis activity as measured by the dexamethasone suppression test. The sample included 21 inpatients with major depression. Dexamethasone nonsuppressors exhibited lower ACTH responses to flesinoxan as compared with dexamethasone suppressors. The results showed that a dysfunction in 5-HT(1A) receptor activity could be due to a hypersecretion of cortisol. [less ▲]

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See detailAlpha-2-adrenoreceptors in depressed suicide attempters : relationship with medical lethality of the attempt
Pitchot, William ULg; Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Neuropsychobiology (2001), 44(2), 91-94

Several lines of evidence tend to suggest a role for noradrenaline, and more specifically alpha-2-adrenoreceptors, in the biology of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the growth ... [more ▼]

Several lines of evidence tend to suggest a role for noradrenaline, and more specifically alpha-2-adrenoreceptors, in the biology of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the growth hormone (GH) response to clonidine, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, in majorly depressed inpatients with a history of highly lethal suicide attempt compared to depressed patients with a history of low lethal suicide attempt and nonattempters. Our sample included 20 male depressed inpatients with a history of suicide attempt compared to 20 male depressed nonattempters. We did not observe any significant difference between suicide attempters and nonattempters for GH peak values (2.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 4.1 +/- 3.7 ng/ml; F = 2.52, d.f. = 1, 38, p = 0.12). Moreover, GH peak responses to clonidine were not related to the degree of lethality of the attempt. The results of the present study do not support a major role for noradrenaline in the biology of suicidal behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAnorexie
Mormont, Christian ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg

in Crahay, Marcel; Goffinet, Christine (Eds.) Regards croisés sur l’anorexie (2001)

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