Amino acids for the measurement of protein synthesis in vivo by PET.
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in International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part B : Nuclear Medicine and Biology (1992), 19(2), 227-37
In principle, PET in combination with amino acids labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides and kinetic metabolic models, can quantify local protein synthesis rates in tissue in vivo. These PET ... [more ▼]
In principle, PET in combination with amino acids labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides and kinetic metabolic models, can quantify local protein synthesis rates in tissue in vivo. These PET measurements have clinical potential in, for example, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. An optimal positron-emitting amino acid for the measurement of PSR has a high protein incorporation, can easily be prepared by automated equipment and has minimal non-protein radioactive metabolites. Presently L-[methyl-11C]methionine, L-[1-11C]leucine, L-[1-11C]tyrosine, L-[1-11C]phenylalanine, L-[1-11C]methionine and L-[2-18F]fluorotyrosine are under evaluation in normal volunteers and/or in patients. Several other amino acids are suggested. No comparison of the clinical usefulness of the different amino acids in man is yet available. Because of the longer half life of 18F compared to 11C, [18F]fluoro amino acids may have advantages over [11C]amino acids for the investigation of tissue with relative slow protein synthesis, such as brain, and for application in institutions with an off site, but nearby cyclotron. The half life of [13N]amino acids is considered to be too short for flexible clinical application. As yet no metabolic compartmental model has been investigated for [13N]amino acids. For routine application reliable preparation of the radiopharmaceutical is essential. Of all the amino acids under evaluation, a reliable, high yield, easy to automate production procedure is available for L-[methyl-11C]methionine only. It is however unlikely that this tracer can accurately measure PSR because of its non-protein metabolism. For the other amino acids the main problems in production are associated with complex multistep syntheses and/or low radiochemical yields, complex purification methods and the need to isolate the L-enantiomer. The kinetic metabolic models under investigation, consist of 4 or 5 compartments depending on the necessity to compensate for labelled metabolites. The metabolic profile of the amino acids is mainly extracted from animal experiments. Because of the number and amount of labelled metabolites in plasma, [11C]carboxylic labelled amino acids are preferred to amino acids with carbon-11 in another position. As yet no recommendation can be given on the optimal labelled amino acid(s) for PSR measurement in vivo nor on the methods to prepare the amino acids reported for this purpose. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)