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See detailComparison of accuracy of ultrasonography, progesterone and pregnancy-associated 4 glycoprotein tests for pregnancy diagnosis in semi-domesticated reindeer
Savela, Hannele; Vahtiala, S.; Lindeberg, H. et al

in Theriogenology (2009), 72

The aim of the study was to compare transrectal ultrasound with progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) as pregnancy detection methods for semi-domesticated reindeer in field ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to compare transrectal ultrasound with progesterone (P4) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) as pregnancy detection methods for semi-domesticated reindeer in field conditions. Female reindeer (n=195) were scanned transrectally by a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer and blood sampled either in Dec 2005 (n=33), Dec 2006 (n=92) or Jan 2007 (n=70) during early- or mid-gestation. Plasma levels of P4 and PAG were assessed by RIA. Based on calving records, the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and the overall accuracy of the three tests were calculated. The overall calving rate calculated from the calving records was 86.2%. The overall accuracy of transrectal ultrasound was 99.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of transrectal ultrasound were 99.4% and 100%, respectively. In the plasma P4 test, the threshold level of 5.5 nmol/L gave the highest overall accuracy (93.3%). The sensitivity of the P4 test decreased from 96.4% to 81.5%, when the threshold level increased from 5.0 nmol/L to 8.0 nmol/L, while the specificity remained at 85.2% over the range of these cut-off values. The overall accuracy of the plasma PAG test decreased from 96.4% to 64.1% when the plasma PAG threshold level increased from 0.5 ng/mL to 3.5 ng/mL, whereas sensitivity decreased from 99.4% to 58.3%. Specificity increased from 77.8% to 100% when the plasma PAG threshold level reached 3.0 ng/mL. Transrectal ultrasound showed higher diagnostic values than plasma P4-RIA and PAG-RIA in diagnosing pregnancy of reindeer, with the advantage that diagnoses can be made in real-time in field conditions [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of transrectal ultrasound and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) as pregnancy tests of reindeer
Savela, H.; Vahtiala, S.; Lindeberg, H. et al

in Proceedings of the 16th International Congress on Animal Reproduction (2008)

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See detailSeasonal changes in some plasma hormones in pigeons: diurnal variation under natural photoperiods with constant or seasonally changing ambient temperature.
Rintamaki, H.; Hissa, R.; Etches, R. J. et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (1986), 84(1), 33-8

The diurnal variations of several plasma hormones and free fatty acids (FFA) were studied during periods in summer and winter for pigeons reared either outdoors or indoors. The latter were subjected to ... [more ▼]

The diurnal variations of several plasma hormones and free fatty acids (FFA) were studied during periods in summer and winter for pigeons reared either outdoors or indoors. The latter were subjected to constant temperature and naturally varying photoperiods. A significant seasonal variation in the mean daily levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), corticosterone (B), lutropin (LH) and FFA was seen in the outdoor birds and in the T4 and B levels of indoor birds. The diurnal variation of hormone levels was generally more pronounced in winter in both groups. Cold ambient temperature significantly decreased the plasma LH level and potentiated the increasing effect of short photoperiod on plasma B level. Diurnal variation of plasma FFA level seems to be under the control of photoperiod, without any effects due to the ambient temperature. No significant correlation was found between FFA and GH concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal changes in some plasma hormones in pigeons from different environments.
Saarela, S.; Hissa, R.; Etches, R. et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (1986), 84(1), 25-31

Seasonal variation in the plasma concentration of lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), prolactin (PRL), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone (B) were measured in the pigeon by RIA methods ... [more ▼]

Seasonal variation in the plasma concentration of lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), prolactin (PRL), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and corticosterone (B) were measured in the pigeon by RIA methods. Pigeons were maintained indoors under constant ambient temperature (Ta) and simulated natural daylight (LD), 12:12 L:D regimens or outdoors exposed to seasonal variations in temperature and photoperiod at Oulu, Finland. Only slight changes of gonadotropins (LH, FSH) were observed throughout the year, without any clear photosensitive or photorefractory period. In the indoor (natural LD) group, LH stayed elevated from May until October. Interdependence between the circannual hormonal fluctuation and photoperiod could not be shown, although the amplitude of FSH, T4 and T3 fluctuation of pigeons maintained in laboratory conditions were greater than that of natural LD and outdoor pigeons, whose circannual rhythms were similar. A high concentration of plasma PRL in autumn and the peak value of B in winter for all groups are thought to be correlated to lipid metabolism. Two peaks, the first in winter and the second in autumn, observed in T4 and T3 hormone profiles, may be due to molting of the pigeons. [less ▲]

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See detailAnnual variation in the concentrations of circulating hormones in capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).
Hissa, R.; Saarela, S.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (1983), 51(2), 183-90

Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), prolactin (PRL), corticosterone (B), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) was measured in the plasma of male and ... [more ▼]

Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), prolactin (PRL), corticosterone (B), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) was measured in the plasma of male and female capercaillies (Tetrao urogallus, Galliformes) in captivity (latitude N 67 degrees). In male capercaillies there was an increase in the concentrations of LH and FSH beginning in March and reaching their maxima in May, which correlated with the nesting period. The concentration of plasma PRL increased from the end of April and reached its highest level simultaneously with the rapid fall of plasma LH and FSH concentrations. It remained elevated until August, Plasma T4 level was depressed after levels of plasma FSH and LH had reached their maxima and was correlated to simultaneous elevation of plasma PRL level. No dramatic seasonal changes in plasma T3 level were noted. In the female capercaillie no marked changes in plasma FSH and LH concentrations were observed. Although four of six females laid eggs only one of them managed to terminate its nesting successfully; five eggs hatched. Changes in prolactin concentration in females parallel those in males. No marked variations were observed in plasma corticosterone concentrations. On the basis of these results it seems probable that captive female capercaillie show depressed gonadotrophin secretion, resulting in unsuccessful nesting. On the other hand it has to be emphasized that gonadotrophin assays may not be sensitive enough, especially in the female, to measure LH and FSH in the volumes of plasma put in the assays. [less ▲]

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