Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome in sporadic male subjects
Daly, Adrian ; ; et al
in Endocrine-Related Cancer (2016)
Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric ... [more ▼]
Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101. We studied XLAG syndrome patients (N=18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome were identified with Xq26.3 duplications using high definition array comparative genome hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted males with XLAG had a decreased log2 ratio compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, while females showed no such decrease. As compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1-53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint-junction specific quantification droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism and identified one female gigantism patient that had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (30 ULg)
Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.
; Daly, Adrian Francis ; et al
in Endocrine (2016)
X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a ... [more ▼]
X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the aggressive natural history of pituitary tumor growth in the absence of treatment. The patient first presented elsewhere aged 5 years 8 months with a history of excessive growth for >2 years. His height was 163 cm, his weight was 36 kg, and he had markedly elevated GH and IGF-1. MRI showed a non-invasive sellar mass measuring 32.5 x 23.9 x 29.1 mm. Treatment was declined and the family was lost to follow-up. At the age of 10 years and 7 months, he presented again with headaches, seizures, and visual disturbance. His height had increased to 197 cm. MRI showed an invasive mass measuring 56.2 x 58.1 x 45.0 mm, with compression of optic chiasma, bilateral cavernous sinus invasion, and hydrocephalus. His thyrotrope, corticotrope, and gonadotrope axes were deficient. Surgery, somatostatin analogs, and cabergoline did not control vertical growth and pegvisomant was added, although vertical growth continues (currently 207 cm at 11 years 7 months of age). X-LAG syndrome is a new genomic disorder in which early-onset pituitary tumorigenesis can lead to marked overgrowth and gigantism. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of tumor evolution and the challenging clinical management in X-LAG syndrome. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (17 ULg)
Gigantism and Acromegaly Due to Xq26 Microduplications and GPR101 Mutation.
; Daly, Adrian ; et al
in The New England journal of medicine (2014)
Background Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood. Methods We performed ... [more ▼]
Background Increased secretion of growth hormone leads to gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults; the genetic causes of gigantism and acromegaly are poorly understood. Methods We performed clinical and genetic studies of samples obtained from 43 patients with gigantism and then sequenced an implicated gene in samples from 248 patients with acromegaly. Results We observed microduplication on chromosome Xq26.3 in samples from 13 patients with gigantism; of these samples, 4 were obtained from members of two unrelated kindreds, and 9 were from patients with sporadic cases. All the patients had disease onset during early childhood. Of the patients with gigantism who did not carry an Xq26.3 microduplication, none presented before the age of 5 years. Genomic characterization of the Xq26.3 region suggests that the microduplications are generated during chromosome replication and that they contain four protein-coding genes. Only one of these genes, GPR101, which encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor, was overexpressed in patients' pituitary lesions. We identified a recurrent GPR101 mutation (p.E308D) in 11 of 248 patients with acromegaly, with the mutation found mostly in tumors. When the mutation was transfected into rat GH3 cells, it led to increased release of growth hormone and proliferation of growth hormone-producing cells. Conclusions We describe a pediatric disorder (which we have termed X-linked acrogigantism [X-LAG]) that is caused by an Xq26.3 genomic duplication and is characterized by early-onset gigantism resulting from an excess of growth hormone. Duplication of GPR101 probably causes X-LAG. We also found a recurrent mutation in GPR101 in some adults with acromegaly. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (39 ULg)
Mechanisms for nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements associated with CMT1A or HNPP: rare CNVs as a cause for missing heritability.
; ; et al
in American Journal of Human Genetics (2010), 86(6), 892-903
Genomic rearrangements involving the peripheral myelin protein gene (PMP22) in human chromosome 17p12 are associated with neuropathy: duplications cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A ... [more ▼]
Genomic rearrangements involving the peripheral myelin protein gene (PMP22) in human chromosome 17p12 are associated with neuropathy: duplications cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), whereas deletions lead to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Our previous studies showed that >99% of these rearrangements are recurrent and mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Rare copy number variations (CNVs) generated by nonrecurrent rearrangements also exist in 17p12, but their underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated 21 subjects with rare CNVs associated with CMT1A or HNPP by oligonucleotide-based comparative genomic hybridization microarrays and breakpoint sequence analyses, and we identified 17 unique CNVs, including two genomic deletions, ten genomic duplications, two complex rearrangements, and three small exonic deletions. Each of these CNVs includes either the entire PMP22 gene, or exon(s) only, or ultraconserved potential regulatory sequences upstream of PMP22, further supporting the contention that PMP22 is the critical gene mediating the neuropathy phenotypes associated with 17p12 rearrangements. Breakpoint sequence analysis reveals that, different from the predominant NAHR mechanism in recurrent rearrangement, various molecular mechanisms, including nonhomologous end joining, Alu-Alu-mediated recombination, and replication-based mechanisms (e.g., FoSTeS and/or MMBIR), can generate nonrecurrent 17p12 rearrangements associated with neuropathy. We document a multitude of ways in which gene function can be altered by CNVs. Given the characteristics, including small size, structural complexity, and location outside of coding regions, of selected rare CNVs, their identification remains a challenge for genome analysis. Rare CNVs may potentially represent an important portion of "missing heritability" for human diseases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 106 (2 ULg)