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See detailDevelopment of a clinical assessment tool in identifying Asian men with low bone mineral density and comparison of its usefulness to quantitative bone ultrasound
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ross, P. D. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005), 16(7), 849-855

Osteoporosis in men is a largely neglected condition in Asia (and elsewhere), despite the fact that one-third of hip fractures occur in men. Moreover, access to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis in men is a largely neglected condition in Asia (and elsewhere), despite the fact that one-third of hip fractures occur in men. Moreover, access to bone mineral density (BMD) measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We have developed a simple clinical assessment tool to identify high risk Asian men for BMD measurements. Information on risk factors was collected from 420 community-dwelling adult Chinese men aged 50 years and above using a structured questionnaire, and the ability of these risk factors to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T score <= -2.5 was assessed. Multiple regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final clinical risk assessment tool based on only age and weight, similar to the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), described previously for Asian women. The OSTA values of <= -1 had a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 66%, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.83. The index was validated in another sample of 356 men with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 67 %, and an AUC of 0.85. The usefulness of OSTA was further compared to calcaneal quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in the validation sample of 356 men. The optimal cutoff T score of -1.2 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 75 and 67%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.79. Combining OSTA and QUI gave a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 66% to identify men with low BMD at the femoral neck, and an AUC of 0.86 which was statistically not different from either OSTA or QUI alone. We conclude that OSTA is a simple and effective clinical risk assessment tool for identifying not only female but also male subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003), 14(9), 716-721

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is a growing problem in Asia, and early identification of at risk subjects for preventive measures is likely the most cost-effective method for managing this disease in developing countries. Patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) have a high risk of future fracture. However, access to BMD measurements is limited in many areas of Asia, and inexpensive methods of targeting high-risk patients for BMD measurements would be valuable. We compared two methods, a simple clinical risk assessment tool, the Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and quantitative bone ultrasound (QUS) in identifying subjects with low BMD by DXA in 722 southern Chinese postmenopausal women recruited from the community in Hong Kong. Using the published cutoff value of -1 (versus 0 or higher) for OSTA to identify subjects with femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, basing on our local population peak young mean value, the sensitivity and specificity was 88% and 54% respectively. The optimal cutoff T-score of -2.35 for QUS yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 81% and 65%, respectively. The AUC for QUS was 0.78, which was not significantly different from that of 0.80 for OSTA. Both OSTA and QUS correlated significantly with BMD at the femoral neck (0.62 and 0.36, respectively, P both <0.001). When these cut-off values were used to identify subjects with either lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD T-score less than or equal to-2.5, the sensitivity and specificity was 79% and 60%, respectively, for OSTA, and 69% and 70%, respectively, for QUS. Combining QUS with OSTA improved the sensitivity to 91%, but the specificity was reduced to 44%. We conclude that the simple clinical risk assessment tool OSTA is a free and effective method for identifying subjects at increased risk of osteoporosis, and its use could facilitate the appropriate and more cost-effective use of bone densitometry in developing countries. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of a simple clinical risk index and quantitative bone ultrasound for identifying women at increased risk of osteoporosis
Kung, A. W. C.; Ho, A. Y. Y.; Ben Sedrine, W. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002, November), 13(Suppl.3), 30-31

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