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See detailStudy of the propagation center in the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylic monomers: NMR study of Di-tert-butyl 2-Lithio-2.4'-trimethylglutarate and living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers in THF/toluene mixtures
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(7), 5477-5486

Solvation influences both the stereoregularity and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA) prepared by anionic polymerization of tBMA with a lithium counterion in THF ... [more ▼]

Solvation influences both the stereoregularity and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA) prepared by anionic polymerization of tBMA with a lithium counterion in THF/toluene mixed solvents at −78 °C. As a probe of the structural changes of the propagating species, multinuclear 7Li, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis of di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4‘-trimethylglutarate (a model dimer, A) and of short-length living PtBMA chains is reported and discussed. Whatever the system, the main structure of the lithium ester enolate in THF/toluene mixtures is similar to that one reported in THF. In the case of A and for toluene contents exceeding 50% v/v, partly organized pseudophases can additionally be detected in the 7Li NMR spectra, but they do not provide well-developed 1H and 13C NMR signals. The chemical shifts of 1H and 13C signals of A support the dimeric form of this model. An equilibrium between dimeric and nonaggregated living PtBMA chains has been previously proposed to dominate in pure THF. However, marked self-termination of low-molecular weight living oligomers prepared in THF/toluene mixtures can be observed at 263 K, in contrast to the stability observed in pure THF up to 298 K. Another contrasting feature is the broadening of the molecular weight distribution which can be explained by an aggregation process that stabilizes oligomers at the early stage of the anionic polymerization as supported by SEC-RI and SEC-UV eluograms. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the propagation center in the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylic monomers: NMR and MO LCAO study of the interaction of Di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate and the living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers with lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxide in tetrahydrofuran
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(9), 2731-2743

Interactions of lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxide (LiOEEM) with the model dimer di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate (A) and the living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers (B) were ... [more ▼]

Interactions of lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxide (LiOEEM) with the model dimer di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate (A) and the living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers (B) were studied in tetrahydrofuran-d8 at 203−273 K using 1H, 13C, 7Li, and 6Li, 1D and 2D, NMR and ab initio SCF 3-21G and MNDO quantum chemical calculations. LiOEEM is shown to have a strong tendency to self-aggregation, producing dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric aggregates and competing with its mixed aggregation (or complexation) with A and, in particular, B. When dissolved in THF, LiOEEM as well as its mixtures with A form metastable systems which relax in several days at 258 K into equilibrium. Interaction of LiOEEM with A leads to a system of mixed aggregates LiOEEM1A1, LiOEEM3A1, and possibly LiOEEM2A1 along with the original components, in relative populations depending on the LiOEEM/A molar ratio, temperature, time, and probably other factors of preparation. Probable structures of these complexes are proposed, and the nature of the prevalent bonding is suggested. Experimental results indicate that LiOEEM is unable to convert A completely at moderate excess (up to 4/1 mol/mol). Interaction of LiOEEM with B leads to quite analogous complexes but with even lower yields. There appear to be traces of uncomplexed B even at the LiOEEM/B ratio of 10 mol/mol. This is suggested to produce at least two different kinds of active growth centers in the corresponding ligated anionic polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate and, consequently, the observed bimodality of the polymeric product. The difference with respect to methyl methacrylate, where LiOEEM ensures an almost ideal living polymerization, is suggested to be due to the steric hindrance of efficient complexation exerted by the tert-butyl group. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the propagation center in the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylic monomers: NMR and MNDO study of the complexes of Di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate and of the living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers with lithium chloride
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(9), 2744-2755

Interactions of living oligomers of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA) with a Li counterion and of the model living dimer di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate (A) with LiCl (B) were studied in ... [more ▼]

Interactions of living oligomers of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA) with a Li counterion and of the model living dimer di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate (A) with LiCl (B) were studied in tetrahydrofuran-d8 (THF-d8) solution by 7Li, 6Li, 1H, and 13C, 1D and 2D, NMR spectroscopy. Di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4-trimethylglutarate is shown to form a 1:1 complex with lithium chloride in THF. 1H, 7Li NMR results suggest that a rapid equilibrium between free LiCl and the mixed complex takes place when the molar ratio LiCl:lithiated dimer is higher than 1. From 13C relaxation times, a dimeric aggregation (i.e. A2B2) of the complex is deduced, in full accord with MNDO calculations. Preliminary results are presented for living tBuMA oligomers prepared by initiation with diphenylhexyllithium in the presence of various amounts of lithium chloride. Fast-acquired 13C NMR spectra of the living ends were recorded using 13C-enriched monomer added at the end of the polymerization. Their structure is shown to be affected by the amount of LiCl added and to correspond to an equilibrium between free lithium chloride and a complexed end group. A higher excess of LiCl apparently does not change the nature of the complexed living end. The oligomers exhibit marked self-termination in THF at 273 K. Finally, a correlation of the structure of the living chain ends with the macromolecular parameters of the resulting polymer is attempted. [less ▲]

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