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See detailA genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa.
Boraska, V.; Franklin, C. S.; Floyd, J. A. B. et al

in Molecular psychiatry (2014), 19(10), 1085-94

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have ... [more ▼]

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched controls as part of the Genetic Consortium for AN (GCAN) and the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3 (WTCCC3). Individual association analyses were conducted in each stratum and meta-analyzed across all 15 discovery data sets. Seventy-six (72 independent) single nucleotide polymorphisms were taken forward for in silico (two data sets) or de novo (13 data sets) replication genotyping in 2677 independent AN cases and 8629 European ancestry controls along with 458 AN cases and 421 controls from Japan. The final global meta-analysis across discovery and replication data sets comprised 5551 AN cases and 21 080 controls. AN subtype analyses (1606 AN restricting; 1445 AN binge-purge) were performed. No findings reached genome-wide significance. Two intronic variants were suggestively associated: rs9839776 (P=3.01 x 10(-7)) in SOX2OT and rs17030795 (P=5.84 x 10(-6)) in PPP3CA. Two additional signals were specific to Europeans: rs1523921 (P=5.76 x 10(-)(6)) between CUL3 and FAM124B and rs1886797 (P=8.05 x 10(-)(6)) near SPATA13. Comparing discovery with replication results, 76% of the effects were in the same direction, an observation highly unlikely to be due to chance (P=4 x 10(-6)), strongly suggesting that true findings exist but our sample, the largest yet reported, was underpowered for their detection. The accrual of large genotyped AN case-control samples should be an immediate priority for the field. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of neurexin 3 polymorphisms with smoking behavior.
Docampo Martinez, Elisa ULg; Ribases, M.; Gratacos, M. et al

in Genes, brain, and behavior (2012), 11(6), 704-11

The Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) has been associated with dependence on various addictive substances, as well as with the degree of smoking in schizophrenic patients and impulsivity among tobacco abusers. To ... [more ▼]

The Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) has been associated with dependence on various addictive substances, as well as with the degree of smoking in schizophrenic patients and impulsivity among tobacco abusers. To further evaluate the role of NRXN3 in nicotine addiction, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a copy number variant (CNV) within the NRXN3 genomic region. An initial study was carried out on 157 smokers and 595 controls, all of Spanish Caucasian origin. Nicotine dependence was assessed using the Fagerstrom index and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The 45 NRXN3 SNPs genotyped included all the SNPs previously associated with disease, and a previously described deletion within NRXN3. This analysis was replicated in 276 additional independent smokers and 568 controls. Case-control association analyses were performed at the allele, genotype and haplotype levels. Allelic and genotypic association tests showed that three NRXN3 SNPs were associated with a lower risk of being a smoker. The haplotype analysis showed that one block of 16 Kb, consisting of two of the significant SNPs (rs221473 and rs221497), was also associated with lower risk of being a smoker in both the discovery and the replication cohorts, reaching a higher level of significance when the whole sample was considered [odds ratio = 0.57 (0.42-0.77), permuted P = 0.0075]. By contrast, the NRXN3 CNV was not associated with smoking behavior. Taken together, our results confirm a role for NRXN3 in susceptibility to smoking behavior, and strongly implicate this gene in genetic vulnerability to addictive behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailTNFA-3086 > A in two international population-based cohorts and risk of asthma
Castro-Giner, F.; Kogevinas, M.; Maechler, M. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2008), 32(2), 350-361

Genetic association studies have related the tumour necrosis factor-a gene (TNFA) guanine to adenine substitution of nucleotide -308 (-3086 > A) polymorphism to increased risk of asthma, but results are ... [more ▼]

Genetic association studies have related the tumour necrosis factor-a gene (TNFA) guanine to adenine substitution of nucleotide -308 (-3086 > A) polymorphism to increased risk of asthma, but results are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to test whether two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, of TNFA and of the lymphotoxin-alpha gene (LTA), are associated with asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy in adults, by combining the results of two large population-based multicentric studies and conducting a meta-analysis of previously published studies. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) used comparable protocols, including questionnaires for respiratory symptoms and measures of lung function and atopy. DNA samples from 11,136 participants were genotyped at TNFA -308 and LTA 252. Logistic regression employing fixed and random effects models and nonparametric techniques were used. The prevalence of asthma was 6%. The TNFA -3086 > A polymorphism was associated with increased asthma prevalence and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. No consistent association was found for atopy. The LTA 252A > G polymorphism was not associated with any of the outcomes. A meta-analysis of 17 studies showed an increased asthma risk for the TNFA -308 adenine allele. The tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene nucleotide -308 polymorphism is associated with a moderately increased risk of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but not with atopy. These results are supported by a meta-analysis of previously published studies. [less ▲]

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